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Issue Cover for Volume 23, Number 12—December 2017

Volume 23, Number 12—December 2017

[PDF - 14.22 MB - 204 pages]

Synopses

Fatal Outbreak in Tonkean Macaques Caused by Possibly Novel Orthopoxvirus, Italy, January 2015 [PDF - 4.93 MB - 9 pages]
G. Cardeti et al.

In January 2015, during a 3-week period, 12 captive Tonkean macacques at a sanctuary in Italy died. An orthopoxvirus infection was suspected because of negative-staining electron microscopy results. The diagnosis was confirmed by histology, virus isolation, and molecular analysis performed on different organs from all animals. An epidemiologic investigation was unable to define the infection source in the surrounding area. Trapped rodents were negative by virologic testing, but specific IgG was detected in 27.27% of small rodents and 14.28% of rats. An attenuated live vaccine was administered to the susceptible monkey population, and no adverse reactions were observed; a detectable humoral immune response was induced in most of the vaccinated animals. We performed molecular characterization of the orthopoxvirus isolate by next-generation sequencing. According to the phylogenetic analysis of the 9 conserved genes, the virus could be part of a novel clade, lying between cowpox and ectromelia viruses.

EID Cardeti G, Gruber C, Eleni C, Carletti F, Castilletti C, Manna G, et al. Fatal Outbreak in Tonkean Macaques Caused by Possibly Novel Orthopoxvirus, Italy, January 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):1941-1949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.162098
AMA Cardeti G, Gruber C, Eleni C, et al. Fatal Outbreak in Tonkean Macaques Caused by Possibly Novel Orthopoxvirus, Italy, January 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):1941-1949. doi:10.3201/eid2312.162098.
APA Cardeti, G., Gruber, C., Eleni, C., Carletti, F., Castilletti, C., Manna, G....Autorino, G. (2017). Fatal Outbreak in Tonkean Macaques Caused by Possibly Novel Orthopoxvirus, Italy, January 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 1941-1949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.162098.

Spread of Canine Influenza A(H3N2) Virus, United States [PDF - 1.44 MB - 8 pages]
I. Voorhees et al.

A canine influenza A(H3N2) virus emerged in the United States in February–March 2015, causing respiratory disease in dogs. The virus had previously been circulating among dogs in Asia, where it originated through the transfer of an avian-origin influenza virus around 2005 and continues to circulate. Sequence analysis suggests the US outbreak was initiated by a single introduction, in Chicago, of an H3N2 canine influenza virus circulating among dogs in South Korea in 2015. Despite local control measures, the virus has continued circulating among dogs in and around Chicago and has spread to several other areas of the country, particularly Georgia and North Carolina, although these secondary outbreaks appear to have ended within a few months. Some genetic variation has accumulated among the US viruses, with the appearance of regional-temporal lineages. The potential for interspecies transmission and zoonotic events involving this newly emerged influenza A virus is currently unknown.

EID Voorhees I, Glaser AL, Toohey-Kurth KL, Newbury S, Dalziel BD, Dubovi E, et al. Spread of Canine Influenza A(H3N2) Virus, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):1950-1957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170246
AMA Voorhees I, Glaser AL, Toohey-Kurth KL, et al. Spread of Canine Influenza A(H3N2) Virus, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):1950-1957. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170246.
APA Voorhees, I., Glaser, A. L., Toohey-Kurth, K. L., Newbury, S., Dalziel, B. D., Dubovi, E....Parrish, C. R. (2017). Spread of Canine Influenza A(H3N2) Virus, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 1950-1957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170246.
Research

Experimental Infection of Common Eider Ducklings with Wellfleet Bay Virus, a Newly Characterized Orthomyxovirus [PDF - 5.29 MB - 8 pages]
V. Shearn-Bochsler et al.

Wellfleet Bay virus (WFBV), a novel orthomyxovirus in the genus Quaranjavirus, was first isolated in 2006 from carcasses of common eider (Somateria mollissima) during a mortality event in Wellfleet Bay (Barnstable County, Massachusetts, USA) and has since been repeatedly isolated during recurrent mortality events in this location. Hepatic, pancreatic, splenic, and intestinal necrosis was observed in dead eiders. We inoculated 6-week-old common eider ducklings with WFBV in an attempt to recreate the naturally occurring disease. Approximately 25% of inoculated eiders had onset of clinical disease and required euthanasia; an additional 18.75% were adversely affected based on net weight loss during the trial. Control ducklings did not become infected and did not have clinical disease. Infected ducklings with clinical disease had pathologic lesions consistent with those observed during natural mortality events. WFBV was reisolated from 37.5% of the inoculated ducklings. Ducklings surviving to 5 days postinoculation developed serum antibody titers to WFBV.

EID Shearn-Bochsler V, Ip H, Ballmann A, Hall JS, Allison AB, Ballard J, et al. Experimental Infection of Common Eider Ducklings with Wellfleet Bay Virus, a Newly Characterized Orthomyxovirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):1958-1965. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.160366
AMA Shearn-Bochsler V, Ip H, Ballmann A, et al. Experimental Infection of Common Eider Ducklings with Wellfleet Bay Virus, a Newly Characterized Orthomyxovirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):1958-1965. doi:10.3201/eid2312.160366.
APA Shearn-Bochsler, V., Ip, H., Ballmann, A., Hall, J. S., Allison, A. B., Ballard, J....Dwyer, C. (2017). Experimental Infection of Common Eider Ducklings with Wellfleet Bay Virus, a Newly Characterized Orthomyxovirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 1958-1965. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.160366.

Evolutionary Context of Non–Sorbitol-Fermenting Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli O55:H7 [PDF - 2.02 MB - 8 pages]
K. Schutz et al.

In July 2014, an outbreak of Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O55:H7 in England involved 31 patients, 13 (42%) of whom had hemolytic uremic syndrome. Isolates were sequenced, and the sequences were compared with publicly available sequences of E. coli O55:H7 and O157:H7. A core-genome phylogeny of the evolutionary history of the STEC O55:H7 outbreak strain revealed that the most parsimonious model was a progenitor enteropathogenic O55:H7 sorbitol-fermenting strain, lysogenized by a Shiga toxin (Stx) 2a–encoding phage, followed by loss of the ability to ferment sorbitol because of a non-sense mutation in srlA. The parallel, convergent evolutionary histories of STEC O157:H7 and STEC O55:H7 may indicate a common driver in the evolutionary process. Because emergence of STEC O157:H7 as a clinically significant pathogen was associated with acquisition of the Stx2a-encoding phage, the emergence of STEC O55:H7 harboring the stx2a gene is of public health concern.

EID Schutz K, Cowley LA, Shaaban S, Carroll A, McNamara E, Gally DL, et al. Evolutionary Context of Non–Sorbitol-Fermenting Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli O55:H7. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):1966-1973. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170628
AMA Schutz K, Cowley LA, Shaaban S, et al. Evolutionary Context of Non–Sorbitol-Fermenting Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli O55:H7. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):1966-1973. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170628.
APA Schutz, K., Cowley, L. A., Shaaban, S., Carroll, A., McNamara, E., Gally, D. L....Dallman, T. J. (2017). Evolutionary Context of Non–Sorbitol-Fermenting Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli O55:H7. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 1966-1973. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170628.

Multiple Reassorted Viruses as Cause of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Epidemic, the Netherlands, 2016 [PDF - 1.36 MB - 7 pages]
N. Beerens et al.

In 2016, an epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus subtype H5N8 in the Netherlands caused mass deaths among wild birds, and several commercial poultry farms and captive bird holdings were affected. We performed complete genome sequencing to study the relationship between the wild bird and poultry viruses. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses are related to H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses detected in Russia in May 2016 but contained novel polymerase basic 2 and nucleoprotein gene segments and 2 different variants of the polymerase acidic segment. Molecular dating suggests that the reassortment events most likely occurred in wild birds in Russia or Mongolia. Furthermore, 2 genetically distinct H5N5 reassortant viruses were detected in wild birds in the Netherlands. Our study provides evidence for fast and continuing reassortment of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, which might lead to rapid changes in virus characteristics, such as pathogenicity, infectivity, transmission, and zoonotic potential.

EID Beerens N, Heutink R, Bergervoet SA, Harders F, Bossers A, Koch G. Multiple Reassorted Viruses as Cause of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Epidemic, the Netherlands, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):1974-1981. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171062
AMA Beerens N, Heutink R, Bergervoet SA, et al. Multiple Reassorted Viruses as Cause of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Epidemic, the Netherlands, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):1974-1981. doi:10.3201/eid2312.171062.
APA Beerens, N., Heutink, R., Bergervoet, S. A., Harders, F., Bossers, A., & Koch, G. (2017). Multiple Reassorted Viruses as Cause of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Epidemic, the Netherlands, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 1974-1981. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171062.

Outbreaks of Neuroinvasive Astrovirus Associated with Encephalomyelitis, Weakness, and Paralysis among Weaned Pigs, Hungary [PDF - 5.55 MB - 12 pages]
Á. Boros et al.

A large, highly prolific swine farm in Hungary had a 2-year history of neurologic disease among newly weaned (25- to 35-day-old) pigs, with clinical signs of posterior paraplegia and a high mortality rate. Affected pigs that were necropsied had encephalomyelitis and neural necrosis. Porcine astrovirus type 3 was identified by reverse transcription PCR and in situ hybridization in brain and spinal cord samples in 6 animals from this farm. Among tissues tested by quantitative RT-PCR, the highest viral loads were detected in brain stem and spinal cord. Similar porcine astrovirus type 3 was also detected in archived brain and spinal cord samples from another 2 geographically distant farms. Viral RNA was predominantly restricted to neurons, particularly in the brain stem, cerebellum (Purkinje cells), and cervical spinal cord. Astrovirus was generally undetectable in feces but present in respiratory samples, indicating a possible respiratory infection. Astrovirus could cause common, neuroinvasive epidemic disease.

EID Boros Á, Albert M, Pankovics P, Bíró H, Pesavento PA, Phan T, et al. Outbreaks of Neuroinvasive Astrovirus Associated with Encephalomyelitis, Weakness, and Paralysis among Weaned Pigs, Hungary. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):1982-1993. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170804
AMA Boros Á, Albert M, Pankovics P, et al. Outbreaks of Neuroinvasive Astrovirus Associated with Encephalomyelitis, Weakness, and Paralysis among Weaned Pigs, Hungary. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):1982-1993. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170804.
APA Boros, Á., Albert, M., Pankovics, P., Bíró, H., Pesavento, P. A., Phan, T....Reuter, G. (2017). Outbreaks of Neuroinvasive Astrovirus Associated with Encephalomyelitis, Weakness, and Paralysis among Weaned Pigs, Hungary. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 1982-1993. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170804.

Distribution of Usutu Virus in Germany and Its Effect on Breeding Bird Populations [PDF - 2.02 MB - 8 pages]
R. Lühken et al.

Usutu virus (USUV) is an emerging mosquitoborne flavivirus with an increasing number of reports from several countries in Europe, where USUV infection has caused high avian mortality rates. However, 20 years after the first observed outbreak of USUV in Europe, there is still no reliable assessment of the large-scale impact of USUV outbreaks on bird populations. In this study, we identified the areas suitable for USUV circulation in Germany and analyzed the effects of USUV on breeding bird populations. We calculated the USUV-associated additional decline of common blackbird (Turdus merula) populations as 15.7% inside USUV-suitable areas but found no significant effect for the other 14 common bird species investigated. Our results show that the emergence of USUV is a further threat for birds in Europe and that the large-scale impact on population levels, at least for common blackbirds, must be considered.

EID Lühken R, Jöst H, Cadar D, Thomas S, Bosch S, Tannich E, et al. Distribution of Usutu Virus in Germany and Its Effect on Breeding Bird Populations. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):1994-2001. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171257
AMA Lühken R, Jöst H, Cadar D, et al. Distribution of Usutu Virus in Germany and Its Effect on Breeding Bird Populations. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):1994-2001. doi:10.3201/eid2312.171257.
APA Lühken, R., Jöst, H., Cadar, D., Thomas, S., Bosch, S., Tannich, E....Schmidt-Chanasit, J. (2017). Distribution of Usutu Virus in Germany and Its Effect on Breeding Bird Populations. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 1994-2001. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171257.

Medscape CME Activity
Group B Streptococcus Infections Caused by Improper Sourcing and Handling of Fish for Raw Consumption, Singapore, 2015–2016 [PDF - 1.24 MB - 9 pages]
M. L. Chau et al.

We assessed microbial safety and quality of raw fish sold in Singapore during 2015–2016 to complement epidemiologic findings for an outbreak of infection with group B Streptococcus serotype III sequence type (ST) 283 associated with raw fish consumption. Fish-associated group B Streptococcus ST283 strains included strains nearly identical (0–2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) with the human outbreak strain, as well as strains in another distinct ST283 clade (57–71 single-nucleotide polymorphisms). Our investigations highlight the risk for contamination of freshwater fish (which are handled and distributed separately from saltwater fish sold as sashimi) and the need for improved hygienic handling of all fish for raw consumption. These results have led to updated policy and guidelines regarding the sale of ready-to-eat raw fish dishes in Singapore.

EID Chau ML, Chen SL, Yap M, Hartantyo S, Chiew P, Fernandez CJ, et al. Group B Streptococcus Infections Caused by Improper Sourcing and Handling of Fish for Raw Consumption, Singapore, 2015–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2002-2010. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170596
AMA Chau ML, Chen SL, Yap M, et al. Group B Streptococcus Infections Caused by Improper Sourcing and Handling of Fish for Raw Consumption, Singapore, 2015–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2002-2010. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170596.
APA Chau, M. L., Chen, S. L., Yap, M., Hartantyo, S., Chiew, P., Fernandez, C. J....Ng, L. C. (2017). Group B Streptococcus Infections Caused by Improper Sourcing and Handling of Fish for Raw Consumption, Singapore, 2015–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2002-2010. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170596.

Characterization of Streptococcus pyogenes from Animal Clinical Specimens, Spain [PDF - 1.11 MB - 4 pages]
A. Vela et al.

Streptococcus pyogenes appears to be almost exclusively restricted to humans, with few reports on isolation from animals. We provide a detailed characterization (emm typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE], and multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) of 15 S. pyogenes isolates from animals associated with different clinical backgrounds. We also investigated erythromycin resistance mechanisms and phenotypes and virulence genes. We observed 2 emm types: emm12 (11 isolates) and emm77 (4 isolates). Similarly, we observed 2 genetic linages, sequence type (ST) 26 and ST63. Most isolates exhibited the M macrolide resistance phenotype and the mefA/ermB genotype. Isolates were grouped into 2 clones on the basis of emm-MLST-PFGE-virulence gene profile combinations: clone 1, characterized by the combined genotype emm12-ST36-pulsotype A-speG; and clone 2, characterized by the genotype emm77-ST63-pulsotype B-speC. Our results do not show conclusively that animals may represent a new reservoir of S. pyogenes but indicate the ability of human-derived S. pyogenes isolates to colonize and infect animals.

EID Vela A, Villalón P, Sáez-Nieto J, Chacón G, Domínguez L, Fernández-Garayzábal J. Characterization of Streptococcus pyogenes from Animal Clinical Specimens, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2013-2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.151146
AMA Vela A, Villalón P, Sáez-Nieto J, et al. Characterization of Streptococcus pyogenes from Animal Clinical Specimens, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2013-2016. doi:10.3201/eid2312.151146.
APA Vela, A., Villalón, P., Sáez-Nieto, J., Chacón, G., Domínguez, L., & Fernández-Garayzábal, J. (2017). Characterization of Streptococcus pyogenes from Animal Clinical Specimens, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2013-2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.151146.

Bourbon Virus in Field-Collected Ticks, Missouri, USA [PDF - 1.28 MB - 5 pages]
H. M. Savage et al.

Bourbon virus (BRBV) was first isolated in 2014 from a resident of Bourbon County, Kansas, USA, who died of the infection. In 2015, an ill Payne County, Oklahoma, resident tested positive for antibodies to BRBV, before fully recovering. We retrospectively tested for BRBV in 39,096 ticks from northwestern Missouri, located 240 km from Bourbon County, Kansas. We detected BRBV in 3 pools of Amblyomma americanum (L.) ticks: 1 pool of male adults and 2 pools of nymphs. Detection of BRBV in A. americanum, a species that is aggressive, feeds on humans, and is abundant in Kansas and Oklahoma, supports the premise that A. americanum is a vector of BRBV to humans. BRBV has not been detected in nonhuman vertebrates, and its natural history remains largely unknown.

EID Savage HM, Burkhalter KL, Godsey MS, Panella NA, Ashley DC, Nicholson WL, et al. Bourbon Virus in Field-Collected Ticks, Missouri, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2017-2022. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170532
AMA Savage HM, Burkhalter KL, Godsey MS, et al. Bourbon Virus in Field-Collected Ticks, Missouri, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2017-2022. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170532.
APA Savage, H. M., Burkhalter, K. L., Godsey, M. S., Panella, N. A., Ashley, D. C., Nicholson, W. L....Lambert, A. J. (2017). Bourbon Virus in Field-Collected Ticks, Missouri, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2017-2022. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170532.

High Rate of MCR-1–Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among Pigs, Portugal [PDF - 772 KB - 7 pages]
N. Kieffer et al.

The mcr-1 (mobile colistin resistance 1) gene, which encodes phosphoethanolamine transferase, has been recently identified as a source of acquired resistance to polymyxins in Escherichia coli. Using the SuperPolymyxin selective medium, we prospectively screened 100 pigs at 2 farms in Portugal for polymyxin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and recovered 98 plasmid-mediated MCR-1–producing isolates. Most isolates corresponded to nonclonally related E. coli belonging to many sequence types; we also found 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence types. The mcr-1 gene was carried on IncHI2 or IncP plasmid backbones. Our finding of a high rate of MCR-1 producers on 2 pig farms in Portugal highlights the diffusion of that colistin-resistance determinant at the farm level. The fact that the pigs received colistin as metaphylaxis in their feed during the 6 weeks before sampling suggests selective pressure.

EID Kieffer N, Aires-de-Sousa M, Nordmann P, Poirel L. High Rate of MCR-1–Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among Pigs, Portugal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2023-2029. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170883
AMA Kieffer N, Aires-de-Sousa M, Nordmann P, et al. High Rate of MCR-1–Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among Pigs, Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2023-2029. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170883.
APA Kieffer, N., Aires-de-Sousa, M., Nordmann, P., & Poirel, L. (2017). High Rate of MCR-1–Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among Pigs, Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2023-2029. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170883.
Historical Review

History of Taenia saginata Tapeworms in Northern Russia [PDF - 2.34 MB - 8 pages]
S. V. Konyaev et al.

Taenia saginata is the most common species of tapeworm infecting humans. Infection is acquired by eating cysticercus larvae in undercooked beef. A closely related species, T. asiatica, is found in eastern and southeastern Asia. The larvae of T. asiatica develop in viscera of pigs. In northern Russia, there is a third member of this morphologically indistinguishable group. Cysticerci of so-called northern T. saginata are found in cerebral meninges of reindeer, and the unique life cycle is dependent on a native custom of eating raw reindeer brain. We report the winding history of this mysterious tapeworm from the first reports to the present time. In addition, we confirm the position of this parasite as a strain of T. saginata by analyzing a mitochondrial DNA sequence of an archival specimen. The origin of this strain might date back to reindeer domestication and contacts between cattle-herding and reindeer-herding peoples in Asia.

EID Konyaev SV, Nakao M, Ito A, Lavikainen A. History of Taenia saginata Tapeworms in Northern Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2030-2037. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.162101
AMA Konyaev SV, Nakao M, Ito A, et al. History of Taenia saginata Tapeworms in Northern Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2030-2037. doi:10.3201/eid2312.162101.
APA Konyaev, S. V., Nakao, M., Ito, A., & Lavikainen, A. (2017). History of Taenia saginata Tapeworms in Northern Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2030-2037. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.162101.
Dispatches

Outbreak of Yellow Fever among Nonhuman Primates, Espirito Santo, Brazil, 2017 [PDF - 2.47 MB - 4 pages]
N. Fernandes et al.

In January 2017, a yellow fever outbreak occurred in Espirito Santo, Brazil, where human immunization coverage is low. Histologic, immunohistologic, and PCR examinations were performed for 22 deceased nonhuman New World primates; typical yellow fever features were found in 21. Diagnosis in nonhuman primates prompted early public health response.

EID Fernandes N, Cunha M, Guerra J, Réssio R, Cirqueira C, Iglezias S, et al. Outbreak of Yellow Fever among Nonhuman Primates, Espirito Santo, Brazil, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2038-2041. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170685
AMA Fernandes N, Cunha M, Guerra J, et al. Outbreak of Yellow Fever among Nonhuman Primates, Espirito Santo, Brazil, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2038-2041. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170685.
APA Fernandes, N., Cunha, M., Guerra, J., Réssio, R., Cirqueira, C., Iglezias, S....Díaz-Delgado, J. (2017). Outbreak of Yellow Fever among Nonhuman Primates, Espirito Santo, Brazil, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2038-2041. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170685.

Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA in Bandicoot Excreta in Buruli Ulcer–Endemic Area, Northern Queensland, Australia [PDF - 2.79 MB - 4 pages]
K. Röltgen et al.

To identify potential reservoirs/vectors of Mycobacterium ulcerans in northern Queensland, Australia, we analyzed environmental samples collected from the Daintree River catchment area, to which Buruli ulcer is endemic, and adjacent coastal lowlands by species-specific PCR. We detected M. ulcerans DNA in soil, mosquitoes, and excreta of bandicoots, which are small terrestrial marsupials.

EID Röltgen K, Pluschke G, Johnson P, Fyfe J. Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA in Bandicoot Excreta in Buruli Ulcer–Endemic Area, Northern Queensland, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2042-2045. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170780
AMA Röltgen K, Pluschke G, Johnson P, et al. Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA in Bandicoot Excreta in Buruli Ulcer–Endemic Area, Northern Queensland, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2042-2045. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170780.
APA Röltgen, K., Pluschke, G., Johnson, P., & Fyfe, J. (2017). Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA in Bandicoot Excreta in Buruli Ulcer–Endemic Area, Northern Queensland, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2042-2045. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170780.

Avian Influenza A(H7N2) Virus in Human Exposed to Sick Cats, New York, USA, 2016 [PDF - 2.25 MB - 4 pages]
A. Marinova-Petkova et al.

An outbreak of influenza A(H7N2) virus in cats in a shelter in New York, NY, USA, resulted in zoonotic transmission. Virus isolated from the infected human was closely related to virus isolated from a cat; both were related to low pathogenicity avian influenza A(H7N2) viruses detected in the United States during the early 2000s.

EID Marinova-Petkova A, Laplante J, Jang Y, Lynch B, Zanders N, Rodriguez M, et al. Avian Influenza A(H7N2) Virus in Human Exposed to Sick Cats, New York, USA, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2046-2049. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170798
AMA Marinova-Petkova A, Laplante J, Jang Y, et al. Avian Influenza A(H7N2) Virus in Human Exposed to Sick Cats, New York, USA, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2046-2049. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170798.
APA Marinova-Petkova, A., Laplante, J., Jang, Y., Lynch, B., Zanders, N., Rodriguez, M....Davis, C. (2017). Avian Influenza A(H7N2) Virus in Human Exposed to Sick Cats, New York, USA, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2046-2049. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170798.

Deaths among Wild Birds during Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Outbreak, the Netherlands [PDF - 1.77 MB - 5 pages]
E. Kleyheeg et al.

During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks might alter wild bird population dynamics.

EID Kleyheeg E, Slaterus R, Bodewes R, Rijks JM, Spierenburg M, Beerens N, et al. Deaths among Wild Birds during Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Outbreak, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2050-2054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171086
AMA Kleyheeg E, Slaterus R, Bodewes R, et al. Deaths among Wild Birds during Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Outbreak, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2050-2054. doi:10.3201/eid2312.171086.
APA Kleyheeg, E., Slaterus, R., Bodewes, R., Rijks, J. M., Spierenburg, M., Beerens, N....van der Jeugd, H. P. (2017). Deaths among Wild Birds during Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Outbreak, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2050-2054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171086.

Pathogenic Elizabethkingia miricola Infection in Cultured Black-Spotted Frogs, China, 2016 [PDF - 1.68 MB - 5 pages]
R. Hu et al.

Multiregional outbreaks of meningitis-like disease caused by Elizabethkingia miricola were confirmed in black-spotted frog farms in China in 2016. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that this amphibian E. miricola strain is closely related to human clinical isolates. Our findings indicate that E. miricola can be epizootic and may pose a threat to humans.

EID Hu R, Yuan J, Meng Y, Wang Z, Gu Z. Pathogenic Elizabethkingia miricola Infection in Cultured Black-Spotted Frogs, China, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2055-2059. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170942
AMA Hu R, Yuan J, Meng Y, et al. Pathogenic Elizabethkingia miricola Infection in Cultured Black-Spotted Frogs, China, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2055-2059. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170942.
APA Hu, R., Yuan, J., Meng, Y., Wang, Z., & Gu, Z. (2017). Pathogenic Elizabethkingia miricola Infection in Cultured Black-Spotted Frogs, China, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2055-2059. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170942.

West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Horses and Other Animals with Neurologic Disease, South Africa, 2008–2015 [PDF - 1.02 MB - 5 pages]
M. Venter et al.

During 2008–2015 in South Africa, we conducted West Nile virus surveillance in 1,407 animals with neurologic disease and identified mostly lineage 2 cases in horses (7.4%, 79/1,069), livestock (1.5%, 2/132), and wildlife (0.5%, 1/206); 35% were fatal. Geographic correlation of horse cases with seropositive veterinarians suggests disease in horses can predict risk in humans.

EID Venter M, Pretorius M, Fuller JA, Botha E, Rakgotho M, Stivaktas V, et al. West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Horses and Other Animals with Neurologic Disease, South Africa, 2008–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2060-2064. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.162078
AMA Venter M, Pretorius M, Fuller JA, et al. West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Horses and Other Animals with Neurologic Disease, South Africa, 2008–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2060-2064. doi:10.3201/eid2312.162078.
APA Venter, M., Pretorius, M., Fuller, J. A., Botha, E., Rakgotho, M., Stivaktas, V....Williams, J. (2017). West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Horses and Other Animals with Neurologic Disease, South Africa, 2008–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2060-2064. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.162078.

Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Sheep, Romania [PDF - 1.07 MB - 3 pages]
J. Salat et al.

Little is known about the occurrence of tick-borne encephalitis in Romania. Sheep are an infection source for humans and are useful sentinels for risk analysis. We demonstrate high antibody prevalence (15.02%) among sheep used as sentinels for this disease in 80% of the tested localities in 5 counties of northwestern Romania.

EID Salat J, Mihalca AD, Mihaiu M, Modrý D, Ruzek D. Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Sheep, Romania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2065-2067. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170166
AMA Salat J, Mihalca AD, Mihaiu M, et al. Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Sheep, Romania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2065-2067. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170166.
APA Salat, J., Mihalca, A. D., Mihaiu, M., Modrý, D., & Ruzek, D. (2017). Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Sheep, Romania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2065-2067. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170166.

Medscape CME Activity
Newly Recognized Pediatric Cases of Typhus Group Rickettsiosis, Houston, Texas, USA [PDF - 540 KB - 4 pages]
T. Erickson et al.

An increase in typhus group rickettsiosis and an expanding geographic range occurred in Texas, USA, over a decade. Because this illness commonly affects children, we retrospectively examined medical records from 2008–2016 at a large Houston-area pediatric hospital and identified 36 cases. The earliest known cases were diagnosed in 2011.

EID Erickson T, da Silva J, Nolan MS, Marquez L, Munoz FM, Murray KO. Newly Recognized Pediatric Cases of Typhus Group Rickettsiosis, Houston, Texas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2068-2071. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170631
AMA Erickson T, da Silva J, Nolan MS, et al. Newly Recognized Pediatric Cases of Typhus Group Rickettsiosis, Houston, Texas, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2068-2071. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170631.
APA Erickson, T., da Silva, J., Nolan, M. S., Marquez, L., Munoz, F. M., & Murray, K. O. (2017). Newly Recognized Pediatric Cases of Typhus Group Rickettsiosis, Houston, Texas, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2068-2071. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170631.

Identification of Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks Carrying Rickettsia raoultii on Migrating Jackal, Denmark [PDF - 1.53 MB - 4 pages]
K. Klitgaard et al.

From a migrating golden jackal (Canis aureus), we retrieved 21 live male Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, a species not previously reported from wildlife in Denmark. We identified Rickettsia raoultii from 18 (86%) of the ticks. This bacterium is associated with scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after tick bite syndrome among humans.

EID Klitgaard K, Chriél M, Isbrand A, Jensen TK, Bødker R. Identification of Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks Carrying Rickettsia raoultii on Migrating Jackal, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2072-2074. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170919
AMA Klitgaard K, Chriél M, Isbrand A, et al. Identification of Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks Carrying Rickettsia raoultii on Migrating Jackal, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2072-2074. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170919.
APA Klitgaard, K., Chriél, M., Isbrand, A., Jensen, T. K., & Bødker, R. (2017). Identification of Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks Carrying Rickettsia raoultii on Migrating Jackal, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2072-2074. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170919.

Investigation of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Reported with La Crosse Virus Infection, Ohio, USA, 2008–2014 [PDF - 667 KB - 3 pages]
M. J. Hennessey et al.

Infection with La Crosse virus can cause meningoencephalitis, but it is not known to cause acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). During 2008–2014, nine confirmed or probable La Crosse virus disease cases with possible AFP were reported in Ohio, USA. After an epidemiologic and clinical investigation, we determined no patients truly had AFP.

EID Hennessey MJ, Pastula DM, Machesky K, Fischer M, Lindsey NP, DiOrio M, et al. Investigation of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Reported with La Crosse Virus Infection, Ohio, USA, 2008–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2075-2077. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170944
AMA Hennessey MJ, Pastula DM, Machesky K, et al. Investigation of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Reported with La Crosse Virus Infection, Ohio, USA, 2008–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2075-2077. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170944.
APA Hennessey, M. J., Pastula, D. M., Machesky, K., Fischer, M., Lindsey, N. P., DiOrio, M....de Fijter, S. (2017). Investigation of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Reported with La Crosse Virus Infection, Ohio, USA, 2008–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2075-2077. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170944.

Phylogenetic Characterization of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Spain [PDF - 721 KB - 3 pages]
E. Ramírez de Arellano et al.

Two cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever were reported in Spain during 2016. We obtained the virus from a patient sample and characterized its full genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the virus corresponds to the African genotype III, which includes viruses previously found in West and South Africa.

EID Ramírez de Arellano E, Hernández L, Goyanes M, Arsuaga M, Cruz A, Negredo A, et al. Phylogenetic Characterization of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2078-2080. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171002
AMA Ramírez de Arellano E, Hernández L, Goyanes M, et al. Phylogenetic Characterization of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2078-2080. doi:10.3201/eid2312.171002.
APA Ramírez de Arellano, E., Hernández, L., Goyanes, M., Arsuaga, M., Cruz, A., Negredo, A....Sánchez-Seco, M. (2017). Phylogenetic Characterization of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2078-2080. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171002.

Lack of Secondary Transmission of Ebola Virus from Healthcare Worker to 238 Contacts, United Kingdom, December 2014 [PDF - 924 KB - 4 pages]
P. Crook et al.

In December 2014, Ebola virus disease (EVD) was diagnosed in a healthcare worker in the United Kingdom after the worker returned from an Ebola treatment center in Sierra Leone. The worker flew on 2 flights during the early stages of disease. Follow-up of 238 contacts showed no evidence of secondary transmission of Ebola virus.

EID Crook P, Smith-Palmer A, Maguire H, McCarthy N, Kirkbride H, Court B, et al. Lack of Secondary Transmission of Ebola Virus from Healthcare Worker to 238 Contacts, United Kingdom, December 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2081-2084. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171100
AMA Crook P, Smith-Palmer A, Maguire H, et al. Lack of Secondary Transmission of Ebola Virus from Healthcare Worker to 238 Contacts, United Kingdom, December 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2081-2084. doi:10.3201/eid2312.171100.
APA Crook, P., Smith-Palmer, A., Maguire, H., McCarthy, N., Kirkbride, H., Court, B....Oliver, I. (2017). Lack of Secondary Transmission of Ebola Virus from Healthcare Worker to 238 Contacts, United Kingdom, December 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2081-2084. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171100.

Diagnostic Accuracy of Parameters for Zika and Dengue Virus Infections, Singapore [PDF - 1.83 MB - 4 pages]
H. J. Ho et al.

Singapore experienced its first documented Zika virus outbreak in 2016. We identified clinical and laboratory parameters that increase the probability for Zika or dengue virus infection. Early during the illness, combinations of key parameters obtained through clinical assessment and hematologic tests can help distinguish between these infections.

EID Ho HJ, Wong J, Mar Kyaw W, Lye DC, Leo Y, Chow A. Diagnostic Accuracy of Parameters for Zika and Dengue Virus Infections, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2085-2088. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171224
AMA Ho HJ, Wong J, Mar Kyaw W, et al. Diagnostic Accuracy of Parameters for Zika and Dengue Virus Infections, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2085-2088. doi:10.3201/eid2312.171224.
APA Ho, H. J., Wong, J., Mar Kyaw, W., Lye, D. C., Leo, Y., & Chow, A. (2017). Diagnostic Accuracy of Parameters for Zika and Dengue Virus Infections, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2085-2088. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171224.
Research Letters

New Avian Hepadnavirus in Palaeognathous Bird, Germany [PDF - 594 KB - 3 pages]
W. K. Jo et al.

In 2015, we identified an avian hepatitis B virus associated with hepatitis in a group of captive elegant-crested tinamous (Eudromia elegans) in Germany. The full-length genome of this virus shares <76% sequence identity with other avihepadnaviruses. The virus may therefore be considered a new extant avian hepadnavirus.

EID Jo WK, Pfankuche VM, Petersen H, Frei S, Kummrow M, Lorenzen S, et al. New Avian Hepadnavirus in Palaeognathous Bird, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2089-2091. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.161634
AMA Jo WK, Pfankuche VM, Petersen H, et al. New Avian Hepadnavirus in Palaeognathous Bird, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2089-2091. doi:10.3201/eid2312.161634.
APA Jo, W. K., Pfankuche, V. M., Petersen, H., Frei, S., Kummrow, M., Lorenzen, S....van der Vries, E. (2017). New Avian Hepadnavirus in Palaeognathous Bird, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2089-2091. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.161634.

Acute Myopericarditis Associated with Tickborne Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae [PDF - 406 KB - 3 pages]
P. Revilla-Martí et al.

We report an unusual case of myopericarditis caused by Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae. Because of increasing reports of Rickettsia spp. as etiologic agents of acute myopericarditis and the ease and success with which it was treated in the patient reported here, rickettsial infection should be included in the differential diagnosis for myopericarditis.

EID Revilla-Martí P, Cecilio-Irazola Á, Gayán-Ordás J, Sanjoaquín-Conde I, Linares-Vicente J, Oteo JA. Acute Myopericarditis Associated with Tickborne Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2091-2093. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170293
AMA Revilla-Martí P, Cecilio-Irazola Á, Gayán-Ordás J, et al. Acute Myopericarditis Associated with Tickborne Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2091-2093. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170293.
APA Revilla-Martí, P., Cecilio-Irazola, Á., Gayán-Ordás, J., Sanjoaquín-Conde, I., Linares-Vicente, J., & Oteo, J. A. (2017). Acute Myopericarditis Associated with Tickborne Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2091-2093. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170293.

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O80:H2 in Young Calves with Diarrhea, Belgium [PDF - 437 KB - 3 pages]
D. Thiry et al.

Serogroup O80 was detected in 40% of 104 enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from calves with diarrhea from 42 farms in Belgium during 2008‒2015. These isolates harbored the eae-ξ and fliCH2 genes, similar to the O80 attaching-effacing Shigatoxigenic E. coli isolates found in humans in France. This strain might be emerging.

EID Thiry D, Saulmont M, Takaki S, De Rauw K, Duprez J, Iguchi A, et al. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O80:H2 in Young Calves with Diarrhea, Belgium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2093-2095. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170450
AMA Thiry D, Saulmont M, Takaki S, et al. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O80:H2 in Young Calves with Diarrhea, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2093-2095. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170450.
APA Thiry, D., Saulmont, M., Takaki, S., De Rauw, K., Duprez, J., Iguchi, A....Mainil, J. G. (2017). Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O80:H2 in Young Calves with Diarrhea, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2093-2095. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170450.

Incentives for Bushmeat Consumption and Importation among West African Immigrants, Minnesota, USA [PDF - 374 KB - 3 pages]
E. Walz et al.

The knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding bushmeat consumption and importation in the United States are not well described. Focus groups of West African persons living in Minnesota, USA, found that perceived risks are low and unlikely to deter consumers. Incentives for importation and consumption were multifactorial in this community.

EID Walz E, Wilson D, Stauffer JC, Wanduragala D, Stauffer WM, Travis DA, et al. Incentives for Bushmeat Consumption and Importation among West African Immigrants, Minnesota, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2095-2097. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170563
AMA Walz E, Wilson D, Stauffer JC, et al. Incentives for Bushmeat Consumption and Importation among West African Immigrants, Minnesota, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2095-2097. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170563.
APA Walz, E., Wilson, D., Stauffer, J. C., Wanduragala, D., Stauffer, W. M., Travis, D. A....Alpern, J. D. (2017). Incentives for Bushmeat Consumption and Importation among West African Immigrants, Minnesota, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2095-2097. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170563.

Porcine Astrovirus Type 3 in Central Nervous System of Swine with Polioencephalomyelitis [PDF - 1.17 MB - 4 pages]
B. Arruda et al.

Using next-generation sequencing, we identified and genetically characterized a porcine astrovirus type 3 strain found in tissues from the central nervous system of 1 piglet and 3 sows with neurologic signs and nonsuppurative polioencephalomyelitis. Further studies are needed to understand the potential for cross-species transmission and clinical impact.

EID Arruda B, Arruda P, Hensch M, Chen Q, Zheng Y, Yang C, et al. Porcine Astrovirus Type 3 in Central Nervous System of Swine with Polioencephalomyelitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2097-2100. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170703
AMA Arruda B, Arruda P, Hensch M, et al. Porcine Astrovirus Type 3 in Central Nervous System of Swine with Polioencephalomyelitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2097-2100. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170703.
APA Arruda, B., Arruda, P., Hensch, M., Chen, Q., Zheng, Y., Yang, C....Li, G. (2017). Porcine Astrovirus Type 3 in Central Nervous System of Swine with Polioencephalomyelitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2097-2100. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170703.

Avian Influenza (H7N9) Viruses Co-circulating among Chickens, Southern China [PDF - 608 KB - 3 pages]
N. Wang et al.

In April 2017, three avian influenza (H7N9) viruses were isolated from chickens in southern China. Each virus had different insertion points in the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin protein compared to the first identified H7N9 virus. We determined that these viruses were double or triple reassortant viruses.

EID Wang N, Sun M, Wang W, Ouyang G, Chen Z, Zhang Y, et al. Avian Influenza (H7N9) Viruses Co-circulating among Chickens, Southern China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2100-2102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170782
AMA Wang N, Sun M, Wang W, et al. Avian Influenza (H7N9) Viruses Co-circulating among Chickens, Southern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2100-2102. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170782.
APA Wang, N., Sun, M., Wang, W., Ouyang, G., Chen, Z., Zhang, Y....Jiao, P. (2017). Avian Influenza (H7N9) Viruses Co-circulating among Chickens, Southern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2100-2102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170782.

Rabies and Distemper Outbreaks in Smallest Ethiopian Wolf Population [PDF - 390 KB - 3 pages]
J. Marino et al.

Widespread deaths recently devastated the smallest known population of Ethiopian wolves. Of 7 carcasses found, all 3 tested were positive for rabies. Two wolves were subsequently vaccinated for rabies; 1 of these later died from canine distemper. Only 2 of a known population of 13 wolves survived.

EID Marino J, Sillero-Zubiri C, Deressa A, Bedin E, Bitewa A, Lema F, et al. Rabies and Distemper Outbreaks in Smallest Ethiopian Wolf Population. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2102-2104. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170893
AMA Marino J, Sillero-Zubiri C, Deressa A, et al. Rabies and Distemper Outbreaks in Smallest Ethiopian Wolf Population. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2102-2104. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170893.
APA Marino, J., Sillero-Zubiri, C., Deressa, A., Bedin, E., Bitewa, A., Lema, F....Fooks, A. R. (2017). Rabies and Distemper Outbreaks in Smallest Ethiopian Wolf Population. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2102-2104. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170893.

High Abundance and Genetic Variability of Atypical Porcine Pestivirus in Pigs from Europe and Asia [PDF - 926 KB - 4 pages]
A. Postel et al.

Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) was recently reported to be associated with neurologic disorders in newborn piglets. Investigations of 1,460 serum samples of apparently healthy pigs from different parts of Europe and Asia demonstrate a geographically wide distribution of genetically highly variable APPV and high APPV genome and antibody detection rates.

EID Postel A, Meyer D, Cagatay G, Feliziani F, De Mia G, Fischer N, et al. High Abundance and Genetic Variability of Atypical Porcine Pestivirus in Pigs from Europe and Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2104-2107. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170951
AMA Postel A, Meyer D, Cagatay G, et al. High Abundance and Genetic Variability of Atypical Porcine Pestivirus in Pigs from Europe and Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2104-2107. doi:10.3201/eid2312.170951.
APA Postel, A., Meyer, D., Cagatay, G., Feliziani, F., De Mia, G., Fischer, N....Becher, P. (2017). High Abundance and Genetic Variability of Atypical Porcine Pestivirus in Pigs from Europe and Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2104-2107. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.170951.

Human Case of Streptococcus suis Disease, Ontario, Canada [PDF - 454 KB - 3 pages]
J. Gomez-Torres et al.

We report a case of Streptococcus suis human disease in Ontario, Canada, caused by a serotype 2 strain genotypically similar to those commonly isolated from pigs in North America. Initially, the isolate was misidentified as a viridans group Streptococcus. Human S. suis infections may be underdiagnosed in North America.

EID Gomez-Torres J, Nimir A, Cluett J, Aggarwal A, Elsayed S, Soares D, et al. Human Case of Streptococcus suis Disease, Ontario, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2107-2109. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171005
AMA Gomez-Torres J, Nimir A, Cluett J, et al. Human Case of Streptococcus suis Disease, Ontario, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2107-2109. doi:10.3201/eid2312.171005.
APA Gomez-Torres, J., Nimir, A., Cluett, J., Aggarwal, A., Elsayed, S., Soares, D....Fittipaldi, N. (2017). Human Case of Streptococcus suis Disease, Ontario, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2107-2109. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171005.

Moku Virus in Invasive Asian Hornets, Belgium, 2016 [PDF - 570 KB - 4 pages]
M. Garigliany et al.

We report the detection of Moku virus in invasive Asian hornets (Vespa velutina nigrithorax) in Belgium. This constitutes an unexpected report of this iflavirus outside Hawaii, USA, where it was recently described in social wasps. Although virulence of Moku virus is unknown, its potential spread raises concern for European honeybee populations.

EID Garigliany M, Taminiau B, El Agrebi N, Cadar D, Gilliaux G, Hue M, et al. Moku Virus in Invasive Asian Hornets, Belgium, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2109-2112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171080
AMA Garigliany M, Taminiau B, El Agrebi N, et al. Moku Virus in Invasive Asian Hornets, Belgium, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2109-2112. doi:10.3201/eid2312.171080.
APA Garigliany, M., Taminiau, B., El Agrebi, N., Cadar, D., Gilliaux, G., Hue, M....Saegerman, C. (2017). Moku Virus in Invasive Asian Hornets, Belgium, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2109-2112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171080.

Angiostrongylus cantonensis DNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Persons with Eosinophilic Meningitis, Laos [PDF - 382 KB - 2 pages]
D. Ming et al.

Definitive identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis parasites from clinical specimens is difficult. As a result, regional epidemiology and burden are poorly characterized. To ascertain presence of this parasite in patients in Laos with eosinophilic meningitis, we performed quantitative PCRs on 36 cerebrospinal fluid samples; 4 positive samples confirmed the parasite’s presence.

EID Ming D, Rattanavong S, Bharucha T, Sengvilaipaseuth O, Dubot-Pérès A, Newton PN, et al. Angiostrongylus cantonensis DNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Persons with Eosinophilic Meningitis, Laos. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2112-2113. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171107
AMA Ming D, Rattanavong S, Bharucha T, et al. Angiostrongylus cantonensis DNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Persons with Eosinophilic Meningitis, Laos. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2112-2113. doi:10.3201/eid2312.171107.
APA Ming, D., Rattanavong, S., Bharucha, T., Sengvilaipaseuth, O., Dubot-Pérès, A., Newton, P. N....Robinson, M. T. (2017). Angiostrongylus cantonensis DNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Persons with Eosinophilic Meningitis, Laos. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2112-2113. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171107.

Tool for Eliminating Dog-Mediated Human Rabies through Mass Dog Vaccination Campaigns [PDF - 572 KB - 3 pages]
E. A. Undurraga et al.

The World Health Organization and collaborating agencies have set the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies by 2030. Building on experience with rabies endemic countries, we constructed a user-friendly tool to help public health officials plan the resources needed to achieve this goal through mass vaccination of dogs.

EID Undurraga EA, Blanton JD, Thumbi S, Mwatondo A, Muturi M, Wallace RM. Tool for Eliminating Dog-Mediated Human Rabies through Mass Dog Vaccination Campaigns. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2114-2116. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171148
AMA Undurraga EA, Blanton JD, Thumbi S, et al. Tool for Eliminating Dog-Mediated Human Rabies through Mass Dog Vaccination Campaigns. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2114-2116. doi:10.3201/eid2312.171148.
APA Undurraga, E. A., Blanton, J. D., Thumbi, S., Mwatondo, A., Muturi, M., & Wallace, R. M. (2017). Tool for Eliminating Dog-Mediated Human Rabies through Mass Dog Vaccination Campaigns. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2114-2116. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171148.

Unexpected Infection with Armillifer Parasites [PDF - 1.73 MB - 3 pages]
I. Potters et al.

Visceral pentastomiasis is usually found incidentally during surgery. We describe a case of visceral pentastomiasis discovered during inguinoscrotal hernia surgery for a man from Benin, Africa. Because surgical removal of nymphs is needed for symptomatic patients only, this patient’s asymptomatic pentastomiasis was not treated and he recovered from surgery uneventfully.

EID Potters I, Desaive C, Van Den Broucke S, Van Esbroeck M, Lynen L. Unexpected Infection with Armillifer Parasites. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2116-2118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171189
AMA Potters I, Desaive C, Van Den Broucke S, et al. Unexpected Infection with Armillifer Parasites. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2116-2118. doi:10.3201/eid2312.171189.
APA Potters, I., Desaive, C., Van Den Broucke, S., Van Esbroeck, M., & Lynen, L. (2017). Unexpected Infection with Armillifer Parasites. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2116-2118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171189.

Influenza A(H9N2) Virus, Burkina Faso [PDF - 341 KB - 2 pages]
B. Zecchin et al.

We identified influenza A(H9N2) virus G1 lineage in poultry in Burkina Faso. Urgent actions are needed to raise awareness about the risk associated with spread of this zoonotic virus subtype in the area and to construct a strategy for effective prevention and control of influenza caused by this virus.

EID Zecchin B, Minoungou G, Fusaro A, Moctar S, Ouedraogo-Kaboré A, Schivo A, et al. Influenza A(H9N2) Virus, Burkina Faso. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2118-2119. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171294
AMA Zecchin B, Minoungou G, Fusaro A, et al. Influenza A(H9N2) Virus, Burkina Faso. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2118-2119. doi:10.3201/eid2312.171294.
APA Zecchin, B., Minoungou, G., Fusaro, A., Moctar, S., Ouedraogo-Kaboré, A., Schivo, A....Monne, I. (2017). Influenza A(H9N2) Virus, Burkina Faso. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2118-2119. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171294.

Detection of Zika Virus in April 2013 Patient Samples, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [PDF - 337 KB - 2 pages]
S. R. Passos et al.

We tested 210 dengue virus‒negative samples collected from febrile patients during a dengue virus type 4 outbreak in Rio de Janeiro in April 2013 and found 3 samples positive for Zika virus. Our findings support previously published entomological data suggesting Zika virus was introduced into Brazil during October 2012–May 2013.

EID Passos SR, Borges dos Santos MA, Cerbino-Neto J, Buonora SN, Souza T, de Oliveira R, et al. Detection of Zika Virus in April 2013 Patient Samples, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2120-2121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171375
AMA Passos SR, Borges dos Santos MA, Cerbino-Neto J, et al. Detection of Zika Virus in April 2013 Patient Samples, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2120-2121. doi:10.3201/eid2312.171375.
APA Passos, S. R., Borges dos Santos, M. A., Cerbino-Neto, J., Buonora, S. N., Souza, T., de Oliveira, R....Hökerberg, Y. (2017). Detection of Zika Virus in April 2013 Patient Samples, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2120-2121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171375.
Letters

Wildlife as Source of Human Escherichia coli O157 Infection [PDF - 1.87 MB - 1 page]
B. Crook and H. Senior
EID Crook B, Senior H Senior. Wildlife as Source of Human Escherichia coli O157 Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171210
AMA Crook B, Senior H Senior. Wildlife as Source of Human Escherichia coli O157 Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2122. doi:10.3201/eid2312.171210.
APA Crook, B., & Senior, H., Senior. (2017). Wildlife as Source of Human Escherichia coli O157 Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171210.
Books and Media

The Next Pandemic: On the Front Lines Against Humankind’s Gravest Dangers [PDF - 391 KB - 1 page]
W. P. Hanage
EID Hanage WP. The Next Pandemic: On the Front Lines Against Humankind’s Gravest Dangers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2123. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171137
AMA Hanage WP. The Next Pandemic: On the Front Lines Against Humankind’s Gravest Dangers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2123. doi:10.3201/eid2312.171137.
APA Hanage, W. P. (2017). The Next Pandemic: On the Front Lines Against Humankind’s Gravest Dangers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2123. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.171137.
About the Cover

“Everything within a Circle Is One Thing” [PDF - 1.94 MB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove
EID Breedlove B. “Everything within a Circle Is One Thing”. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2124-2125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.ac2312
AMA Breedlove B. “Everything within a Circle Is One Thing”. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2124-2125. doi:10.3201/eid2312.ac2312.
APA Breedlove, B. (2017). “Everything within a Circle Is One Thing”. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2124-2125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.ac2312.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Taenia saginata [PDF - 501 KB - 1 page]
R. Henry
EID Henry R. Etymologia: Taenia saginata. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(12):2029. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.et2312
AMA Henry R. Etymologia: Taenia saginata. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(12):2029. doi:10.3201/eid2312.et2312.
APA Henry, R. (2017). Etymologia: Taenia saginata. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(12), 2029. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2312.et2312.
Page created: March 05, 2018
Page updated: March 05, 2018
Page reviewed: March 05, 2018
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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