Volume 23, Number 12—December 2017
Deaths among Wild Birds during Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Outbreak, the Netherlands
|Avian family and species (common name)||Maximum estimated winter population, ×1,000†||No. carcasses||HPAI incidents tested‡|
|Anas penelope (Eurasian wigeon)||680–920||2,511||18/18|
|Aythya fuligula (tufted duck)
|Larus marinus (great black-backed gull)
|Falco peregrinus (peregrine falcon)
|Aves indet. (unidentified)
*Incidents are defined as death reports of a species per site per day. HPAI, highly pathogenic avian influenza; rRT-PCR, real-time reverse transcription PCR.
†Population estimates represent the lowest and highest yearly maxima for the Netherlands during 2009–2014. Data from Sovon (Dutch Center for Field Ornithology, Nijmegen, the Netherlands).
‡Number of positive versus all tested incidents are presented (number positive/number tested), based on infection data from the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Dutch Wildlife Health Center, Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, and Erasmus Medical Center.
§H5N8 HPAI virus infection in grey heron (Ardea cinerea) was confirmed elsewhere in Europe (8).
¶Eurasian woodcocks (Scolopax rusticola) are more prone than other species to window collisions during nocturnal migration; thus, their deaths (54 carcasses reported) might not be related to HPAI.
1Current affiliation: Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Radolfzell am Bodensee, Germany.
2These senior authors contributed equally to this article.