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Volume 23, Number 9—September 2017

Dispatch

Serologic Evidence for Influenza C and D Virus among Ruminants and Camelids, Africa, 1991–2015

Elias Salem, Elizabeth A.J. Cook, Hicham Ait Lbacha, Justine Oliva, Félix Awoume, Gilbert L. Aplogan, Emmanuel Couacy Hymann, Dishon Muloi, Sharon L. Deem, Said Alali, Zaid Zouagui, Eric M. Fèvre, Gilles Meyer, and Mariette F. DucatezComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Interactions Hôtes Agents Pathogènes, Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, Toulouse, France (E. Salem, J. Oliva, G. Meyer, M.F. Ducatez); International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya (E.A.J. Cook, D. Muloi, E.M. Fèvre); Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Rabat, Morocco (H.A. Lbacha, S. Alali, Z. Zouagui); Laboratoire Vétérinaire de Lomé, Lomé, Togo (F. Awoume); Laboratoire de Diagnostic Vétérinaire et de Sérosurveillance, Parakou, Benin (G.L. Aplogan); LANADA Central Laboratory for Animal Diseases, Bingerville, Côte d’Ivoire (E.C. Hymann); University of Edinburgh Centre for Immunity, Infection, and Evolution, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (D. Muloi); St. Louis Zoo Institute for Conservation Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA (S.L. Deem); University of Liverpool Institute of Infection and Global Health, England, UK (E.M. Fèvre)

Main Article

Table 1

Number of serum samples collected per country in Africa during 1991–2015 and species and collection periods and influenza D virus seroprevalence*

Country
Species
Cattle
Swine
Sheep
Goats
Camels
Benin
% Positive 1.9 ND 0 0 ND
No. samples 207 [1] ND 67 34 ND
Years
2012, 2014
ND
2013–2014
2013–2014
ND
Togo
% Positive 10.4 ND 2.2 1.4 ND
No. samples 201 [10] ND 135 [2] 205 [0] ND
Years
2009, 2015
ND
2013
2013
ND
Côte d’Ivoire
% Positive 0 0 ND ND ND
No. samples 100 103 ND ND ND
Years
1991–2013
2013
ND
ND
ND
Morocco
% Positive 35% ND ND ND ND
No. samples 200 [32] ND ND ND ND
Years
2012–2015
ND
ND
ND
ND
Kenya
% Positive 0 ND ND ND 99†
No. samples 938 ND ND ND 293 [287]
Years 2010–2012 ND ND ND 2015

*A total of 2,083 serum samples were collected. Seroprevalence defined by HI titers ≥10 against D/bovine/Nebraska/9-5/2012. Numbers in brackets indicate animals with HI titers ≥40. HI, hemagglutina­tion inhibition; ND, not done.
†No preadsorption on influenza C virus cross-reactivity likely. 

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