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Volume 6, Number 4—August 2000


Migratory Birds and Spread of West Nile Virus in the Western Hemisphere

John H. Rappole*Comments to Author , Scott R. Derrickson*, and Zdenek Hubálek†

Author affiliations: *Conservation and Research Center, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Front Royal, Virginia, USA; and †Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences, Valtice, Czech Republic

Article in Chinese

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Table 1

Trans-Atlantic migration of avian species from Eurasia to the eastern United States

Species Possible mode(s) of entry (reference) Documentation of exposure to West Nile virus
Cory's Shearwater Vagrant (33)
Calonectris diomedea
Manx Shearwater Vagrant (33)
Puffinus puffinus
Wilson's Storm-Petrel Vagrant (33)
Oceanites oceanicus
Band-rumped Storm-Petrel Vagrant (33)
Oceanodroma castro
Northern Gannet Vagrant (33)
Morus bassanus
Gray Heron Vagrant (33) 34
Ardea cinerea
Little Egret Vagrant (33)
Egretta garzetta
Cattle Egret Vagrant (33) 35
Bubulcus ibis
Greylag Goose (domestic) Pet and domestic bird trade 18
Anser anser
Falcated Duck Pet trade, zoos, vagrant (33)
Anas falcata
Eurasian Wigeon Migration (32), pet trade, zoos
Anas penelope
Mallard (domestic) Pet and domestic bird trade 18,24
Anas platyrhynchos
Garganey Migration (32), pet trade, zoos
Anas querquedula
Green-winged Teal Migration (32)
Anas crecca
Tufted Duck Migration (32)
Aythya fuligula
Eurasian Kestrel Vagrant (33) 18,36
Falco tinnunculus
Jungle Fowl (domestic) Domestic bird trade 18,35
Gallus gallus
Quail Domestic bird trade 36
Coturnix coturnix
Northern Lapwing Vagrant (33) 22
Vanellus vanellus
Wood Sandpiper Vagrant (33) 36
Tringa glareola
Little Stint Vagrant (33) 36
Calidris minuta
Curlew Sandpiper Vagrant (33)
Calidris ferruginea
Ruff Migration (33)
Philomachus pugnax
Little Gull Migration (33)
Larus minutus
Black-headed Gull Migration (33) 22
Larus ridibundus
Black-tailed Gull Vagrant (33)
Larus crassirostris
Yellow-legged Gull Vagrant (33)
Larus cachinnans
Common Tern Vagrant (39)
Sterna hirundo
Rock Dove (domestic) Pet trade 18,24,38
Columba livia
Oriental Turtle-Dove Pet trade
Streptopelia orientalis
European Turtle-Dove Pet trade 16,22,35
Streptopelia turtur
Eurasian Collared-Dove Pet trade 35
Streptopelia decaocto

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