Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 25, Number 11—November 2019
Research Letter

Canine Distemper Virus in Asiatic Lions of Gujarat State, India

Devendra T. MouryaComments to Author , Pragya D. Yadav, Sreelekshmy Mohandas, R.F. Kadiwar, M.K. Vala, Akshay K. Saxena, Anita Shete-Aich, Nivedita Gupta, P. Purushothama, Rima R. Sahay, Raman R. Gangakhedkar, Shri C.K. Mishra, and Balram BhargavaComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Indian Council of Medical Research, National Institute of Virology, Pune, India (D.T. Mourya, P.D. Yadav, S. Mohandas, A. Shete-Aich, R.R. Sahay); Sakkarbaug Zoo, Junagadh, India (R.F. Kadiwar, M.K. Vala); Department of Principal Chief Conservator of Forest, Gandhinagar (A.K. Saxena, P. Purushothama); Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi (N. Gupta, R.R. Gangakhedkar, B. Bhargava); Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, New Delhi, India (S.C.K. Mishra)

Cite This Article

Abstract

In September 2018, an epizootic infection caused by canine distemper virus emerged in an Asiatic lion population in India. We detected the virus in samples from 68 lions and 6 leopards by reverse transcription PCR. Whole-genome sequencing analysis demonstrated the virus strain is similar to the proposed India-1/Asia-5 strain.

Canine distemper virus (CDV; genus Morbillivirus) causes highly contagious disease in a wide range of carnivores. Epizootic disease in lions in a wildlife sanctuary in California, USA, in 1992 and Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, in 1994 underlined the potential of CDV to cause fatality in wild felids (1,2). The disease often manifests as respiratory and gastrointestinal signs that progress to neurologic disease (2).

A single isolated population of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) resides in the Gir forests of Gujarat State, India, the last natural habitat for this species. Conservation efforts brought this lion population back from the brink of extinction and increased their numbers (3).

During 2 weeks in September 2018, the unusual death of 28 lions of all age groups was reported from Gir Wildlife Sanctuary. A detailed investigation revealed 18 additional lions exhibited dullness, dehydration, lacrimation, cough, diarrhea, and seizures. Necropsy of 2 carcasses showed edema and purulent exudates in the lungs. Histopathology of lungs from both lions showed mononuclear cell infiltration with mild thickening of interalveolar septa.

The Indian Council of Medical Research, National Institute of Virology (Pune, India), received ocular, nasal, and rectal swab specimens packed in a viral transport medium and blood samples from 229 wild and 87 captive lions and visceral organs, including lung, liver, heart, and kidney, from 3 dead lions for virologic investigation. Of the 229 wild lions, 20 showed clinical signs, including dullness, lacrimation, cough, diarrhea, and seizures; 2 of the 87 captive lions showed lacrimation and respiratory distress.

We extracted RNA by using Magmax Total RNA Isolation Kit (ThermoFisher Scientific, https://www.thermofisher.com) and processed samples for heminested PCR for CDV and nested PCR for Paramyxovirus, as described previously (4). We obtained 287 bp by heminested reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and 500 bp by Paramyxovirus nested RT-PCR. We detected CDV from >1 sample from 68 (21.3%) lions, including 56 (24.5%) wild and 12 (13.8%) captive lions. All 22 of the lions with clinical signs were PCR-positive for CDV. Among the samples tested, 18/90 (20%) blood, 26/131 (19.8%) rectal, 28/131 (21.4%) nasal, and 10/132 (7.5%) ocular specimens, as well as the visceral organs from the 3 dead lions, were CDV positive.

We performed RNA library preparation and quantification for next-generation sequencing by using methods described previously (5) and analyzed reads by using CLC Genomics Workbench version 11.0.1 (QIAGEN, https://www.qiagen.com). We retrieved the near-complete genome (15 kb) of CDV from 11 lion samples by using a combination of de novo assembly and reference mapping. We calculated percent nucleotide differences by using the p-distance method in MEGA version 7.0 (6). We performed similarity and divergence calculations for the H gene and generated a neighbor-joining tree for the complete genome and hemagglutinin (H) gene region. We performed bootstrap replication of 1,000 cycles to assess the robustness of the tree.

Phylogenetic analysis showed that sequences from this outbreak clustered with East-African CDV strains (Appendix Figure 1). The complete genome of CDV among the positive samples displayed 100% similarity, except for the spleen and lung of 1 lion, which were 99.9% similar. We noted a 3.4% nucleotide difference between the complete genome of Gir CDV and the East-African strain (Table).

Phylogenetic analysis of the CDV sequences of Gir lions against available partial CDV sequences of H gene previously collected from tigers and a dog from India demonstrated a distinct cluster for sequences from India (Appendix Figure 2). Bhatt et al. (7) hypothesized a novel CDV strain, India-1/Asia-5, among domestic dogs in India. Our analysis of sequences from the CDV outbreak in Gir lions strengthens that hypothesis. We observed 95.8%–96.8% nucleotide similarity for the H gene region (Table) of CDV sequences from the Gir outbreak with the proposed India-1/Asia-5 strain. We noted minimal nucleotide similarity between Gir CDV outbreak strains and Asia 3 strains and maximum similarity with Rockborne-like strains. Whole-genome sequence analysis showed that Gir CDV strains had ≈8% nucleotide difference from the 2 known vaccine-derived strains of America 1 genotypes (Table).

After we confirmed CDV in Asiatic lions, samples were collected from other wild animals in Gir Wildlife Sanctuary. We detected CDV in 6/52 (12%) samples from Panthera pardus leopards but not in samples from Viverricula indica civets, Panthera tigris tigers, Canis lupus pallipes wolves, or Caracal caracal cats.

Before 2019, few instances of CDV were reported in lions, tigers, red pandas, and leopards from zoos and forests in India. However, canine distemper is prevalent among dogs in India (8), and the free-ranging dog population often poses a threat of CDV transmission to wildlife (9). Other wildlife species also could play a role in maintenance and transmission of CDV (9). Vaccination is an option; attenuated Onderstepoort strain was used successfully in captive African lions in Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya, and a live attenuated canine vaccine was used in a vaccine trial in tigers (10). Reintegration of the existing lion population from the Gir region to different sanctuaries can ensure the protection and conservation of the species.

Dr. Mourya is the director of ICMR–National Institute of Virology, Pune, India. His research interests include emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases of high-risk group viruses including Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Nipah virus, as well as vectorborne viral diseases. He is also an expert in biocontainment of high-risk pathogens.

Top

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Dimpal Nyayanit, Shilpi Jain, Pravin Kore, Anish Srivastava, Savita Patil, Triparna Majumdar, Swapnil Patil, Rajen Lakra, Prasad Sarkale, Deepak Suryawanshi, and Manoj Kadam for technical support.

Disclaimer: Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi, India provided funding. ICMR has no role in study design, data collection, or interpretation.

Top

References

  1. Appel  MJ, Yates  RA, Foley  GL, Bernstein  JJ, Santinelli  S, Spelman  LH, et al. Canine distemper epizootic in lions, tigers, and leopards in North America. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1994;6:27788. DOIPubMed
  2. Roelke-Parker  ME, Munson  L, Packer  C, Kock  R, Cleaveland  S, Carpenter  M, et al. A canine distemper virus epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo). Nature. 1996;379:4415. DOIPubMed
  3. Bauer  H, Packer  C, Funston  P., Henschel  P, Nowell  K. Panthera leo. the IUCN red list of threatened species 2016: e.T15951A115130419.
  4. Frisk  AL, König  M, Moritz  A, Baumgärtner  W. Detection of canine distemper virus nucleoprotein RNA by reverse transcription-PCR using serum, whole blood, and cerebrospinal fluid from dogs with distemper. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:363443.PubMed
  5. Yadav  PD, Nyayanit  DA, Shete  AM, Jain  S, Majumdar  TP, Chaubal  GY, et al. Complete genome sequencing of Kaisodi virus isolated from ticks in India belonging to Phlebovirus genus, family Phenuiviridae. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019;10:2333. DOIPubMed
  6. Kumar  S, Stecher  G, Tamura  K. MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets. Mol Biol Evol. 2016;33:18704. DOIPubMed
  7. Bhatt  M, Rajak  KK, Chakravarti  S, Yadav  AK, Kumar  A, Gupta  V, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of haemagglutinin gene deciphering a new genetically distinct lineage of canine distemper virus circulating among domestic dogs in India. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019;66:125267. DOIPubMed
  8. Ashmi  JM, Thangavelu  A, Senthilkumar  TMA, Manimaran  K. Molecular characterization of canine distemper virus from Tamil Nadu, India. Indian J Anim Sci. 2017;87:10627.
  9. Viana  M, Cleaveland  S, Matthiopoulos  J, Halliday  J, Packer  C, Craft  ME, et al. Dynamics of a morbillivirus at the domestic-wildlife interface: Canine distemper virus in domestic dogs and lions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:14649. DOIPubMed
  10. Sadler  RA, Ramsay  E, McAloose  D, Rush  R, Wilkes  RP. Evaluation of two canine distemper virus vaccines in captive tigers (Panthera Tigris). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2016;47:55863. DOIPubMed

Top

Table

Top

Cite This Article

DOI: 10.3201/eid2511.190120

Original Publication Date: 9/30/2019

Table of Contents – Volume 25, Number 11—November 2019

Comments

Please use the form below to submit correspondence to the authors or contact them at the following address:

Balram Bhargava, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India and Director General, Indian Council of Medical Research, PO Box 4911, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029, India; ; Devendra T. Mourya, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Institute of Virology, 20-A, Dr. Ambedkar Road, Pune 411001, India

Send To

character(s) remaining.

Comment submitted successfully, thank you for your feedback.

Top

Page created: October 15, 2019
Page updated: October 15, 2019
Page reviewed: October 15, 2019
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external