, David Polo12
, Cecile Le Mennec, Sofia Strubbia3
, Xi-Lei Zeng, Khalil Ettayebi, Robert L. Atmar, Mary K. Estes, and Françoise S. Le Guyader
Figure 1. Study design on use of HIEs to evaluate persistence of infectious human norovirus in seawater. Comparison of the stability of 2 human norovirus strains (GII.3 indicated by green, GII.4 indicated by blue) and TuV (orange) in seawater. We conducted 3 independent experiments with different fresh seawater samples. Spiked seawater (120 mL) was split in 10 mL aliquots in glass tubes, incubated at 12°C in the dark under constant rotation (10 rpm), and randomly sampled once or twice per week for 5 weeks (35 days). Grey arrows indicate steps or treatments applied to all samples; blue-green arrows indicate steps or treatments applied to human norovirus and control without virus; orange arrows indicate steps or treatments applied to TuV only. HIE, human intestinal enteroid, NoV, norovirus; qRT-PCR, one-step quantitative reverse transcription PCR; TCID50, 50% median tissue culture infectious dose; TuV, Tulane virus.