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Issue Cover for Volume 6, Number 4—August 2000

Volume 6, Number 4—August 2000

[PDF - 2.25 MB - 128 pages]

Perspective

Migratory Birds and Spread of West Nile Virus in the Western Hemisphere [PDF - 142 KB - 10 pages]
J. H. Rappole et al.

West Nile virus, an Old World flavivirus related to St. Louis encephalitis virus, was first recorded in the New World during August 1999 in the borough of Queens, New York City. Through October 1999, 62 patients, 7 of whom died, had confirmed infections with the virus. Ornithophilic mosquitoes are the principal vectors of West Nile virus in the Old World, and birds of several species, chiefly migrants, appear to be the major introductory or amplifying hosts. If transovarial transmission or survival in overwintering mosquitoes were the principal means for its persistence, West Nile virus might not become established in the New World because of aggressive mosquito suppression campaigns conducted in the New York area. However, the pattern of outbreaks in southern Europe suggests that viremic migratory birds may also contribute to movement of the virus. If so, West Nile virus has the potential to cause outbreaks throughout both temperate and tropical regions of the Western Hemisphere.

EID Rappole JH, Derrickson SR, Hubálek Z. Migratory Birds and Spread of West Nile Virus in the Western Hemisphere. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):319-328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000401
AMA Rappole JH, Derrickson SR, Hubálek Z. Migratory Birds and Spread of West Nile Virus in the Western Hemisphere. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):319-328. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000401.
APA Rappole, J. H., Derrickson, S. R., & Hubálek, Z. (2000). Migratory Birds and Spread of West Nile Virus in the Western Hemisphere. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 319-328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000401.

Male-Killing Bacteria in Insects: Mechanisms, Incidence, and Implications [PDF - 79 KB - 8 pages]
G. D. Hurst and F. M. Jiggins

Bacteria that are vertically transmitted through female hosts and kill male hosts that inherit them were first recorded in insects during the 1950s. Recent studies have shown these "male-killers" to be diverse and have led to a reappraisal of the biology of many groups of bacteria. Rickettsia, for instance, have been regarded as human pathogens transmitted by arthropods. The finding of a male-killing Rickettsia obligately associated with an insect suggests that the genus' members may be primarily associated with arthropods and are only sometimes pathogens of vertebrates. We examined both how killing of male hosts affects the dynamics of inherited bacteria and how male-killing bacteria affect their host populations. Finally, we assessed the potential use of these microorganisms in the control of insect populations.

EID Hurst GD, Jiggins FM. Male-Killing Bacteria in Insects: Mechanisms, Incidence, and Implications. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):329-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000402
AMA Hurst GD, Jiggins FM. Male-Killing Bacteria in Insects: Mechanisms, Incidence, and Implications. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):329-336. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000402.
APA Hurst, G. D., & Jiggins, F. M. (2000). Male-Killing Bacteria in Insects: Mechanisms, Incidence, and Implications. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 329-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000402.

Communicating the Threat of Emerging Infections to the Public [PDF - 474 KB - 11 pages]
V. Freimuth et al.

Communication theory and techniques, aided by the electronic revolution, provide new opportunities and challenges for the effective transfer of laboratory, epidemiologic, surveillance, and other public health data to the public who funds them. We review the applicability of communication theory, particularly the audience-source-message-channel meta-model, to emerging infectious disease issues. Emergence of new infectious organisms, microbial resistance to therapeutic drugs, and increased emphasis on prevention have expanded the role of communication as a vital component of public health practice. In the absence of cure, as in AIDS and many other public health problems, an effectively crafted and disseminated prevention message is the key control measure. Applying communication theory to disease prevention messages can increase the effectiveness of the messages and improve public health.

EID Freimuth V, Linnan HW, Potter P. Communicating the Threat of Emerging Infections to the Public. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):337-347. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000403
AMA Freimuth V, Linnan HW, Potter P. Communicating the Threat of Emerging Infections to the Public. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):337-347. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000403.
APA Freimuth, V., Linnan, H. W., & Potter, P. (2000). Communicating the Threat of Emerging Infections to the Public. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 337-347. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000403.
Research

Reemergence of Pertussis in the Highly Vaccinated Population of The Netherlands: Observations on Surveillance Data [PDF - 104 KB - 10 pages]
H. E. de Melker et al.

We analyzed pertussis reporting, death, hospitalization, and serodiagnostic data from 1976 to 1998 to help explain the cause of the 1996 pertussis outbreak in the Netherlands. The unexpected outbreak was detected by an increase in pertussis reporting and by other surveillance methods. In 1996, according to reporting and serologic data, the increase in pertussis incidence among (mostly unvaccinated) children less than 1 year of age was similar to the increase in hospital admissions. Among older (mostly vaccinated) persons, the increase in hospital admissions was relatively small. The increase in pertussis incidence was higher among vaccinated than among unvaccinated persons of all ages. This resulted in lower estimates of vaccine effectiveness. The proportion of pertussis infections resulting in recognizable symptoms may have increased among vaccinated persons because of a mismatch of the vaccine strain and circulating Bordetella pertussis strains. The small immunogenicity profile of the Dutch vaccine may have resulted in greater vulnerability to antigenic changes in B. pertussis.

EID de Melker HE, Schellekens J, Neppelenbroek S, Mooi F, Rümke H, Conyn-van Spaendonck M. Reemergence of Pertussis in the Highly Vaccinated Population of The Netherlands: Observations on Surveillance Data. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):348-357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000404
AMA de Melker HE, Schellekens J, Neppelenbroek S, et al. Reemergence of Pertussis in the Highly Vaccinated Population of The Netherlands: Observations on Surveillance Data. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):348-357. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000404.
APA de Melker, H. E., Schellekens, J., Neppelenbroek, S., Mooi, F., Rümke, H., & Conyn-van Spaendonck, M. (2000). Reemergence of Pertussis in the Highly Vaccinated Population of The Netherlands: Observations on Surveillance Data. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 348-357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000404.

Seroprevalence of West Nile, Rift Valley, and Sandfly Arboviruses in Hashimiah, Jordan [PDF - 52 KB - 5 pages]
A. Batieha et al.

We conducted a serosurvey among patients of a health center in Hashimiah, a Jordanian town of 30,000 inhabitants located near a wastewater treatment plant and its effluent channel. Serum samples from 261 patients 5 years of age were assessed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies against West Nile, sandfly Sicilian, sandfly Naples, and Rift Valley viruses; the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 8%, 47%, 30%, and 0%, respectively. Female participants were more likely to have been infected than male. Persons living within 2 km of the treatment plant were more likely to have been infected with West Nile (p=0.016) and sandfly Sicilian (p=0.010) viruses. Raising domestic animals within the house was a risk factor for sandfly Sicilian (p=0.003) but not for sandfly Naples virus (p=0.148). All serum samples were negative for IgM antibodies against the tested viruses. Our study is the first documentation of West Nile and sandfly viruses in Jordan and calls attention to the possible health hazards of living close to wastewater treatment plants and their effluent channels.

EID Batieha A, Saliba EK, Graham R, Mohareb E, Hijazi Y, Wijeyaratne P. Seroprevalence of West Nile, Rift Valley, and Sandfly Arboviruses in Hashimiah, Jordan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):358-362. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000405
AMA Batieha A, Saliba EK, Graham R, et al. Seroprevalence of West Nile, Rift Valley, and Sandfly Arboviruses in Hashimiah, Jordan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):358-362. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000405.
APA Batieha, A., Saliba, E. K., Graham, R., Mohareb, E., Hijazi, Y., & Wijeyaratne, P. (2000). Seroprevalence of West Nile, Rift Valley, and Sandfly Arboviruses in Hashimiah, Jordan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 358-362. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000405.

Dual Captures of Colorado Rodents: Implications for Transmission of Hantaviruses [PDF - 62 KB - 7 pages]
C. H. Calisher et al.

We analyzed dual-capture data collected during longitudinal studies monitoring transmission and persistence of Sin Nombre virus in rodents in Colorado.Our data indicate that multiple captures (two or more rodents captured in a single trap) may not be random, as indicated in previous studies, but rather the result of underlying, species-specific social behavior or cohesiveness. In the pairs we captured, most often, rodents were of the same species, were male, and could be recaptured as pairs. Therefore, dual captures of rodents, which are unusual but not rare, tend to occur among certain species, and appear to be nonrandom, group-foraging encounters. These demographic and ecological characteristics may have implications for the study of the transmission of hantavirus.

EID Calisher CH, Childs JE, Sweeney WP, Canestorp KM, Beaty BJ. Dual Captures of Colorado Rodents: Implications for Transmission of Hantaviruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):363-369. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000406
AMA Calisher CH, Childs JE, Sweeney WP, et al. Dual Captures of Colorado Rodents: Implications for Transmission of Hantaviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):363-369. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000406.
APA Calisher, C. H., Childs, J. E., Sweeney, W. P., Canestorp, K. M., & Beaty, B. J. (2000). Dual Captures of Colorado Rodents: Implications for Transmission of Hantaviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 363-369. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000406.
Dispatches

The Role of Pathology in an Investigation of an Outbreak of West Nile Encephalitis in New York, 1999 [PDF - 71 KB - 3 pages]
W. Shieh et al.

An outbreak of encephalitis occurred in New York City in late August 1999, the first caused by West Nile virus in North America. Histopathologic and immunopathologic examinations performed on human autopsy materials helped guide subsequent laboratory and epidemiologic investigations that led to identification of the etiologic agent.

EID Shieh W, Guarner J, Layton M, Fine AD, Miller J, Nash D, et al. The Role of Pathology in an Investigation of an Outbreak of West Nile Encephalitis in New York, 1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):370-372. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000407
AMA Shieh W, Guarner J, Layton M, et al. The Role of Pathology in an Investigation of an Outbreak of West Nile Encephalitis in New York, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):370-372. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000407.
APA Shieh, W., Guarner, J., Layton, M., Fine, A. D., Miller, J., Nash, D....Zaki, S. R. (2000). The Role of Pathology in an Investigation of an Outbreak of West Nile Encephalitis in New York, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 370-372. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000407.

Isolation of Two Strains of West Nile Virus during an Outbreak in Southern Russia, 1999 [PDF - 46 KB - 4 pages]
D. Lvov et al.

From July to September 1999, a widespread outbreak of meningoencephalitis associated with West Nile virus (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) occurred in southern Russia, with hundreds of cases and dozens of deaths. Two strains of West Nile virus isolated from patient serum and brain-tissue samples reacted in hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization tests with patients' convalescent-phase sera and immune ascites fluid from other strains of West Nile virus.

EID Lvov D, Butenko A, Gromashevsky V, Larichev V, Gaidamovich S, Vyshemirsky O, et al. Isolation of Two Strains of West Nile Virus during an Outbreak in Southern Russia, 1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):373-376. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000408
AMA Lvov D, Butenko A, Gromashevsky V, et al. Isolation of Two Strains of West Nile Virus during an Outbreak in Southern Russia, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):373-376. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000408.
APA Lvov, D., Butenko, A., Gromashevsky, V., Larichev, V., Gaidamovich, S., Vyshemirsky, O....Skvortsova, T. (2000). Isolation of Two Strains of West Nile Virus during an Outbreak in Southern Russia, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 373-376. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000408.

Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, a Measles Complication, in an Internationally Adopted Child [PDF - 304 KB - 5 pages]
D. J. Bonthius et al.

A healthy 13-year-old boy who had spent the first 4.5 years of his life in an orphanage in Thailand before adoption by an American couple became ill with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and died several months later. The boy had most likely contracted wild-type measles in Thailand. Measles complications are a risk in international adoptions.

EID Bonthius DJ, Stanek N, Grose C. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, a Measles Complication, in an Internationally Adopted Child. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):377-381. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000409
AMA Bonthius DJ, Stanek N, Grose C. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, a Measles Complication, in an Internationally Adopted Child. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):377-381. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000409.
APA Bonthius, D. J., Stanek, N., & Grose, C. (2000). Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, a Measles Complication, in an Internationally Adopted Child. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 377-381. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000409.

Bacteremia and Endocarditis Caused by a Gordonia Species in a Patient with a Central Venous Catheter [PDF - 49 KB - 4 pages]
O. Lesens et al.

We report the first case of endocarditis caused by a Gordonia species genetically related to G. sputi but exhibiting some atypical biochemical features in a 31-year-old woman with a central venous catheter. This unusual pathogen may be a new cause of opportunistic infections in patients with severe underlying diseases.

EID Lesens O, Hansmann Y, Riegel P, Heller R, Benaissa-Djellouli M, Martinot M, et al. Bacteremia and Endocarditis Caused by a Gordonia Species in a Patient with a Central Venous Catheter. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):382-385. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000410
AMA Lesens O, Hansmann Y, Riegel P, et al. Bacteremia and Endocarditis Caused by a Gordonia Species in a Patient with a Central Venous Catheter. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):382-385. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000410.
APA Lesens, O., Hansmann, Y., Riegel, P., Heller, R., Benaissa-Djellouli, M., Martinot, M....Christmann, D. (2000). Bacteremia and Endocarditis Caused by a Gordonia Species in a Patient with a Central Venous Catheter. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 382-385. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000410.

Sin Nombre Virus in Deer Mice Captured Inside Homes, Southwestern Montana [PDF - 74 KB - 2 pages]
A. J. Kuenzi et al.

From 1996 through 1999, 35 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were captured in 25 urban and suburban homes in southwestern Montana. Mice were captured throughout the year except for January; seven mice (20%) from seven (28%) of the homes were seropositive for Sin Nombre virus. The infected mice were mostly adult males captured in the spring and fall.

EID Kuenzi AJ, Douglass RJ, Bond CW. Sin Nombre Virus in Deer Mice Captured Inside Homes, Southwestern Montana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):386-388. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000411
AMA Kuenzi AJ, Douglass RJ, Bond CW. Sin Nombre Virus in Deer Mice Captured Inside Homes, Southwestern Montana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):386-388. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000411.
APA Kuenzi, A. J., Douglass, R. J., & Bond, C. W. (2000). Sin Nombre Virus in Deer Mice Captured Inside Homes, Southwestern Montana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 386-388. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000411.

Evidence of Infection in Humans with Rickettsia helvetica in Eastern France [PDF - 70 KB - 4 pages]
P. Fournier et al.

A 37-year-old man living in eastern France seroconverted to Rickettsia helvetica in August 1997, 4 weeks after the onset of an unexplained febrile illness. Results of a serosurvey of forest workers from the area where the patient lived showed a 9.2% seroprevalence against R. helvetica. This organism may pose a threat for populations exposed to Ixodes ricinus ticks.

EID Fournier P, Grunnenberger F, Jaulhac B, Gastinger G, Raoult D. Evidence of Infection in Humans with Rickettsia helvetica in Eastern France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):389-392. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000412
AMA Fournier P, Grunnenberger F, Jaulhac B, et al. Evidence of Infection in Humans with Rickettsia helvetica in Eastern France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):389-392. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000412.
APA Fournier, P., Grunnenberger, F., Jaulhac, B., Gastinger, G., & Raoult, D. (2000). Evidence of Infection in Humans with Rickettsia helvetica in Eastern France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 389-392. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000412.

Ehrlichia chaffeensis Antibodies in White-Tailed Deer, Iowa, 1994 and 1996 [PDF - 126 KB - 4 pages]
L. Mueller-Anneling et al.

Surveillance of 2,277 white-tailed deer for antibodies against Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Iowa showed seropositivity rates of 12.5% in 1994 and 13.9% in 1996. From 1994 to 1996, the estimated number of seropositive deer increased to 54,701 (28%). The increasing deer population and expanding tick distribution may increase risk for human monocytic ehrlichiosis.

EID Mueller-Anneling L, Gilchrist MJ, Thorne PS. Ehrlichia chaffeensis Antibodies in White-Tailed Deer, Iowa, 1994 and 1996. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):397-400. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000414
AMA Mueller-Anneling L, Gilchrist MJ, Thorne PS. Ehrlichia chaffeensis Antibodies in White-Tailed Deer, Iowa, 1994 and 1996. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):397-400. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000414.
APA Mueller-Anneling, L., Gilchrist, M. J., & Thorne, P. S. (2000). Ehrlichia chaffeensis Antibodies in White-Tailed Deer, Iowa, 1994 and 1996. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 397-400. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000414.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis, Southern Italy, 1990-1998 [PDF - 43 KB - 3 pages]
A. Nastasi et al.

During 1990 to 1998, we identified multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis in southern Italy. Plasmids containing class I integrons and codifying for synthesis of extended-spectrum ß-lactamases were detected. Active surveillance for resistance to antimicrobial agents is needed to guard against the possible spread of resistant clones.

EID Nastasi A, Mammina C, Cannova L. Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis, Southern Italy, 1990-1998. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):401-403. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000415
AMA Nastasi A, Mammina C, Cannova L. Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis, Southern Italy, 1990-1998. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):401-403. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000415.
APA Nastasi, A., Mammina, C., & Cannova, L. (2000). Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis, Southern Italy, 1990-1998. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 401-403. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000415.

Lyme Disease Surveillance in England and Wales, 1986-1998 [PDF - 66 KB - 4 pages]
R. Smith et al.

Improved surveillance indicates that Lyme borreliosis, an emerging zoonosis in the United Kingdom, has increased from 0.06/100,000 during 1986-1992 to 0.32/100,000 since 1996. Case reports peaked in the third quarter of each year. Several high-incidence localities were identified. Erythema migrans was reported in 41% of patients; arthritis in 4%; musculoskeletal symptoms in 18%; and neuroborreliosis in 15%.

EID Smith R, O'Connell S, Palmer S. Lyme Disease Surveillance in England and Wales, 1986-1998. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):404-407. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000416
AMA Smith R, O'Connell S, Palmer S. Lyme Disease Surveillance in England and Wales, 1986-1998. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):404-407. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000416.
APA Smith, R., O'Connell, S., & Palmer, S. (2000). Lyme Disease Surveillance in England and Wales, 1986-1998. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 404-407. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000416.

Borrelia burgdorferi and the Causative Agent of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Deer Ticks, Delaware [PDF - 64 KB - 4 pages]
K. L. Curran et al.

During the 1998 hunting season in Delaware, 1,480 ticks were collected from 252 white-tailed deer; 98% were Ixodes scapularis, a significant increase from the 85% reported in 1988. Ticks were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi and the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Infection rates remained stable in New Castle and Kent Counties, but increased from < 1% to 8% in Sussex County.

EID Curran KL, Kidd JB, Vassallo J, Van Meter VL. Borrelia burgdorferi and the Causative Agent of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Deer Ticks, Delaware. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):408-411. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000417
AMA Curran KL, Kidd JB, Vassallo J, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi and the Causative Agent of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Deer Ticks, Delaware. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):408-411. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000417.
APA Curran, K. L., Kidd, J. B., Vassallo, J., & Van Meter, V. L. (2000). Borrelia burgdorferi and the Causative Agent of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Deer Ticks, Delaware. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 408-411. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000417.

Primary Care Surveillance for Acute Bloody Diarrhea, Wales [PDF - 43 KB - 3 pages]
R. M. Chalmers and R. L. Salmon

A sentinel group of primary-care physicians in Wales actively reported cases of acute bloody diarrhea from February 1997 through December 1998. The estimated annual rate was 18 cases per 100,000 population. Most (80%) cases were due to Campylobacter or Salmonella; however, 18% were undiagnosed.

EID Chalmers RM, Salmon RL. Primary Care Surveillance for Acute Bloody Diarrhea, Wales. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):412-414. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000418
AMA Chalmers RM, Salmon RL. Primary Care Surveillance for Acute Bloody Diarrhea, Wales. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):412-414. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000418.
APA Chalmers, R. M., & Salmon, R. L. (2000). Primary Care Surveillance for Acute Bloody Diarrhea, Wales. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 412-414. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000418.

Epidemic Spread of Adenovirus Type 4-Associated Acute Respiratory Disease between U.S. Army Installations [PDF - 90 KB - 5 pages]
K. M. McNeill et al.

A large outbreak of adenovirus type 4-associated acute respiratory disease (ARD) occurred at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, in 1997. A laboratory-based ARD surveillance program was initiated at Fort Gordon, Georgia, where advanced individual training was heavily populated with Fort Jackson soldiers. Adenovirus type 4 was isolated from 50% of 147 trainees hospitalized with ARD. Most (88%) introduced cases were in trainees from Fort Jackson.

EID McNeill KM, Benton FR, Monteith SC, Tuchscherer MA, Gaydos JC. Epidemic Spread of Adenovirus Type 4-Associated Acute Respiratory Disease between U.S. Army Installations. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):415-419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000419
AMA McNeill KM, Benton FR, Monteith SC, et al. Epidemic Spread of Adenovirus Type 4-Associated Acute Respiratory Disease between U.S. Army Installations. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):415-419. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000419.
APA McNeill, K. M., Benton, F. R., Monteith, S. C., Tuchscherer, M. A., & Gaydos, J. C. (2000). Epidemic Spread of Adenovirus Type 4-Associated Acute Respiratory Disease between U.S. Army Installations. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 415-419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000419.

Drug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Paratyphi A in India [PDF - 39 KB - 2 pages]
D. S. Chandel et al.

The incidence of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A has been increasing in India since 1996. In 1998, the incidence of enteric fever caused by drug-resistant S. Paratyphi A abruptly increased in the New Delhi region. In the first 6 months of 1999, 32% of isolates were resistant to both chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole and another 13% were resistant to more than two antibiotics.

EID Chandel DS, Chaudhry R, Dhawan B, Pandey A, Dey AB. Drug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Paratyphi A in India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):420-421. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000420
AMA Chandel DS, Chaudhry R, Dhawan B, et al. Drug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Paratyphi A in India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):420-421. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000420.
APA Chandel, D. S., Chaudhry, R., Dhawan, B., Pandey, A., & Dey, A. B. (2000). Drug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Paratyphi A in India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 420-421. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000420.

Dengue Epidemic in Southern Vietnam, 1998 [PDF - 70 KB - 4 pages]
D. Q. Ha et al.

A widespread epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occurred in southern Vietnam in 1998, with 438.98 cases/100,000 population and 342 deaths. The number of DHF cases and deaths per 100,000 population increased 152.4% and 151.8% over a 1997 epidemic. Dengue viruses were isolated from 143 patient blood samples; DEN-3 virus was identified as the predominant serotype, although a resurgence of DEN-4 was noted.

EID Ha DQ, Tien NT, Huong VT, Loan HT, Thang CM. Dengue Epidemic in Southern Vietnam, 1998. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):422-425. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000421
AMA Ha DQ, Tien NT, Huong VT, et al. Dengue Epidemic in Southern Vietnam, 1998. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):422-425. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000421.
APA Ha, D. Q., Tien, N. T., Huong, V. T., Loan, H. T., & Thang, C. M. (2000). Dengue Epidemic in Southern Vietnam, 1998. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 422-425. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000421.

Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Nigerian Students, 1986-1998 [PDF - 58 KB - 4 pages]
I. N. Okeke et al.

We tested 758 fecal Escherichia coli isolates, recovered from Nigerian students in 1986, 1988, 1990, 1994, and 1998, for susceptibility to seven antimicrobial drugs. The prevalence of strains resistant to tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin were 9% to 35% in 1986 and 56% to 100% in 1998. These findings demonstrate that resistance gene reservoirs are increasing in healthy persons.

EID Okeke IN, Fayinka ST, Lamikanra A. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Nigerian Students, 1986-1998. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):393-396. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.009913
AMA Okeke IN, Fayinka ST, Lamikanra A. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Nigerian Students, 1986-1998. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):393-396. doi:10.3201/eid0604.009913.
APA Okeke, I. N., Fayinka, S. T., & Lamikanra, A. (2000). Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Nigerian Students, 1986-1998. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 393-396. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.009913.
Commentaries

Getting It Right in Prime Time: Tools and Strategies for Media Interaction [PDF - 36 KB - 2 pages]
R. J. Howard
EID Howard RJ. Getting It Right in Prime Time: Tools and Strategies for Media Interaction. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):426-427. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000422
AMA Howard RJ. Getting It Right in Prime Time: Tools and Strategies for Media Interaction. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):426-427. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000422.
APA Howard, R. J. (2000). Getting It Right in Prime Time: Tools and Strategies for Media Interaction. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 426-427. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000422.
Letters

Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 Isolates Associated with the ET-37 Complex [PDF - 41 KB - 2 pages]
T. Popovic et al.
EID Popovic T, Sacchi C, Reeves M, Whitney A, Mayer L, Noble C, et al. Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 Isolates Associated with the ET-37 Complex. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):428-429. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000423
AMA Popovic T, Sacchi C, Reeves M, et al. Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 Isolates Associated with the ET-37 Complex. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):428-429. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000423.
APA Popovic, T., Sacchi, C., Reeves, M., Whitney, A., Mayer, L., Noble, C....Rosenstein, N. (2000). Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 Isolates Associated with the ET-37 Complex. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 428-429. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000423.

Gnathostomosis in Fish from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico [PDF - 41 KB - 2 pages]
V. León-Règagnon et al.
EID León-Règagnon V, García-Prieto L, Osorio-Sarabia D, Jiménez-Ruiz A. Gnathostomosis in Fish from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):429-430. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000424
AMA León-Règagnon V, García-Prieto L, Osorio-Sarabia D, et al. Gnathostomosis in Fish from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):429-430. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000424.
APA León-Règagnon, V., García-Prieto, L., Osorio-Sarabia, D., & Jiménez-Ruiz, A. (2000). Gnathostomosis in Fish from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 429-430. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000424.

First Report of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis from Southern Europe (Spain) [PDF - 46 KB - 2 pages]
J. A. Oteo et al.
EID Oteo JA, Blanco JR, Martínez de Artola V, Ibarra V. First Report of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis from Southern Europe (Spain). Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):430-431. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000425
AMA Oteo JA, Blanco JR, Martínez de Artola V, et al. First Report of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis from Southern Europe (Spain). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):430-431. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000425.
APA Oteo, J. A., Blanco, J. R., Martínez de Artola, V., & Ibarra, V. (2000). First Report of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis from Southern Europe (Spain). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 430-431. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000425.

Phylogenetic Analysis of the Chinese Rickettsia Isolate BJ-90 [PDF - 41 KB - 2 pages]
J. Z. Zhang et al.
EID Zhang JZ, Fan MY, Yu XJ, Raoult D. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Chinese Rickettsia Isolate BJ-90. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):432-433. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000426
AMA Zhang JZ, Fan MY, Yu XJ, et al. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Chinese Rickettsia Isolate BJ-90. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):432-433. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000426.
APA Zhang, J. Z., Fan, M. Y., Yu, X. J., & Raoult, D. (2000). Phylogenetic Analysis of the Chinese Rickettsia Isolate BJ-90. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 432-433. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000426.

Specimen Collection for Electron Microscopy [PDF - 40 KB - 2 pages]
H. R. Gelderblom and P. R. Hazelton
EID Gelderblom HR, Hazelton PR. Specimen Collection for Electron Microscopy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):433-434. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000427
AMA Gelderblom HR, Hazelton PR. Specimen Collection for Electron Microscopy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):433-434. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000427.
APA Gelderblom, H. R., & Hazelton, P. R. (2000). Specimen Collection for Electron Microscopy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 433-434. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000427.

Antimicrobial Resistance [PDF - 45 KB - 3 pages]
P. Collignon
EID Collignon P. Antimicrobial Resistance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):434-436. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000428
AMA Collignon P. Antimicrobial Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):434-436. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000428.
APA Collignon, P. (2000). Antimicrobial Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 434-436. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000428.

Changes in Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium [PDF - 41 KB - 2 pages]
F. J. Angulo and P. M. Griffin
EID Angulo FJ, Griffin PM. Changes in Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):436-437. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000429
AMA Angulo FJ, Griffin PM. Changes in Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):436-437. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000429.
APA Angulo, F. J., & Griffin, P. M. (2000). Changes in Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 436-437. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000429.

Reply to Drs. Angulo and Collignon [PDF - 41 KB - 2 pages]
M. A. Davis et al.
EID Davis MA, Hancock DD, Besser TE, Rice DH, Gay JM. Reply to Drs. Angulo and Collignon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):437-438. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000430
AMA Davis MA, Hancock DD, Besser TE, et al. Reply to Drs. Angulo and Collignon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):437-438. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000430.
APA Davis, M. A., Hancock, D. D., Besser, T. E., Rice, D. H., & Gay, J. M. (2000). Reply to Drs. Angulo and Collignon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 437-438. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000430.

Malaria and global warming in perspective? [PDF - 40 KB - 2 pages]
P. Reiter
EID Reiter P. Malaria and global warming in perspective?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):438-439. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000431
AMA Reiter P. Malaria and global warming in perspective?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):438-439. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000431.
APA Reiter, P. (2000). Malaria and global warming in perspective?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 438-439. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000431.
About the Cover

Stèle de la dame Taperet adorant le dieu Ré-Horakhty
Conference Summaries

Borna Disease Virus: A Veterinary and Public Health Problem? [PDF - 26 KB - 1 page]
EID Borna Disease Virus: A Veterinary and Public Health Problem?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):440. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000432
AMA Borna Disease Virus: A Veterinary and Public Health Problem?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):440. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000432.
APA (2000). Borna Disease Virus: A Veterinary and Public Health Problem?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 440. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000432.
Corrections

Erratum Vol. 6, No. 2 [PDF - 36 KB - 1 page]
EID Erratum Vol. 6, No. 2. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(4):441. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000433
AMA Erratum Vol. 6, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4):441. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000433.
APA (2000). Erratum Vol. 6, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 441. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000433.
Page created: January 23, 2012
Page updated: January 23, 2012
Page reviewed: January 23, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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