Volume 7, Number 3—June 2001
PulseNet: The Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Bacterial Disease Surveillance, United States
- Holmberg SD, Wachsmuth IK, Hickman-Brenner FW, Cohen ML. Comparison of plasmid profile analysis, phage typing, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in characterizing Salmonella typhimurium isolates from outbreaks. J Clin Microbiol. 1984;19:100–4.
- Holmberg SD, Wachsmuth K. Plasmid and chromosomal DNA analyses in the epidemiology of bacterial diseases. In: Swaminathan B, Prakash G, editors. Nucleic acid and monoclonal antibody probes: applications in diagnostic microbiology. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1989. p. 105-29.
- Ackers ML, Mahon BE, Leahy E, Goode B, Damrow T, Hayes PS, An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with leaf lettuce consumption. J Infect Dis. 1998;177:1588–93.
- Barrett TJ. Molecular fingerprinting of foodborne pathogenic bacteria: An introduction to methods, uses and problems. In: Tortorello ML, Gendel SM, editors. Food microbiological analysis: new technologies. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1997. p. 249-64.
- Graves LM, Swaminathan B, Hunter SB. Subtyping Listeria monocytogenes. In: Ryser EM, Marth EH, editors. Listeria, listeriosis and food safety. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1999. p. 279-98.
- Jimenez A, Barros-Velazquez J, Rodriguez J, Villa TG. Restriction endonuclease analysis, DNA relatedness and phenotypic characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates invovled in food-borne disease. J Appl Microbiol. 1997;82:713–21.
- Maslanka SE, Kerr JG, Williams G, Barbaree JM, Carson LA, Miller JM, Molecular subtyping of Clostridium perfringens by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to facilitate food-borne-disease outbreak investigations. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:2209–14.
- Threlfall EJ, Hampton MD, Ward LR, Rowe B. Application of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to an international outbreak of Salmonella agona. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2:130–2.
- Threlfall EJ, Ward LR, Hampton MD, Ridley AM, Rowe B, Roberts D, Molecular fingerprinting defines a strain of Salmonella enterica serotype Anatum responsible for an international outbreak associated with formula-dried milk. Epidemiol Infect. 1998;121:289–93.
- Wachsmuth K. Molecular epidemiology of bacteria infections: examples of methodology and of investigations of outbreaks. Rev Infect Dis. 1986;8:682–92.
- Swaminathan B, Matar GM. Molecular typing methods. In: Persing DH, Smith TF, Tenover FC, White TJ, editors. Diagnostic molecular microbiology. Washington: American Society for Microbiology; 1993. p. 26-50.
- Barrett TJ, Lior H, Green JH, Khakhria R, Wells JG, Bell BP, Laboratory investigation of a multi-state food-borne outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and phage typing. J Clin Microbiol. 1994;32:3013–7.
- Stephenson J. New approaches for detecting and curtailing foodborne microbial infections. JAMA. 1997;277:1337–40.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Addressing emerging infectious disease threats: a prevention strategy for the United States. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1994.
- Angulo FJ, Voetsch AC, Vugia D, Hadler JL, Farley M, Hedberg C, Determining the burden of human illness from food borne diseases. CDC's emerging infectious disease program Food Borne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 1998;14:165–72.
- Gautom RK. Rapid pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for E. coli O157:H7 and other Gram-negative organisms in one day. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:2977–80.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Standardized molecular subtyping of foodborne bacterial pathogens by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: a manual. Atlanta: National Center for Infectious Diseases; 1996 (updated 2000).
- Cody SH, Glynn MK, Farrar JA, Cairns KL, Griffin PM, Kobayashi J, An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130:202–9.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella serotype Agona infections linked to toasted oats cereal--United States, April-May, 1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1998;47:462–4.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multistate outbreak of listeriosis--United States, 1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1998;47:1085–6.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: multistate outbreak of listeriosis--United States, 1998-1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999;47:1117–8.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outbreaks of Shigella sonnei infection associated with eating fresh parsley--United States and Canada, July-August, 1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999;48:285–9.
- Mead P, Finelli L, Lambert-Fair MA, Champ D, Townes J, Hutwagner L, Risk factors for sporadic infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:204–8.
- Keene W, Hedberg K, Herriott DE, Hancock DD, McKay RW, Barrett TJ, A prolonged outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections caused by commercially distributed milk. J Infect Dis. 1997;176:815–8.
- Jackson LA, Keene WE, McAnulty JM, Alexander ER, Diermayer M, Davis MA, Where's the beef? The role of cross-contamination in four chain restaurant-associated outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the Pacific Northwest. Ann Intern Med. 2000;160:2380–5.
- Elbasha EH, Fitzsimmons TD, Meltzer MI. Costs and benefits of a subtype-specific surveillance system for identifying Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:293–7.
1The CDC PulseNet Task Force includes John Allan, Michelle Bird, Daniel Cameron, Wallis DeWitt, Thomas Donkar, Collette Fitzgerald, Judy Gaither, Lewis Graves, Peggy Hayes, Jared Kerr, Kristy Kubota, Mary Ann Lambert-Fair, Susan Maslanka, Loretta McCroskey, Jeremy Miller, Heather Noll, Efrain Ribot, Nicole Tucker, Susan Van Duyne, and the authors.