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Volume 25, Number 3—March 2019

Use of Genomics to Investigate Historical Importation of Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli Serogroup O26 and Nontoxigenic Variants into New Zealand

A. Springer Browne1Comments to Author , Patrick J. Biggs, David A. Wilkinson, Adrian L. Cookson, Anne C. Midwinter, Samuel J. Bloomfield, C. Reed Hranac, Lynn E. Rogers, Jonathan C. Marshall, Jackie Benschop, Helen Withers, Steve Hathaway, Tessy George, Patricia Jaros, Hamid Irshad, Yang Fong, Muriel Dufour, Naveena Karki, Taylor Winkleman, and Nigel P. French
Author affiliations: Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand (A.S. Browne, P.J. Biggs, D.A. Wilkinson, A.L. Cookson, A.C. Midwinter, S.J. Bloomfield, C.R. Hranac, L.E. Rogers, J.C. Marshall, J. Benschop, T. George, P. Jaros, H. Irshad, Y. Fong, T. Winkleman, N.P. French); New Zealand Food Safety Science & Research Centre, Palmerston North (D.A. Wilkinson, N.P. French); AgResearch Limited, Palmerston North (A.L. Cookson); Ministry of Primary Industries, Wellington, New Zealand (H. Withers, S. Hathaway); Institute of Environmental Science and Research, Upper Hutt, New Zealand (M. Dufour, N. Karki)

Main Article

Table 2

PERMANOVA analysis of Escherichia coli serogroup O26 pangenome genes and virulence genes in an investigation of the bacterium’s historical importation into New Zealand*

Dataset, variable, no. genes df p value Component of variation, %
Pangenome, n = 21,399
Sequence type 5 0.0001 33
Country 14 0.0001 18
Isolation source 3 0.358 <0.01
stx profile
Virulence genes, n = 192
Sequence type 5 0.0001 83.7
Country 14 0.01 1.9
Isolation source 3 0.07 0.3
stx profile 3 0.0001 6.2

*This method determines whether the variation of the dataset is significantly associated with a particular variable. Residual variation: pangenome (43.0%), virulence genes (7.8%).

Main Article

1Current affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Christiansted, Virgin Islands, USA.

Page created: February 19, 2019
Page updated: February 19, 2019
Page reviewed: February 19, 2019
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