Volume 7, Number 1—February 2001
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Background, Evolution, and Current Concerns
|Precautions||Great Britaina||European Uniona||United States|
|Compulsory slaughter of BSE-affected cattle||Aug 1988|
|Destroy milk from affected cattle (except for milk fed to cows' own calves)||Dec 1988|
|Ban on import of UK cattle born after July 1988 feed ban||Jul 1989|
|Ban on SBOb for domestic consumption||Nov 1989|
|Ban on export to EUc of SBO and certain other tissues, including lymph nodes, pituitaries, and serum||Apr 1990||Apr 1990|
|Ban on export of live UK cattle (except calves <6 months old)||Jun 1990||June 1990|
|Ban on use of head meat after skull opened||Mar 1992|
|FDA recommends use of BSE/scrapie-free sources for materials used in dietary supplements; request for safety plans||Nov 1992|
|Cell lines used for biologicals should be BSE agent-free||May 1993|
|FDA requests that bovine source materials (except gelatin) used in manufacture of regulated products be restricted to BSE-free countries||Dec 1993|
|Bone-in beef only from farms with no BSE for 6 years; if not BSE-free, must be deboned with visible nervous and lymphatic tissue removed||July 1994|
|FDA requests that bovine-derived materials for animal use or for cosmetics and dietary supplements not be sourced from BSE countries||Aug 1994|
|Thymus and intestines from calves <6 months old made SBO||Nov 1994|
|Import of beef only from UK cattle 1) >30 months, or 2) from herds BSE-free for 6 years, or 3) if not BSE-free, deboned with visible nervous tissue and specified lymph nodes removed||July 1995|
|SBO ban broadened to include whole skull (SBM)||Aug 1995|
|MRMd from bovine vertebral column banned and export prohibited||Dec 1995|
|Removal of lymph nodes and visible nervous tissue from bovine meat >30 months exported to EU||Jan 1996|
|Ban on export of all UK cattle and cattle products except milk||Mar 1996|
|SBMe ban broadened to include entire head (excluding uncontaminated tongue)||Mar 1996|
|Slaughtered cattle >30 months (or certain beef cattle >42 months) ruled unfit for animal or human use (hides excepted)||Mar 1996|
|FDA urges manufacturers of FDA-regulated human products to take steps to assure freedom from BSE agent||May 1996|
|Partial lifting of export ban on tallow and gelatin||June 1996|
|SBM ban broadened to include certain sheep and goat heads, spleens, and spinal cords (SRM)||Sep 1996|
|FDA recommends withdrawal of plasma and plasma products made from pools to which persons who later died of CJD had contributed||Dec 1996|
|CNSf tissues excluded from cosmetic products for use in EU||Jan 1997|
|BSE cohort cattle in UK ordered slaughtered and destroyed||Jan 1997|
|Proposed ban on SRMg in cosmetics for use in EU (effective October 2000)||July 1997|
|SBM controls for cosmetics and medicinal products||Mar 1997|
|FDA request to manufacturers that no bovine gelatin from BSE countries be used in injectable, implantable, or ophthalmic products; and that special precautions be applied to gelatin for oral and topical use||Sep/Dec 1997|
|Ban on marketing cosmetic products containing SRM prepared before April 1, 1998||Mar 1998|
|Allow export of beef and beef products from cattle >30 months in certified BSE-free herds from Northern Ireland||Mar 1998|
|Importation of all plasma and plasma products for use in UK||Aug 1998|
|FDA limits plasma product withdrawals to pools at risk for contamination by vCJD donors||Sep 1998|
|Slaughter and destruction of offspring born to BSE-affected cattle after July 1996||Jan 1999|
|FDA guidance to defer blood donors with >6 months cumulative residence in UK during 1980-1996||Nov 1999|
|Leukodepletion of whole blood donations from UK residents||Jul/Nov 1999|
|Public FDA discussion about possible risk associated with vaccines produced with bovine-derived materials from BSE countries||Jul 2000|
|Withdrawal and destruction of a potentially tainted 1989 lot of polio vaccine from one manufacturer||Oct 2000|
|SRM ban implemented (effective October 2000)||Jul 2000|
|Ban on slaughter techniques that could contaminate cattle carcasses with brain emboli (e.g., pithing or pneumatic stun guns), effective Jan 2001||Jul 2000|
|All cattle >30 months old must have brain examinations for proteinase-resistant protein (PrP) before entering the food chain (effective Jan-June 2001)||Dec 2000|
aIn Northern Ireland and Scotland, dates of implementation sometimes differed from those shown for England and Wales; in addition, individual European Union countries often adopted different measures on different dates.
bSBO = Specified bovine offals (brain, spinal cord, thymus, tonsils, spleen, and intestines from cattle >6 months old).
cEU = European Union.
dMRM = mechanically recovered meat.
eSBM = Specified bovine materials (SBO plus entire head, including eyes but excluding tongue).
fCNS = central nervous system.
gSRM = specified risk materials (SBM plus sheep and goat heads and spleens from animals of any age, and spinal cords from animals >1 year old).
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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- Page last updated: August 07, 2012
- Page last reviewed: August 07, 2012
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