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Issue Cover for Volume 7, Number 1—February 2001

Volume 7, Number 1—February 2001

[PDF - 2.69 MB - 173 pages]

Perspective

Emerging Infectious Diseases in Russia, 1990-1999 [PDF - 60 KB - 5 pages]
S. V. Netesov and J. L. Conrad
EID Netesov SV, Conrad JL. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Russia, 1990-1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):1-5. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700001
AMA Netesov SV, Conrad JL. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Russia, 1990-1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):1-5. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700001.
APA Netesov, S. V., & Conrad, J. L. (2001). Emerging Infectious Diseases in Russia, 1990-1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 1-5. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700001.

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Background, Evolution, and Current Concerns [PDF - 129 KB - 11 pages]
P. Brown et al.

The epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the United Kingdom, which began in 1986 and has affected nearly 200,000 cattle, is waning to a conclusion, but leaves in its wake an outbreak of human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, most probably resulting from the consumption of beef products contaminated by central nervous system tissue. Although averaging only 10-15 cases a year since its first appearance in 1994, its future magnitude and geographic distribution (in countries that have imported infected British cattle or cattle products, or have endogenous BSE) cannot yet be predicted. The possibility that large numbers of apparently healthy persons might be incubating the disease raises concerns about iatrogenic transmissions through instrumentation (surgery and medical diagnostic procedures) and blood and organ donations. Government agencies in many countries continue to implement new measures to minimize this risk.of this rickettsia makes it available for use in serologic tests to determine its clinical spectrum, prevalence, and distribution.

EID Brown P, Will RG, Bradley R, Asher DM, Detwiler L. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Background, Evolution, and Current Concerns. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):6-16. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700006
AMA Brown P, Will RG, Bradley R, et al. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Background, Evolution, and Current Concerns. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):6-16. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700006.
APA Brown, P., Will, R. G., Bradley, R., Asher, D. M., & Detwiler, L. (2001). Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Background, Evolution, and Current Concerns. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 6-16. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700006.

Pesticides and Public Health: Integrated Methods of Mosquito Management [PDF - 55 KB - 7 pages]
R. I. Rose

Pesticides have a role in public health as part of sustainable integrated mosquito management. Other components of such management include surveillance, source reduction or prevention, biological control, repellents, traps, and pesticide-resistance management. We assess the future use of mosquito control pesticides in view of niche markets, incentives for new product development, Environmental Protection Agency registration, the Food Quality Protection Act, and improved pest management strategies for mosquito control.

EID Rose RI. Pesticides and Public Health: Integrated Methods of Mosquito Management. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):17-23. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700017
AMA Rose RI. Pesticides and Public Health: Integrated Methods of Mosquito Management. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):17-23. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700017.
APA Rose, R. I. (2001). Pesticides and Public Health: Integrated Methods of Mosquito Management. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 17-23. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700017.
Synopses

Quinolone and Macrolide Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: Resistance Mechanisms and Trends in Human Isolates [PDF - 106 KB - 11 pages]
J. Engberg et al.

The incidence of human Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infections has increased markedly in many parts of the world in the last decade as has the number of quinolone-resistant and, to a lesser extent, macrolide-resistant Campylobacter strains causing infections. We review macrolide and quinolone resistance in Campylobacter and track resistance trends in human clinical isolates in relation to use of these agents in food animals. Susceptibility data suggest that erythromycin and other macrolides should remain the drugs of choice in most regions, with systematic surveillance and control measures maintained, but fluoroquinolones may now be of limited use in the empiric treatment of Campylobacter infections in many regions.

EID Engberg J, Aarestrup FM, Taylor DE, Gerner-Smidt P, Nachamkin I. Quinolone and Macrolide Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: Resistance Mechanisms and Trends in Human Isolates. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):24-34. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700024
AMA Engberg J, Aarestrup FM, Taylor DE, et al. Quinolone and Macrolide Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: Resistance Mechanisms and Trends in Human Isolates. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):24-34. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700024.
APA Engberg, J., Aarestrup, F. M., Taylor, D. E., Gerner-Smidt, P., & Nachamkin, I. (2001). Quinolone and Macrolide Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: Resistance Mechanisms and Trends in Human Isolates. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 24-34. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700024.

Geographic Subdivision of the Range of the Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium vivax [PDF - 173 KB - 8 pages]
J. Li et al.

We examined geographically distinct isolates of Plasmodium vivax and categorized them according to developmental success in Anopheles albimanus. We found that parasites from Central America and Colombia form a group distinct from those of Asia. New World isolates have a distinct chromosomal translocation and an episomal variation in the open reading fram (ORF) 470 DNA sequence that distinguishes them from the other isolates tested. Old World types of P. vivax were introduced into the Americas, and a remnant of this lineage remains in P. simium. It is indistinguishable from Old World P. vivax to the extent determinable by using our encoded markers and the examination of its developmental pattern in mosquitoes. The cohesive characteristics that separate types of P. vivax are predictors of range and potential for transmission and hence require taxonomic distinction.

EID Li J, Collins WE, Wirtz RA, Rathore D, Lal A, McCutchan TF. Geographic Subdivision of the Range of the Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium vivax. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):35-42. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700035
AMA Li J, Collins WE, Wirtz RA, et al. Geographic Subdivision of the Range of the Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium vivax. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):35-42. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700035.
APA Li, J., Collins, W. E., Wirtz, R. A., Rathore, D., Lal, A., & McCutchan, T. F. (2001). Geographic Subdivision of the Range of the Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium vivax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 35-42. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700035.
Research

Transferable Plasmid-Mediated Resistance to Streptomycin in Clinical Isolate of Yersinia pestis [PDF - 101 KB - 6 pages]
A. Guiyoule et al.

Plasmid-mediated high-level resistance to multiple antibiotics was reported in a clinical isolate of Yersinia pestis in Madagascar in 1997. We describe a second Y. pestis strain with high-level resistance to streptomycin, isolated from a human case of bubonic plague in Madagascar. The resistance determinants were carried by a self-transferable plasmid that could conjugate at high frequencies to other Y. pestis isolates. The plasmid and the host bacterium were different from those previously associated with multiple-drug resistance, indicating that acquisition of resistance plasmids is occurring in this bacterial species. Emergence of resistance to streptomycin in Y. pestis represents a critical public health problem since this antibiotic is used as the first-line treatment against plague in many countries.

EID Guiyoule A, Gerbaud G, Buchrieser C, Galimand M, Rahalison L, Chanteau S, et al. Transferable Plasmid-Mediated Resistance to Streptomycin in Clinical Isolate of Yersinia pestis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):43-48. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700043
AMA Guiyoule A, Gerbaud G, Buchrieser C, et al. Transferable Plasmid-Mediated Resistance to Streptomycin in Clinical Isolate of Yersinia pestis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):43-48. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700043.
APA Guiyoule, A., Gerbaud, G., Buchrieser, C., Galimand, M., Rahalison, L., Chanteau, S....Carniel, E. (2001). Transferable Plasmid-Mediated Resistance to Streptomycin in Clinical Isolate of Yersinia pestis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 43-48. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700043.

Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction for Amplification of the Cryptosporidium Oocyst Wall Protein Gene [PDF - 63 KB - 8 pages]
S. Pedraza-Díaz et al.

We developed a sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure for the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene. Amplification and genotyping were successful in 95.2% of 1,680 fecal samples, 77.6% by the unnested and 17.6% by the nested COWP procedure. The COWP gene was amplified from 2,128 fecal samples: 71 from livestock animals and 2,057 from humans. This series included 706 cases from seven drinking water-associated outbreaks and 51 cases from five swimming pool-associated outbreaks, as well as 1,300 sporadic cases.

EID Pedraza-Díaz S, Amar C, Nichols GL, McLauchlin J. Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction for Amplification of the Cryptosporidium Oocyst Wall Protein Gene. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):49-56. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700049
AMA Pedraza-Díaz S, Amar C, Nichols GL, et al. Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction for Amplification of the Cryptosporidium Oocyst Wall Protein Gene. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):49-56. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700049.
APA Pedraza-Díaz, S., Amar, C., Nichols, G. L., & McLauchlin, J. (2001). Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction for Amplification of the Cryptosporidium Oocyst Wall Protein Gene. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 49-56. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700049.

Preoperative Drug Dispensing as Predictor of Surgical Site Infection [PDF - 85 KB - 9 pages]
K. S. Kaye et al.

The system used by the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) program to measure risk of surgical site infection uses a score of >3 on the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA)-physical status scale as a measure of underlying illness. The chronic disease score measures health status as a function of age, sex, and 29 chronic diseases, inferred from dispensing of prescription drugs. We studied the relationship between the chronic disease score and surgical site infection and whether the score can supplement the NNIS risk index. In a retrospective comparison of 191 patients with surgical site infection and 378 uninfected controls, the chronic disease score and ASA score were highly correlated. The chronic disease score improved prediction of infection by the NNIS risk index and augmented the ASA score for risk adjustment.

EID Kaye KS, Sands K, Donahue JG, Chan KA, Fishman P, Platt R. Preoperative Drug Dispensing as Predictor of Surgical Site Infection1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):57-65. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700057
AMA Kaye KS, Sands K, Donahue JG, et al. Preoperative Drug Dispensing as Predictor of Surgical Site Infection1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):57-65. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700057.
APA Kaye, K. S., Sands, K., Donahue, J. G., Chan, K. A., Fishman, P., & Platt, R. (2001). Preoperative Drug Dispensing as Predictor of Surgical Site Infection1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 57-65. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700057.

Lack of Evidence of Endogenous Avian Leukosis Virus and Endogenous Avian Retrovirus Transmission to Measles Mumps Rubella Vaccine Recipients [PDF - 135 KB - 7 pages]
A. I. Hussain et al.

The identification of endogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) and endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV) in chick cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines in current use has raised concern about transmission of these retroviruses to vaccine recipients. We used serologic and molecular methods to analyze specimens from 206 recipients of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine for evidence of infection with ALV and EAV. A Western blot assay for detecting antibodies to endogenous ALV was developed and validated. All serum samples were negative for antibodies to endogenous ALV by Western blot analysis. Peripheral blood lymphocyte samples from 100 vaccinees were further tested by polymerase chain reaction for both ALV and EAV proviral sequences; all were negative. Matching serum samples were tested by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for ALV and EAV RNA, and all 100 samples were negative, providing no evidence of viremia. These findings do not indicate the presence of either ALV or EAV infection in MMR vaccine recipients and provide support for current immunization policies.

EID Hussain AI, Shanmugam V, Switzer WM, Tsang SX, Fadly A, Thea D, et al. Lack of Evidence of Endogenous Avian Leukosis Virus and Endogenous Avian Retrovirus Transmission to Measles Mumps Rubella Vaccine Recipients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):66-72. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700066
AMA Hussain AI, Shanmugam V, Switzer WM, et al. Lack of Evidence of Endogenous Avian Leukosis Virus and Endogenous Avian Retrovirus Transmission to Measles Mumps Rubella Vaccine Recipients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):66-72. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700066.
APA Hussain, A. I., Shanmugam, V., Switzer, W. M., Tsang, S. X., Fadly, A., Thea, D....Heneine, W. (2001). Lack of Evidence of Endogenous Avian Leukosis Virus and Endogenous Avian Retrovirus Transmission to Measles Mumps Rubella Vaccine Recipients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 66-72. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700066.

A Flea-Associated Rickettsia Pathogenic for Humans [PDF - 207 KB - 9 pages]
D. Raoult et al.

A rickettsia named the ELB agent, or "Rickettsia felis," was identified by molecular biology techniques in American fleas in 1990 and later in four patients from Texas and Mexico. We attempted to isolate this rickettsia from infected fleas at various temperatures and conditions. A representative isolate of the ELB agent, the Marseille strain, was characterized and used to develop a microimmunofluorescence test that detected reactive antibodies in human sera. The ELB agent was isolated from 19 of 20 groups of PCR-proven infected fleas. The microimmunofluorescence results provided serologic evidence of infection by the ELB agent in four patients with fever and rash in France (2) and Brazil (2), supporting the pathogenic role of this rickettsia. Our successful isolation of this rickettsia makes it available for use in serologic tests to determine its clinical spectrum, prevalence, and distribution.

EID Raoult D, La Scola B, Enea M, Fournier P, Roux V, Fenollar F, et al. A Flea-Associated Rickettsia Pathogenic for Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):73-81. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700073
AMA Raoult D, La Scola B, Enea M, et al. A Flea-Associated Rickettsia Pathogenic for Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):73-81. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700073.
APA Raoult, D., La Scola, B., Enea, M., Fournier, P., Roux, V., Fenollar, F....de Lamballerie, X. (2001). A Flea-Associated Rickettsia Pathogenic for Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 73-81. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700073.

Gastroenteritis in Sentinel General Practices, the Netherlands [PDF - 75 KB - 10 pages]
M. A. de Wit et al.

From 1996 to 1999, the incidence of gastroenteritis in general practices and the role of a broad range of pathogens in the Netherlands were studied. All patients with gastroenteritis who had visited a general practitioner were reported. All patients who had visited a general practitioner for gastroenteritis (cases) and an equal number of patients visiting for nongastrointestinal symptoms (controls) were invited to participate in a case-control study. The incidence of gastroenteritis was 79.7 per 10,000 person years. Campylobacter was detected most frequently (10% of cases), followed by Giardia lamblia (5%), rotavirus (5%), Norwalk-like viruses (5%) and Salmonella (4%). Our study found that in the Netherlands (population 15.6 million), an estimated 128,000 persons each year consult their general practitioner for gastroenteritis, slightly less than in a comparable study in 1992 to 1993. A pathogen could be detected in almost 40% of patients (bacteria 16%, viruses 15%, parasites 8%).

EID de Wit MA, Koopmans M, Kortbeek LM, van Leeuwen NJ, Bartelds AI, van Duynhoven YT. Gastroenteritis in Sentinel General Practices, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):82-91. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700082
AMA de Wit MA, Koopmans M, Kortbeek LM, et al. Gastroenteritis in Sentinel General Practices, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):82-91. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700082.
APA de Wit, M. A., Koopmans, M., Kortbeek, L. M., van Leeuwen, N. J., Bartelds, A. I., & van Duynhoven, Y. T. (2001). Gastroenteritis in Sentinel General Practices, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 82-91. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700082.

Active Bacterial Core Surveillance of the Emerging Infections Program Network [PDF - 74 KB - 8 pages]
A. Schuchat et al.

Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) is a collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and several state health departments and universities participating in the Emerging Infections Program Network. ABCs conducts population-based active surveillance, collects isolates, and performs studies of invasive disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, group A and group B Streptococcus, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae for a population of 17 to 30 million. These pathogens caused an estimated 97,000 invasive cases, resulting in 10,000 deaths in the United States in 1998. Incidence rates of these pathogens are described. During 1998, 25% of invasive pneumococcal infections in ABCs areas were not susceptible to penicillin, and 13.3% were not susceptible to three classes of antibiotics. In 1998, early-onset group B streptococcal disease had declined by 65% over the previous 6 years. More information on ABCs is available at www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/abcs. ABCs specimens will soon be available to researchers through an archive.

EID Schuchat A, Hilger T, Zell E, Farley MM, Reingold AL, Harrison LH, et al. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance of the Emerging Infections Program Network. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):92-99. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700092
AMA Schuchat A, Hilger T, Zell E, et al. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance of the Emerging Infections Program Network. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):92-99. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700092.
APA Schuchat, A., Hilger, T., Zell, E., Farley, M. M., Reingold, A. L., Harrison, L. H....Pinner, R. W. (2001). Active Bacterial Core Surveillance of the Emerging Infections Program Network. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 92-99. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700092.

Emerging Chagas Disease: Trophic Network and Cycle of Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi from Palm Trees in the Amazon [PDF - 240 KB - 13 pages]
A. Teixeira et al.

A trophic network involving molds, invertebrates, and vertebrates, ancestrally adapted to the palm tree (Attalaea phalerata) microhabitat, maintains enzootic Trypanosoma cruzi infections in the Amazonian county Paço do Lumiar, state of Maranhão, Brazil. We assessed seropositivity for T. cruzi infections in the human population of the county, searched in palm trees for the triatomines that harbor these infections, and gathered demographic, environmental, and socioeconomic data. Rhodnius pictipes and R. neglectus in palm-tree frond clefts or in houses were infected with T. cruzi (57% and 41%, respectively). Human blood was found in 6.8% of R. pictipes in houses, and 9 of 10 wild Didelphis marsupialis had virulent T. cruzi infections. Increasing human population density, rain forest deforestation, and human predation of local fauna are risk factors for human T. cruzi infections.

EID Teixeira A, Monteiro P, Rebelo JM, Argañaraz ER, Vieira D, Lauria-Pires L, et al. Emerging Chagas Disease: Trophic Network and Cycle of Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi from Palm Trees in the Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):100-112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.070100
AMA Teixeira A, Monteiro P, Rebelo JM, et al. Emerging Chagas Disease: Trophic Network and Cycle of Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi from Palm Trees in the Amazon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):100-112. doi:10.3201/eid0701.070100.
APA Teixeira, A., Monteiro, P., Rebelo, J. M., Argañaraz, E. R., Vieira, D., Lauria-Pires, L....Costa, J. M. (2001). Emerging Chagas Disease: Trophic Network and Cycle of Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi from Palm Trees in the Amazon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 100-112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.070100.

Persistence and variability of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Cystic Fibrosis Patients, Madrid, 1991-1998 [PDF - 140 KB - 10 pages]
S. Valdezate et al.

During 1991 to 1998 at least one Stenotrophomonas maltophilia pulmonary infection was observed in 25 (24%) of 104 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients at the same unit of our hospital in Spain. Ribotyping and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of 76 S. maltophilia isolates from these patients indicated an overall clonal incidence of 47.1%, reflecting new strains in 44% of patients with repeated positive cultures for S. maltophilia. Six patients with repeated episodes were persistently colonized (>6 months) with the same strain. S. maltophilia bacterial counts were higher (geometric mean, 2.9 x108 cfu/mL) in patients with repeated episodes than in those with a single episode (8.4 x104 cfu/mL, p<0.01). Single episodes of S. maltophilia occurred in patients <10 years of age (43% [6/14]), whereas chronic colonization occurred more frequently in older patients (>16 years of age).

EID Valdezate S, Vindel A, Maiz L, Baquero F, Escobar H, Cantón R. Persistence and variability of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Cystic Fibrosis Patients, Madrid, 1991-1998. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):113-122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700113
AMA Valdezate S, Vindel A, Maiz L, et al. Persistence and variability of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Cystic Fibrosis Patients, Madrid, 1991-1998. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):113-122. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700113.
APA Valdezate, S., Vindel, A., Maiz, L., Baquero, F., Escobar, H., & Cantón, R. (2001). Persistence and variability of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Cystic Fibrosis Patients, Madrid, 1991-1998. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 113-122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700113.

Hospital Control and Multidrug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Female Patients, Lima, Peru [PDF - 54 KB - 5 pages]
F. F. Willingham et al.

We examined the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), rate of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, and characteristics of TB on a female general medicine ward in Peru. Of 250 patients, 40 (16%) were positive by sputum culture and 27 (11%) by smear, and 8 (3%) had MDRTB. Thirteen (33%) of 40 culture-positive patients had not been suspected of having TB on admission. Six (46%) of 13 patients whose TB was unsuspected on admission had MDRTB, compared with 2 (7%) of 27 suspected cases (p=0.009). Five (63%) of 8 MDRTB patients were smear positive and therefore highly infective. In developing countries, hospital control, a simple method of reducing the spread of MDRTB, is neglected.

EID Willingham FF, Schmitz TL, Contreras M, Kalangi SE, Vivar AM, Caviedes L, et al. Hospital Control and Multidrug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Female Patients, Lima, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):123-127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.070123
AMA Willingham FF, Schmitz TL, Contreras M, et al. Hospital Control and Multidrug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Female Patients, Lima, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):123-127. doi:10.3201/eid0701.070123.
APA Willingham, F. F., Schmitz, T. L., Contreras, M., Kalangi, S. E., Vivar, A. M., Caviedes, L....Gilman, R. H. (2001). Hospital Control and Multidrug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Female Patients, Lima, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 123-127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.070123.
Dispatches

Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection, Volgograd Region, Russia, 1999 [PDF - 63 KB - 5 pages]
A. E. Platonov et al.

From July 25 to October 1, 1999, 826 patients were admitted to Volgograd Region, Russia, hospitals with acute aseptic meningoencephalitis, meningitis, or fever consistent with arboviral infection. Of 84 cases of meningoencephalitis, 40 were fatal. Fourteen brain specimens were positive in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays, confirming the presence of West Nile/Kunjin virus.

EID Platonov AE, Shipulin GA, Shipulina OY, Tyutyunnik EN, Frolochkina TI, Lanciotti RS, et al. Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection, Volgograd Region, Russia, 1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):128-132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700128
AMA Platonov AE, Shipulin GA, Shipulina OY, et al. Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection, Volgograd Region, Russia, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):128-132. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700128.
APA Platonov, A. E., Shipulin, G. A., Shipulina, O. Y., Tyutyunnik, E. N., Frolochkina, T. I., Lanciotti, R. S....Pokrovskii, V. I. (2001). Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection, Volgograd Region, Russia, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 128-132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700128.

Rapid Identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Clonal Group Associated with Diphtheria Epidemic, Russian Federation [PDF - 85 KB - 4 pages]
S. Kombarova et al.

We used 199 Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolated in 1995 to 1997 in Russia to evaluate the ability of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to identify the unique clonal group that emerged there in 1990. Our data show that RAPD can reliably, reproducibly, and rapidly screen a large number of strains to identify the epidemic clonal group.

EID Kombarova S, Kim C, Melnikov V, Reeves M, Borisova O, Mazurova I, et al. Rapid Identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Clonal Group Associated with Diphtheria Epidemic, Russian Federation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):133-136. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700133
AMA Kombarova S, Kim C, Melnikov V, et al. Rapid Identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Clonal Group Associated with Diphtheria Epidemic, Russian Federation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):133-136. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700133.
APA Kombarova, S., Kim, C., Melnikov, V., Reeves, M., Borisova, O., Mazurova, I....Popovic, T. (2001). Rapid Identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Clonal Group Associated with Diphtheria Epidemic, Russian Federation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 133-136. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700133.

Shigella spp. Surveillance in Indonesia: the Emergence or Reemergence of S. dysenteriae [PDF - 49 KB - 4 pages]
D. Subekti et al.

From June 1998 through November 1999, Shigella were isolated in 5% of samples from 3,848 children and adults with severe diarrheal illness in hospitals throughout Indonesia. S. dysenteriae has reemerged in Bali, Kalimantan, and Batam and was detected in Jakarta after a hiatus of 15 years.

EID Subekti D, Oyofo BA, Tjaniadi P, Corwin AL, Larasati W, Putri M, et al. Shigella spp. Surveillance in Indonesia: the Emergence or Reemergence of S. dysenteriae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):137-140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700137
AMA Subekti D, Oyofo BA, Tjaniadi P, et al. Shigella spp. Surveillance in Indonesia: the Emergence or Reemergence of S. dysenteriae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):137-140. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700137.
APA Subekti, D., Oyofo, B. A., Tjaniadi, P., Corwin, A. L., Larasati, W., Putri, M....Lesmana, M. (2001). Shigella spp. Surveillance in Indonesia: the Emergence or Reemergence of S. dysenteriae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 137-140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700137.

Tracking Cryptosporidium parvum by Sequence Analysis of Small Double-Stranded RNA [PDF - 73 KB - 5 pages]
L. Xiao et al.

We sequenced a 173-nucleotide fragment of the small double-stranded viruslike RNA of Cryptosporidium parvum isolates from 23 calves and 38 humans. Sequence diversity was detected at 17 sites. Isolates from the same outbreak had identical double-stranded RNA sequences, suggesting that this technique may be useful for tracking Cryptosporidium infection sources.

EID Xiao L, Limor J, Bern C, Lal AA. Tracking Cryptosporidium parvum by Sequence Analysis of Small Double-Stranded RNA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):141-145. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700141
AMA Xiao L, Limor J, Bern C, et al. Tracking Cryptosporidium parvum by Sequence Analysis of Small Double-Stranded RNA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):141-145. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700141.
APA Xiao, L., Limor, J., Bern, C., & Lal, A. A. (2001). Tracking Cryptosporidium parvum by Sequence Analysis of Small Double-Stranded RNA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 141-145. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700141.

Pathologic Studies of Fatal Cases in Outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, Taiwan [PDF - 59 KB - 3 pages]
W. Shieh et al.

In 1998, an outbreak of enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease occurred in Taiwan. Pathologic studies of two fatal cases with similar clinical features revealed two different causative agents, emphasizing the need for postmortem examinations and modern pathologic techniques in an outbreak investigation.

EID Shieh W, Jung S, Hsueh C, Kuo T, Mounts AW, Parashar UD, et al. Pathologic Studies of Fatal Cases in Outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):146-148. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700146
AMA Shieh W, Jung S, Hsueh C, et al. Pathologic Studies of Fatal Cases in Outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):146-148. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700146.
APA Shieh, W., Jung, S., Hsueh, C., Kuo, T., Mounts, A. W., Parashar, U. D....Zaki, S. R. (2001). Pathologic Studies of Fatal Cases in Outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 146-148. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700146.

Disseminated Neocosmospora vasinfecta Infection in a Patient with Acute Nonlymphocytic Leukemia [PDF - 83 KB - 4 pages]
O. A. Cornely et al.

We report Neocosmospora vasinfecta infection following chemotherapy for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. N. vasinfecta, a plant pathogen, was identified by culture and genetic sequencing. Susceptibility testing revealed in vitro resistance for common antifungals.

EID Cornely OA, Chemnitz J, Brochhagen H, Lemmer K, Schütt H, Söhngen D, et al. Disseminated Neocosmospora vasinfecta Infection in a Patient with Acute Nonlymphocytic Leukemia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):149-152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700149
AMA Cornely OA, Chemnitz J, Brochhagen H, et al. Disseminated Neocosmospora vasinfecta Infection in a Patient with Acute Nonlymphocytic Leukemia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):149-152. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700149.
APA Cornely, O. A., Chemnitz, J., Brochhagen, H., Lemmer, K., Schütt, H., Söhngen, D....Tintelnot, K. (2001). Disseminated Neocosmospora vasinfecta Infection in a Patient with Acute Nonlymphocytic Leukemia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 149-152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700149.
Commentaries

Adventitious Viral Genomes in Vaccines but Not in Vaccinees [PDF - 38 KB - 2 pages]
R. A. Weiss
EID Weiss RA. Adventitious Viral Genomes in Vaccines but Not in Vaccinees. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):153-154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700153
AMA Weiss RA. Adventitious Viral Genomes in Vaccines but Not in Vaccinees. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):153-154. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700153.
APA Weiss, R. A. (2001). Adventitious Viral Genomes in Vaccines but Not in Vaccinees. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 153-154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700153.
Letters

High-Level Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: First Report from Israel [PDF - 40 KB - 2 pages]
M. Dan et al.
EID Dan M, Poch F, Shpitz D, Sheinberg B. High-Level Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: First Report from Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):158-159. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700158
AMA Dan M, Poch F, Shpitz D, et al. High-Level Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: First Report from Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):158-159. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700158.
APA Dan, M., Poch, F., Shpitz, D., & Sheinberg, B. (2001). High-Level Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: First Report from Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 158-159. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700158.

An Unusual Bacterium Causing a Brain Abscess [PDF - 40 KB - 2 pages]
D. N. Atapattu et al.
EID Atapattu DN, Jayawickrama DP, Thevanesam V. An Unusual Bacterium Causing a Brain Abscess. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):159-160. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700159
AMA Atapattu DN, Jayawickrama DP, Thevanesam V. An Unusual Bacterium Causing a Brain Abscess. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):159-160. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700159.
APA Atapattu, D. N., Jayawickrama, D. P., & Thevanesam, V. (2001). An Unusual Bacterium Causing a Brain Abscess. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 159-160. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700159.

First Glycopeptide-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Isolate from Blood Culture in Ankara, Turkey [PDF - 40 KB - 3 pages]
A. Basustaoglu et al.
EID Basustaoglu A, Aydogan H, Beyan C, Yalcin A, Unal S. First Glycopeptide-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Isolate from Blood Culture in Ankara, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):160-161. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700160
AMA Basustaoglu A, Aydogan H, Beyan C, et al. First Glycopeptide-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Isolate from Blood Culture in Ankara, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):160-161. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700160.
APA Basustaoglu, A., Aydogan, H., Beyan, C., Yalcin, A., & Unal, S. (2001). First Glycopeptide-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Isolate from Blood Culture in Ankara, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 160-161. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700160.

Antimicrobial-Drug Use and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus [PDF - 45 KB - 3 pages]
D. L. Monnet and N. Frimodt-Møller
EID Monnet DL, Frimodt-Møller N. Antimicrobial-Drug Use and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):161-163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700161
AMA Monnet DL, Frimodt-Møller N. Antimicrobial-Drug Use and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):161-163. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700161.
APA Monnet, D. L., & Frimodt-Møller, N. (2001). Antimicrobial-Drug Use and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 161-163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700161.

Lack of Evidence for Cloramphenicol Resistance in Neisseria meningitidis, Africa [PDF - 41 KB - 2 pages]
M. C. Tondella et al.
EID Tondella MC, Rosenstein NE, Mayer LW, Tenover FC, Stocker SA, Reeves MW, et al. Lack of Evidence for Cloramphenicol Resistance in Neisseria meningitidis, Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):163-164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700163
AMA Tondella MC, Rosenstein NE, Mayer LW, et al. Lack of Evidence for Cloramphenicol Resistance in Neisseria meningitidis, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):163-164. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700163.
APA Tondella, M. C., Rosenstein, N. E., Mayer, L. W., Tenover, F. C., Stocker, S. A., Reeves, M. W....Popovic, T. (2001). Lack of Evidence for Cloramphenicol Resistance in Neisseria meningitidis, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 163-164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700163.

Iron Loading and Disease Surveillance [PDF - 40 KB - 2 pages]
M. Reyes et al.
EID Reyes M, Weinberg ED, Imperatore G. Iron Loading and Disease Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):164-165. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700164
AMA Reyes M, Weinberg ED, Imperatore G. Iron Loading and Disease Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):164-165. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700164.
APA Reyes, M., Weinberg, E. D., & Imperatore, G. (2001). Iron Loading and Disease Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 164-165. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700164.
About the Cover

The Bull (detail), 1647, By Paulus Potter (1625-1654) [PDF - 27 KB - 1 page]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. The Bull (detail), 1647, By Paulus Potter (1625-1654). Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.ac0701
AMA Potter P. The Bull (detail), 1647, By Paulus Potter (1625-1654). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):168. doi:10.3201/eid0701.ac0701.
APA Potter, P. (2001). The Bull (detail), 1647, By Paulus Potter (1625-1654). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.ac0701.
Conference Summaries

The 5th International Conference on Legionella [PDF - 33 KB - 1 page]
EID The 5th International Conference on Legionella. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700166
AMA The 5th International Conference on Legionella. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):166. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700166.
APA (2001). The 5th International Conference on Legionella. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700166.
Corrections

Erratum Vol. 6, No. 4 [PDF - 31 KB - 1 page]
EID Erratum Vol. 6, No. 4. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.c10701
AMA Erratum Vol. 6, No. 4. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):167. doi:10.3201/eid0701.c10701.
APA (2001). Erratum Vol. 6, No. 4. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.c10701.
Research Update

Strengthening National Preparedness for Smallpox: an Update [PDF - 40 KB - 3 pages]
J. W. LeDuc and P. B. Jahrling
EID LeDuc JW, Jahrling PB. Strengthening National Preparedness for Smallpox: an Update. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):155-157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700155
AMA LeDuc JW, Jahrling PB. Strengthening National Preparedness for Smallpox: an Update. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):155-157. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700155.
APA LeDuc, J. W., & Jahrling, P. B. (2001). Strengthening National Preparedness for Smallpox: an Update. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 155-157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700155.
Page created: April 17, 2012
Page updated: August 07, 2012
Page reviewed: August 07, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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