Volume 7, Number 1—February 2001
Quinolone and Macrolide Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: Resistance Mechanisms and Trends in Human Isolates
|Country||Substance||Licensing year||Animal species|
|Austria (22)||Enrofloxacin Danofloxacin Difloxacin||1992 1996 1998||Cattle, pigs, poultry Poultry Poultry|
|Canadaa||Enrofloxacin||1987 (with-drawn in 1997)||Turkey (egg dip)|
|Denmark (22)||Enrofloxacin Danofloxacin Difloxacin Marbofloxacin||1991 1993 1998 1998||Cattle, pigs, poultry Poultry Poultry, turkey Cattle, pigs, dogs, cats|
|Finland (22)||Enrofloxacin||1992 (oral use||Pigs|
|with-drawn in 1999)|
|France (22)||Enrofloxacin Danofloxacin Marbofloxacin Difloxacin||1991 1996 1993 1998||Cattle, poultry Cattle Cattle Poultry|
|Italy (22)||Enrofloxacin Difloxacin||1989 1998||Cattle, pigs, poultry Poultry|
|Japanb||Enrofloxacin Danofloxacin Ofloxacin Orbifloxacin Difloxacin Norfloxacin||1991 1992 1992 1993 1992 1993 1996 1998||Cattle, poultry Pigs Poultry Cattle, pigs Poultry Cattle, pigs Pigs Poultry|
|Netherlands (22)||Enrofloxacin Difloxacin||1987 1998||Cattle, pigs, poultry Poultry|
|Spain (22)||Enrofloxacin Difloxacin||1986 1998||Cattle, pigs, poultry Poultry|
|United Kingdom (22)||Enrofloxacin Danofloxacin Marbofloxacin Difloxacin||1993 1993 1995 1998||Cattle, pigs, poultry Poultry Cattle Poultry|
|USAc||Enrofloxacin Sarafloxacin||Approx 1987-88 1996 1999 1995||Dogs, cats Poultry Cattle Poultry|
aRJ Irwin, Health Canada, 1999. pers. comm.
bY Tamura, National Veterinary Assay Laboratory, Japan, 1999. pers. comm.
cJL Watts. Pharmacia/Upjohn, Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1999. pers. comm.
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