Emergence and Evolutionary Response of Vibrio cholerae to Novel Bacteriophage, Democratic Republic of the Congo1
Meer T. Alam2
, Carla Mavian2
, Taylor K. Paisie, Massimiliano S. Tagliamonte, Melanie N. Cash, Angus Angermeyer, Kimberley D. Seed, Andrew Camilli, Felicien Masanga Maisha, R. Kabangwa Kakongo Senga, Marco Salemi, J. Glenn Morris, and Afsar Ali
Author affiliations: University of Florida Emerging Pathogens Institute, Gainesville, Florida, USA (M.T. Alam, C. Mavian, T.K. Paisie, M.S. Tagliamonte, M.N. Cash, F.M. Maisha, M. Salemi, J.G. Morris, Jr., A. Ali); University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville (C. Mavian, T.K. Paisie, M.S. Tagliamonte, M.N. Cash, M. Salemi, J.G. Morris, Jr.); University of California, Berkeley, California, USA (A. Angermeyer, K.D. Seed); Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, San Francisco, California, USA (K.D. Seed); Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA (A. Camilli); Appui Medical Integre aux Activites de Laboratoire (AMI-LABO), Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo (R.K.K. Senga); University of Goma, Goma (R.K.K. Senga); University of Florida College of Public Health and Health Professions, Gainesville (M.T. Alam, A. Ali)
Figure 1. Spatiotemporal evolution and dissemination of Vibrio cholerae epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2015–2017. Sampling locations of V. cholerae strains sequenced in this study are indicated on the map. Each sampling location is coded by color and number, defined in the key; location colors are indicated for each tip in the maximum clade credibility tree as a heatmap (exact locations in Appendix Table 2). The tree was inferred from full genome V. cholerae isolates from DRC, neighboring countries, and Asia. Branches are scaled in time and colored by country of origin. Circles in internal nodes indicate posterior probability support >0.9, and the colors indicate ancestral countries inferred by Bayesian phylogeographic reconstruction. Circles at tips indicates the strains collected and sequenced in this study, with black circles designating phage-resistant strains. Notations I, II, IIa, and IIb indicate well-supported lineages and sublineages circulating in DRC during outbreaks. Asterisks (*) indicate potential spillover events within the Great Lakes region originated from neighboring countries. The tree with full tip labels is provided in Appendix Figure 2.
Page created: October 18, 2022
Page updated: November 21, 2022
Page reviewed: November 21, 2022
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.