Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 26, Number 5—May 2020

Pretreatment Out-of-Pocket Expenses for Presumptive Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients, India, 2016–2017

Priya RathiComments to Author , Kalpita Shringarpure, Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan, Vineet Kumar Chadha, Vishak Acharya, Abirami Nair, Karuna D. Sagili, and Suresh Shastri
Author affiliations: Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India (P. Rathi, B. Unnikrishnan, V. Acharya, A. Nair); Medical College Baroda, Baroda, India (K. Shringarpure); Central Leprosy Teaching and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu, India (V.K. Chadha); National Tuberculosis Institute, Epidemiology and Research, Division Bengaluru, India (V.K. Chadha); International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, South East Asia Office, New Delhi, India (K.D. Sagili); Lady Willington State TB Centre, Bengaluru (S. Shastri)

Main Article

Table 1

Sociodemographic characteristics of 40 MDR TB patients treated at PMDT Centre, Mangalore, India, August 2016–April 2017*

Characteristic No. (%)
M 28 (70)
12 (30)
Illiterate 5 (12.5)
Primary school 15 (37.5)
Secondary school 14 (35.0)
Graduation/professional course
6 (15.0)
Type of occupation
Salaried job 13 (32.5)
Daily wage 9 (22.5)
Business owner 5 (12.5)
Homemaker 8 (20.0)
5 (12.5)
Place of residence
Urban 12 (30.0)
28 (70.0)
Socioeconomic status†
Upper class 6 (15.0)
Upper-middle class 14 (35.0)
Middle class 8 (20.0)
Lower-middle class 7 (17.5)
5 (12.5)
Health facility sequence where MDR TB diagnosis made
First 23 (57.5)
Second 14 (35.0)
Third 3 (7.5)
Type of healthcare facility visited by patients before PMDT
Private 24 (60)
Public 16 (40)

*MDR TB, multidrug-resistant TB; PMDT, programmatic management of drug-resistant TB; TB, tuberculosis.
†Modified BG Prasad Classification (

Main Article

Page created: April 16, 2020
Page updated: April 16, 2020
Page reviewed: April 16, 2020
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.