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Volume 6, Number 4—August 2000

Migratory Birds and Spread of West Nile Virus in the Western Hemisphere

John H. Rappole*Comments to Author , Scott R. Derrickson*, and Zdenek Hubálek†

Author affiliations: *Conservation and Research Center, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Front Royal, Virginia, USA; and †Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences, Valtice, Czech Republic

Article in Chinese

Main Article

Table 2

Species that breed in temperate or boreal North America, by migrating route

Speciesa Southeast Circum-Gulf Trans-Gulf Caribbean/North Atlantic
Double-crested Cormorant +
Phalacrocorax auritus
Cattle Egret + +
Bubulcus ibis
Black-crowned + +
Night Heronb
Nycticorax nycticorax
Turkey Vulture + +
Cathartes aura
Gadwall +
Anas strepera
American Wigeon + + +
Anas americana
American Black Duck +
Anas rubripes
Mallard +
Anas platyrhynchos
Blue-winged Teal + + +
Anas discors
Northern Shoveler + + +
Anas clypeata
Northern Pintail + + +
Anas acuta
Green-winged Teal + +
Anas crecca
Canvasback + + +
Aythya valisineria
Redhead +
Aythya americana
Ring-necked Duck + + + +
Aythya collaris
Lesser Scaup + + +
Aythya affinis
American Coot + + +
Fulica americana
Red Knot +
Calidris canutus
Sanderling + + +
Calidris alba
Semipalmated Sandpiper + +
Calidris pusilla
Western Sandpiper + + +
Calidris mauri
Least Sandpiper + + +
Calidris minutilla
Short-billed Dowitcher + + +
Limnodromus griseus
Laughing Gull + + + +
Larus atricilla
Ring-billed Gull + + + +
Larus delawarensis
Herring Gull + +
Larus argentatus
Common Tern + + +
Sterna hirundo
Black Tern +
Chlidonias niger
Rock Dove +
Columba livia
Chimney Swift +
Chaetura pelagica
American Crow +
Corvus brachyrhynchos
Fish Crow +
Corvus ossifragus
Purple Martin +
Progne subis
Barn Swallow +
Hirundo rustica
American Robin +
Turdus americanus
European Starling +
Sturnus vulgaris
Red-winged Blackbird +
Agelaius phoeniceus
Common Grackle +
Quiscalus quiscula

a Species whose members potentially form large, dense flocks at feeding or roosting sites in or near wetlands during migration through the New York City area are listed according to migration route. Note that populations of the same species can follow different routes to different wintering destinations.
b Species documented as having been infected during the recent epizootic event are shown in bold (6).

Main Article

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