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Volume 25, Number 2—February 2019

Trends of Human Plague, Madagascar, 1998–2016

Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana1, Patrice Piola12, David M. Wagner, Fanjasoa Rakotomanana, Viviane Maheriniaina, Samuel Andrianalimanana, Suzanne Chanteau3, Lila Rahalison4, Maherisoa Ratsitorahina, and Minoarisoa RajerisonComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Institut Pasteur, Antananarivo, Madagascar (V. Andrianaivoarimanana, P. Piola, F. Rakotomanana, S. Chanteau, L. Rahalison, M. Rajerison); Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA (D.M. Wagner); Ministry of Public Health, Antananarivo (V. Maheriniaina, S. Andrianalimanana, M. Ratsitorahina)

Main Article

Table 2

Sociodemographic and epidemiologic characteristics of persons with confirmed, presumptive, and suspected plague cases, Madagascar, 1998–2016*

Characteristic Bubonic plague case status, no. patients
Pneumonic plague case status, no. patients
Suspected, n = 6,454 Confirmed and presumptive, n = 5,132 Suspected, n = 579 Confirmed and presumptive, n = 409
Median age, y (IQR) 11 (6–20) 13 (8–24) 26 (17–40) 29 (20–42)
Sex ratio (M:F) 1.44 (3,803:2,639) 1.38 (2,972:2,157) 1.08 (300:278) 1.28 (230:179)
Presence of rats, % 15.1 18.6 11.3 9.3
Recent trip, % 6.4 6.9 7.0 13.6
Mean (SE) days to care 2.0 (0.05) 1.7 (0.03) 2.61 (0.15) 2.21 (0.18)
Median elevation, m (IQR) 1,262 (1,111–1,384) 1,275 (1,063–1,409) 1,228 (921–1,333) 1,284 (1,111–1,355)
Contact with other plague cases, % 7 11 21 23

*IQR, interquartile range.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

2Current affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.


4Current affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Page created: January 18, 2019
Page updated: January 18, 2019
Page reviewed: January 18, 2019
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