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Volume 23, Number 9—September 2017

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Serologic Evidence for Influenza C and D Virus among Ruminants and Camelids, Africa, 1991–2015

Elias Salem, Elizabeth A.J. Cook, Hicham Ait Lbacha, Justine Oliva, Félix Awoume, Gilbert L. Aplogan, Emmanuel Couacy Hymann, Dishon Muloi, Sharon L. Deem, Said Alali, Zaid Zouagui, Eric M. Fèvre, Gilles Meyer, and Mariette F. DucatezComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Interactions Hôtes Agents Pathogènes, Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, Toulouse, France (E. Salem, J. Oliva, G. Meyer, M.F. Ducatez); International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya (E.A.J. Cook, D. Muloi, E.M. Fèvre); Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Rabat, Morocco (H.A. Lbacha, S. Alali, Z. Zouagui); Laboratoire Vétérinaire de Lomé, Lomé, Togo (F. Awoume); Laboratoire de Diagnostic Vétérinaire et de Sérosurveillance, Parakou, Benin (G.L. Aplogan); LANADA Central Laboratory for Animal Diseases, Bingerville, Côte d’Ivoire (E.C. Hymann); University of Edinburgh Centre for Immunity, Infection, and Evolution, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (D. Muloi); St. Louis Zoo Institute for Conservation Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA (S.L. Deem); University of Liverpool Institute of Infection and Global Health, England, UK (E.M. Fèvre)

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Figure 2

HI titers for ICV and IDV in serum samples from animals in Africa, by country. A) Titers against IDV by using D/bovine/Nebraska/9-5/2012 as antigen. B) Titers against ICV by using C/Victoria/1/2011 as antigen. Histograms represent mean HI titers per country and species as indicated on the x-axis. *Post-IDV adsorption; †post-ICV adsorption. HI, hemagglutination inhibition; ICV, influenza C virus; IDV, influenza D virus.

Figure 2. HI titers for ICV and IDV in serum samples from animals in Africa, by country. A) Titers against IDV by using D/bovine/Nebraska/9-5/2012 as antigen. B) Titers against ICV by using C/Victoria/1/2011 as antigen. Histograms represent mean HI titers per country and species as indicated on the x-axis. Error bars indicate SEM.* Post-IDV adsorption; †post-ICV adsorption. HI, hemagglutination inhibition; ICV, influenza C virus; IDV, influenza D virus.

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