Volume 7, Number 1—February 2001
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Background, Evolution, and Current Concerns
|Precautions||Great Britaina||Uniona||United States|
|BSE made a notifiable disease||Jun 1988||Apr 1990||Nov 1987|
|BSE surveillance, with histologic examination of brains||Jun 1988||May 1990||May 1990|
|Ban on ruminant protein in ruminant feed||Jul 1988|
|Ban on export of UK cattle born before July 1988 feed ban||Jul 1989|
|Ban on import of live ruminants and most ruminant products from all BSE countries||Jul/Nov 1989|
|Ban on export of UK cattle >6 months of age||Mar 1990|
|Ban on SBOb for use in animal nutrition; ban on export of SBO and feed containing SBO to EUc countries||Sep 1990|
|High-risk waste to be rendered at 133°C/3 bar/20 min (or other approved procedure)||Nov 1990|
|Ban on export of SBO and feed containing SBO to non-EU countries||Jul 1991|
|Ban on MBMd from SBO in fertilizer||Nov 1991|
|After Jan 1, 1995, rendering methods must sterilize BSE||Jun 1994|
|Ban on mammalian MBM in ruminant feed||Jul 1994|
|BSE surveillance includes immunohistologic features of brains||Oct 1993|
|Ban on mammalian protein in ruminant feede||Nov 1994||Aug 1997|
|Ban on import of live ruminants and most ruminant products (including meat products) from all countries of Europe||Dec 1997|
|Immunologic testing for ruminant protein in animal feed||Jul 1995|
|Mammalian MBM prohibited from all animal feed/fertilizer||Mar/Apr 1996|
|Slaughtered cattle >30 months old (except certain beef cattle >42 months old) ruled unfit for animal use (hides for leather excluded)||Mar 1996|
|Mammalian MBM and MBM-containing feed recalled||Jun 1996|
|All mammalian waste to be rendered at 133°C/3 bar/20 min (or other approved procedure)||Jul 1996|
|Cattle tracing system improved||Sep 1998|
|Quarantine of 3 sheep flocks imported from Europe with possible exposure to BSE (4 animals die with atypical TSEf)||Oct 1998|
|BSE surveillance of fallen stock (downer cows) is intensified||Oct 1998|
|Proposal to eradicate scrapie is rejuvenated||Nov 1999|
|Allow export of deboned beef from cattle >30 months old born after July 1996||Aug 1999|
|Prohibit use of animal protein, including MBM and blood meal (but excluding milk, or fish meal for nonruminants) in feed for any farmed animal species (effective January 1, 2001)||Dec 2000|
|Prohibit importation of rendered protein and rendering wastes originating or processed in Europe||Dec 2000|
aIn Northern Ireland and Scotland, dates of implementation sometimes differed from those shown for England and Wales; in addition, individual European Union countries often adopted different measures on different dates.
bSBO = specified bovine offals (brain, spinal cord, thymus, tonsil, spleen, and intestines from cattle >6 months of age).
cEU = European Union.
dMBM = meat and bone meal (protein residue produced by rendering).
eSome exemptions, e.g., milk, blood, and gelatin.
fTSE = transmissible spongiform encephalopathy.