Case Definition of Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Resource-Constrained Settings
David W. Denning
, Iain D. Page, Jeremiah Chakaya, Kauser Jabeen, Cecilia M. Jude, Muriel Cornet, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Felix Bongomin, Paul Bowyer, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Sara Gago, John Guto, Bruno Hochhegger, Martin Hoenigl, Muhammad Irfan, Nicholas Irurhe, Koichi Izumikawa, Bruce Kirenga, Veronica Manduku, Samihah Moazam, Rita O. Oladele, Malcolm D. Richardson, Juan Luis Rodriguez Tudela, Anna Rozaliyani, Helmut J.F. Salzer, Richard Sawyer, Nasilele F. Simukulwa, Alena Skrahina, Charlotte Sriruttan, Findra Setianingrum, Bayu A.P. Wilopo, Donald C. Cole, and Haileyesus Getahun
Author affiliations: University of Manchester, Manchester, UK (D.W. Denning, I.D. Page, F. Bongomin, P. Bowyer, S. Gago, R.O. Oladele, C. Sriruttan, F. Setianingrum, B.A.P. Wilopo); Wythenshawe Hospital Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (D.W. Denning, I.D. Page, S. Moazam, M.D. Richardson, R. Sawyer); The Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections, Geneva, Switzerland (D.W. Denning, J. Guto, J.L. Rodriguez Tudela); Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya (J. Chakaya, V. Manduku); Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan (K. Jabeen, M. Irfan); Olive View–UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, California, USA (C.M. Jude); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France (M. Cornet); Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain (A. Alastruey-Izquierdo); Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India (A. Chakrabarti); Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil (B. Hochhegger); University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA (M. Hoenigl); Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria (M. Hoenigl); Center for Biomarker Research in Medicine, Graz (M. Hoenigl); Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria (N. Irurhe); Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan (K. Izumikawa); Mulago Hospital and Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda (B. Kirenga); University of Lagos, Lagos (R.O. Oladele); Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia (A. Rozaliyani, F. Setianingrum); Research Center Borstel, Borstel, Germany (H.J.F. Salzer); Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK (N.F. Simukulwa); The Republican Scientific and Practical Centre for Pulmonology and TB, Minsk, Belarus (A. Skrahina, C. Sriruttan); National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa (C. Sriruttan); University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (C. Sriruttan); Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia (B.A.P. Wilopo); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (D.C. Cole); World Health Organization, Geneva (H. Getahun)
Figure 1. A) Chest radiograph showing aspergilloma (fungal ball) in the left upper lung lobe. B) Axial computed tomography image shows increased density in an irregular left apical cavity, a sequela of pulmonary tuberculosis, consistent with an aspergilloma.
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