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Volume 23, Number 9—September 2017


Risk for Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus on Poultry Farms, the Netherlands, 2007–2013

Ruth Bouwstra12, Jose L. Gonzales2, Sjaak de Wit, Julia Stahl, Ron A.M. Fouchier, and Armin R.W. Elbers2Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Lelystad, the Netherlands (R. Bouwstra, J.L. Gonzales, A.R.W. Elbers); GD Animal Health, Deventer, the Netherlands (S. de Wit); Sovon Dutch Center for Field Ornithology, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (J. Stahl); Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (R.A.M. Fouchier)

Main Article

Table 2

Relative risks for introduction of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus infection in different types of poultry farms, the Netherlands, 2007–2013

Type of poultry farm Relative risk (95% CI) p value
Indoor-layer 1.0 (reference)
Outdoor-layer 6.3 (4.7–8.6) <0.00001
Layer-breeder 0.5 (0.3–0.8) 0.008
Broiler 0.2 (0.1–0.8) 0.02
Broiler-breeder 0.4 (0.2–0.8) 0.004
Meat-turkey 12.0 (7.8–18.8) <0.00001
Turkey-breeder 11.3 (2.8–46.2) 0.0008
Meat-duck 39.5 (22.6–69.1) <0.00001
Duck-breeder 25.5 (14.2–45.9) <0.00001
Natural logarithm* 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.00005

*Of distance to medium-sized waterways in meters, i.e., 3–6 m wide.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: GD Animal Health, Deventer, the Netherlands.

2These authors contributed equally to this article.