Volume 26, Number 5—May 2020
Pretreatment Out-of-Pocket Expenses for Presumptive Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients, India, 2016–2017
|Cost category||Median (IQR), USD|
|Total direct medical costs†
|Total diagnosis, n = 38
|Total investigation, n = 36
|Total treatment, n = 26
|Total admission, n = 15
|Total direct nonmedical costs‡
|Total food, n = 38
|Total travel, n = 39
|Total accommodations, n = 1
|Additional nutrition, n = 38
|Total direct costs§
|Total indirect costs, n = 18¶
|Total coping costs||640.00 (324.00–1,360)|
*Because all patients did not incur all categories of costs, n differs for different categories. Median (IQR) is calculated only for those who incurred a given cost. IQR, interquartile range; MDR TB, multidrug-resistant TB; TB, tuberculosis: USD, US dollars.
†Direct medical costs = sum of diagnosis investigation (general investigation and disease-specific investigations), complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, liver function testing, renal function testing, spirometry, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging. Disease specific cost = sputum-smear microscopy, culture, drug-susceptibility testing, radiography, drugs, and hospitalization.
‡Direct nonmedical costs = sum of food, accommodation, travel by both patient and attendant.
§Direct costs = sum of total direct medical costs and total direct nonmedical costs.
¶Indirect costs = loss of wages for patient and attendant during the visit.
#Total expenditure = sum of total direct and total indirect costs.