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Volume 23, Number 4—April 2017

Dispatch

Reassortment of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds in Alaska before H5 Clade 2.3.4.4 Outbreaks

Nichola J. Hill, Islam T.M. Hussein, Kimberly R. Davis, Eric J. Ma, Timothy J. Spivey, Andrew M. Ramey, Wendy Blay Puryear, Suman R. Das, Rebecca A. Halpin, Xudong Lin, Nadia B. Fedorova, David L. Suarez, Walter M. Boyce, and Jonathan A. RunstadlerComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (N.J. Hill, I.T.M. Hussein, K.R. Davis, E.J. Ma, W.B. Puryear, J.A. Runstadler); University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, USA (T.J. Spivey); US Geological Survey, Anchorage, Alaska, USA (T.J. Spivey, A.M. Ramey); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA (S. Das); J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA (R.A. Halpin, X. Lin, N.B. Fedorova); Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia, USA (D.L. Suarez); University of California, Davis, California, USA (W.M. Boyce)

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Figure 2

Spatial and temporal distribution of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 influenza A virus outbreaks among wild birds and poultry across North America. A) Spatial distribution of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 influenza A virus outbreaks in wild birds (triangles) and poultry (circles) across North America, color-coded by subtype, relative to poultry density. The location of mallards from Anchorage, Alaska, based on resighting of banded birds, is indicated. B) Temporal distribution of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 influenza A virus detection

Figure 2. Spatial and temporal distribution of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 influenza A virus outbreaks among wild birds and poultry across North America. A) Spatial distribution of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 influenza A virus outbreaks in wild birds (triangles) and poultry (circles) across North America, color-coded by subtype, relative to poultry density. The location of mallards from Anchorage, Alaska, based on resighting of banded birds, is indicated. B) Temporal distribution of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 influenza A virus detections during the course of the outbreaks relative to the migration of mallards banded in Anchorage.

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