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Volume 3, Number 4—December 1997

Controlling Emerging Foodborne Microbial Hazards

Epidemiology and Detection as Options for Control of Viral and Parasitic Foodborne Disease

Lee-Ann JaykusComments to Author 
Author affiliation: North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Main Article

Table 1

Recent outbreaks of foodborne viral disease

Agent Location Date No. Cases Food Confirmationa Ref.
HAV Shanghai,
China Jan. 1988 300,000
(4% total population) Raw clams Yes
(IEM, Hybridization, Cell culture, Experimental infection) 18
HAV U.S. (AL, GA,FL, TN, HI) July-Aug.
1988 61 Raw oysters Yes
Antibody capture-RT-PCR) 19
SRSV U.S. (LA) Nov. 1993 40 Raw oysters No 21
SRSV U.S. (LA, MD,MS, FL, NC Nov. 1993 180 Raw/steamed oysters No 22
SRSV U.S. (GA) Dec. 1994 34 clusters Steamed/roasted oysters No 22
SRSV U.S. (FL, TX) Jan. 1995 3 Oysters No 20
Norwalk U.S. (DE) Sept.1987 191 Commercial ice No 23
Norwalk U.S. (CO) July, 1988 1440 Celery/chicken salad No 24

aConfirmation of the virus, viral antigen, or viral acid in food specimens
HAV = hepatitis A virus; IEM = immune electron microscopy; RT-PCR = reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; SRSV = small round-structured gastrointestinal virus

Main Article