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Volume 23, Number 9—September 2017

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Serologic Evidence for Influenza C and D Virus among Ruminants and Camelids, Africa, 1991–2015

Elias Salem, Elizabeth A.J. Cook, Hicham Ait Lbacha, Justine Oliva, Félix Awoume, Gilbert L. Aplogan, Emmanuel Couacy Hymann, Dishon Muloi, Sharon L. Deem, Said Alali, Zaid Zouagui, Eric M. Fèvre, Gilles Meyer, and Mariette F. DucatezComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Interactions Hôtes Agents Pathogènes, Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, Toulouse, France (E. Salem, J. Oliva, G. Meyer, M.F. Ducatez); International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya (E.A.J. Cook, D. Muloi, E.M. Fèvre); Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Rabat, Morocco (H.A. Lbacha, S. Alali, Z. Zouagui); Laboratoire Vétérinaire de Lomé, Lomé, Togo (F. Awoume); Laboratoire de Diagnostic Vétérinaire et de Sérosurveillance, Parakou, Benin (G.L. Aplogan); LANADA Central Laboratory for Animal Diseases, Bingerville, Côte d’Ivoire (E.C. Hymann); University of Edinburgh Centre for Immunity, Infection, and Evolution, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (D. Muloi); St. Louis Zoo Institute for Conservation Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA (S.L. Deem); University of Liverpool Institute of Infection and Global Health, England, UK (E.M. Fèvre)

Main Article

Table 2

Comparison of HI and MN assay results for influenza D virus in 200 cattle serum samples from Morocco*

HI assay
MN assay Total no.
No. positive
No. negative
No. positive 66 4 70
No. negative 31 99 130
Total no. 97 103 200
Comparision† Sensitivity, 68% (95% CI 57.8%–77.2%) Specificity,  96% (95% CI 90.4%–98.9%)

*By using D/bovine/France/5920/2014 as antigen. Titers ≥10 were considered positive. HI, hemagglutination inhibition; MN, microneutralization.
†For HI as compared with MN.

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