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Issue Cover for Volume 10, Number 8—August 2004

Volume 10, Number 8—August 2004

[PDF - 6.75 MB - 171 pages]

Perspective

Genomic-scale Analysis of Bacterial Gene and Protein Expression in the Host [PDF - 45 KB - 6 pages]
J. D. Boyce et al.

The developing complementary technologies of DNA microarrays and proteomics are allowing the response of bacterial pathogens to different environments to be probed at the whole genome level. Although using these technologies to analyze pathogens within a host is still in its infancy, initial studies indicate that these technologies will be valuable tools for understanding how the pathogen reacts to the in vivo microenvironment. Some bacterial pathogens have been shown to substantially modify their surface components in response to the host immune system and modify their energy metabolism and transport pathways to allow efficient growth within the host. Further detailed analyses of these responses will increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, identify new bacterial virulence factors, and aid in the design of new vaccines.

EID Boyce JD, Cullen PA, Adler B. Genomic-scale Analysis of Bacterial Gene and Protein Expression in the Host. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1357-1362. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.031036
AMA Boyce JD, Cullen PA, Adler B. Genomic-scale Analysis of Bacterial Gene and Protein Expression in the Host. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1357-1362. doi:10.3201/eid1008.031036.
APA Boyce, J. D., Cullen, P. A., & Adler, B. (2004). Genomic-scale Analysis of Bacterial Gene and Protein Expression in the Host. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1357-1362. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.031036.
Synopses

Vibrio vulnificus in Taiwan [PDF - 241 KB - 6 pages]
P. Hsueh et al.

Residents in Taiwan are often exposed to marine microorganisms through seafood and occupational exposure. The number of reported cases of infection attributable to this organism has increased since the first case was reported in 1985. The increasing number of cases may be caused by greater disease activity or improved recognition by clinicians or laboratory workers. We analyze a clinical-case series of 84 patients with V. vulnificus infection from 1995 to 2000 and describe the molecular epidemiologic features of pathogens isolated from these patients. The spectrum of clinical manifestations and outcomes, options of antimicrobial therapy, and virulence mechanisms were investigated. Results of molecular typing of isolates from humans and marine environment in this country had a high genetic divergence among these isolates. Education and measures are needed to prevent this emerging disease.

EID Hsueh P, Lin C, Tang H, Lee H, Liu J, Liu Y, et al. Vibrio vulnificus in Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1363-1368. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040047
AMA Hsueh P, Lin C, Tang H, et al. Vibrio vulnificus in Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1363-1368. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040047.
APA Hsueh, P., Lin, C., Tang, H., Lee, H., Liu, J., Liu, Y....Chuang, Y. (2004). Vibrio vulnificus in Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1363-1368. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040047.
Research

West Nile Virus in California [PDF - 593 KB - 10 pages]
W. K. Reisen et al.

West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in California during July 2003 by isolation from a pool of Culex tarsalis collected near El Centro, Imperial County. WNV then amplified and dispersed in Imperial and Coachella Valleys, where it was tracked by isolation from pools of Cx. tarsalis, seroconversions in sentinel chickens, and seroprevalence in free-ranging birds. WNV then dispersed to the city of Riverside, Riverside County, and to the Whittier Dam area of Los Angeles County, where it was detected in dead birds and pools of Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus. By October, WNV was detected in dead birds collected from riparian corridors in Los Angeles, west to Long Beach, and through inland valleys south from Riverside and to San Diego County. WNV was reported concurrently from Arizona in mid-August but not from Baja, Mexico, until mid-November. Possible mechanisms for virus introduction, amplification, and dispersal are discussed.

EID Reisen WK, Lothrop H, Chiles R, Madon M, Cossen C, Woods L, et al. West Nile Virus in California. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1369-1378. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040077
AMA Reisen WK, Lothrop H, Chiles R, et al. West Nile Virus in California. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1369-1378. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040077.
APA Reisen, W. K., Lothrop, H., Chiles, R., Madon, M., Cossen, C., Woods, L....Edman, J. (2004). West Nile Virus in California. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1369-1378. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040077.

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Turkey [PDF - 519 KB - 6 pages]
S. S. Karti et al.

In 2002 and 2003, a total of 19 persons in Turkey had suspected cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) or a similar viral infection. Six serum samples were tested; all six were found positive for immunoglobulin M antibodies against CCHF virus. Two of the samples yielded CCHF virus isolates. Genetic analysis of the virus isolates showed them to be closely related to isolates from former Yugoslavia and southwestern Russia. These cases are the first of CCHF reported from Turkey. Eighteen patients handled livestock, and one was a nurse with probable nosocomial infection. The case-fatality rate was 20% among confirmed CCHF cases (1/5 patients), and the overall case fatality rate was 11% (2/19 patients). In addition to previously reported symptoms and signs, we report hemophagocytosis in 50% of our patients, which is the first report of this clinical phenomenon associated with CCHF.

EID Karti SS, Odabasi Z, Korten V, Yilmaz M, Sonmez M, Caylan R, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1379-1384. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030928
AMA Karti SS, Odabasi Z, Korten V, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1379-1384. doi:10.3201/eid1008.030928.
APA Karti, S. S., Odabasi, Z., Korten, V., Yilmaz, M., Sonmez, M., Caylan, R....Ksiazek, T. G. (2004). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1379-1384. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030928.

Predicting Antigenic Variants of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses [PDF - 168 KB - 6 pages]
M. Lee and J. S. Chen

Current inactivated influenza vaccines provide protection when vaccine antigens and circulating viruses share a high degree of similarity in hemagglutinin protein. Five antigenic sites in the hemagglutinin protein have been proposed, and 131 amino acid positions have been identified in the five antigenic sites. In addition, 20, 18, and 32 amino acid positions in the hemagglutinin protein have been identified as mouse monoclonal antibody–binding sites, positively selected codons, and substantially diverse codons, respectively. We investigated these amino acid positions for predicting antigenic variants of influenza A/H3N2 viruses in ferrets. Results indicate that the model based on the number of amino acid changes in the five antigenic sites is best for predicting antigenic variants (agreement = 83%). The methods described in this study could be applied to predict vaccine-induced cross-reactive antibody responses in humans, which may further improve the selection of vaccine strains.

EID Lee M, Chen JS. Predicting Antigenic Variants of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1385-1390. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040107
AMA Lee M, Chen JS. Predicting Antigenic Variants of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1385-1390. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040107.
APA Lee, M., & Chen, J. S. (2004). Predicting Antigenic Variants of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1385-1390. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040107.

Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease (Buruli ulcer) in Rural Hospital, Southern Benin, 1997–2001 [PDF - 352 KB - 8 pages]
M. Debacker et al.

Data from 1,700 patients living in southern Benin were collected at the Centre Sanitaire et Nutritionnel Gbemoten, Zagnanado, Benin, from 1997 through 2001. Comparing detection rates of Buruli ulcer (BU) in the Zou Region with those of leprosy and tuberculosis in 1999 shows a higher rate for BU (21.5/100,000) than for leprosy (13.4/100,000) and tuberculosis (20.0/100,000). More than 13% of the patients had osteomyelitis. Delay in seeking treatment declined from 4 months in 1989 to 1 month in 2001, and median hospitalization time decreased from 9 months in 1989 to 1 month in 2001. This reduction is attributed, in part, to implementing an international cooperation program, creating a national BU program, and making advances in patient care.

EID Debacker M, Aguiar J, Steunou C, Zinsou C, Meyers WM, Guédénon A, et al. Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease (Buruli ulcer) in Rural Hospital, Southern Benin, 1997–2001. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1391-1398. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030886
AMA Debacker M, Aguiar J, Steunou C, et al. Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease (Buruli ulcer) in Rural Hospital, Southern Benin, 1997–2001. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1391-1398. doi:10.3201/eid1008.030886.
APA Debacker, M., Aguiar, J., Steunou, C., Zinsou, C., Meyers, W. M., Guédénon, A....Portaels, F. (2004). Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease (Buruli ulcer) in Rural Hospital, Southern Benin, 1997–2001. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1391-1398. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030886.

SARS in Three Categories of Hospital Workers, Hong Kong [PDF - 142 KB - 6 pages]
J. Lau et al.

We analyzed attack rates for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in three categories of hospital workers (nurses, nonmedical support staff, and other technical or medical staff) in all public hospitals in Hong Kong that had admitted SARS patients. Of 16 such hospitals, 14 had cases. The overall attack rate was 1.20%. Nonmedical support staff had the highest attack rate (2.73%). The odds ratios of group nonmedical support staff versus those of nurses and of nonmedical support staff versus other technical or medical staff were 2.30 (p < 0.001) and 9.78 (p < 0.001), respectively. The number of affected staff and attack rates were significantly correlated with the number of SARS patients admitted (r = 0.914 and 0.686, respectively). Affected patients were concentrated in three hospitals and in the earlier phase of the epidemic. Cleaning and clerical staff on hospital wards were at a much higher risk.

EID Lau J, Yang X, Leung P, Chan L, Wong E, Fong C, et al. SARS in Three Categories of Hospital Workers, Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1399-1404. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040041
AMA Lau J, Yang X, Leung P, et al. SARS in Three Categories of Hospital Workers, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1399-1404. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040041.
APA Lau, J., Yang, X., Leung, P., Chan, L., Wong, E., Fong, C....Tsui, H. (2004). SARS in Three Categories of Hospital Workers, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1399-1404. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040041.

Long-Term Prognosis for Clinical West Nile Virus Infection [PDF - 63 KB - 7 pages]
A. L. Klee et al.

Relatively little is known about the long-term prognosis for patients with clinical West Nile virus (WNV) infection. We conducted a study to describe recovery experiences of New York City residents infected during the 1999 WNV meningoencephalitis outbreak. Patients were interviewed by telephone on self-perceived health outcomes 6, 12, and 18 months after WNV illness onset. At 12 months, the prevalence of physical, functional, and cognitive symptoms were significantly higher than that at baseline, including muscle weakness, loss of concentration, confusion, and feeling lightheaded. Only 37% achieved a full recovery by 1 year. Younger age at infection was the only significant predictor of recovery. Efforts aimed at preventing WNV infection should focus on elderly populations who are at increased risk for neurologic manifestations and more likely to experience long-term sequelae of WNV illness. More studies are needed to document the long-term sequelae of this increasingly common infection.

EID Klee AL, Maldin B, Edwin B, Poshni I, Mostashari F, Fine AD, et al. Long-Term Prognosis for Clinical West Nile Virus Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1405-1411. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030879
AMA Klee AL, Maldin B, Edwin B, et al. Long-Term Prognosis for Clinical West Nile Virus Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1405-1411. doi:10.3201/eid1008.030879.
APA Klee, A. L., Maldin, B., Edwin, B., Poshni, I., Mostashari, F., Fine, A. D....Nash, D. (2004). Long-Term Prognosis for Clinical West Nile Virus Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1405-1411. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030879.

Serotype III Streptococcus agalactiae from Bovine Milk and Human Neonatal Infections [PDF - 217 KB - 8 pages]
J. F. Bohnsack et al.

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) causes invasive human infections and bovine mastitis. This study examined the genetic relationship between bovine and human serotype III GBS by using molecular techniques that classify human serotype III GBS into four distinct phylogenetic lineages. Bovine serotype III GBS were largely contained in two lineages, which are distinct from the two major lineages (restriction digest types III-2 and III-3) that infect human neonates. One of the bovine lineages closely resembles the human III-1 lineage, whose members occasionally cause human neonatal infections. The bovine strains in the other lineage characteristically have an initiation factor IF2 gene (infB) H allele and multilocus sequence types that are not found in human GBS strains. Evidence suggests that this “H allele” lineage is related to the human III-3 lineage. These results support the assertion that human and bovine GBS are largely unrelated and provide further insight into the genetic relation between human and bovine GBS.

EID Bohnsack JF, Whiting AA, Martinez G, Jones N, Adderson EE, Detrick S, et al. Serotype III Streptococcus agalactiae from Bovine Milk and Human Neonatal Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1412-1419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030917
AMA Bohnsack JF, Whiting AA, Martinez G, et al. Serotype III Streptococcus agalactiae from Bovine Milk and Human Neonatal Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1412-1419. doi:10.3201/eid1008.030917.
APA Bohnsack, J. F., Whiting, A. A., Martinez, G., Jones, N., Adderson, E. E., Detrick, S....Gottschalk, M. (2004). Serotype III Streptococcus agalactiae from Bovine Milk and Human Neonatal Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1412-1419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030917.

Thrombocytopenia and Acute Renal Failure in Puumala Hantavirus Infections [PDF - 172 KB - 6 pages]
F. M. Rasche et al.

Nephropathia epidemica, caused by Puumala virus (PUUV) infection, is a form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome of variable severity. Early prognostic markers for the severity of renal failure have not been established. We evaluated clinical and laboratory parameters of 15 consecutive patients with acute PUUV infection, which is endemic in the Alb-Danube region, south Germany. Severe renal failure (serum creatinine >620 μmol/L) was observed in seven patients; four required hemodialysis treatment. Low platelet count (<60 x 109/L), but not leukocyte count, C-reactive protein, or other parameters obtained at the initial evaluation, was significantly associated with subsequent severe renal failure (p = 0.004). Maximum serum creatinine was preceded by platelet count nadirs by a median of 4 days. Thrombocytopenia <60 x 109/L appears predictive of a severe course of acute renal failure in nephropathia epidemica, with potential value for risk-adapted clinical disease management.

EID Rasche FM, Uhel B, Ulrich RG, Krüger DH, Karges W, Czock D, et al. Thrombocytopenia and Acute Renal Failure in Puumala Hantavirus Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1420-1425. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.031069
AMA Rasche FM, Uhel B, Ulrich RG, et al. Thrombocytopenia and Acute Renal Failure in Puumala Hantavirus Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1420-1425. doi:10.3201/eid1008.031069.
APA Rasche, F. M., Uhel, B., Ulrich, R. G., Krüger, D. H., Karges, W., Czock, D....von Müller, L. (2004). Thrombocytopenia and Acute Renal Failure in Puumala Hantavirus Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1420-1425. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.031069.

Antimicrobial Drug Use and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Aberdeen, 1996–2000 [PDF - 323 KB - 10 pages]
D. L. Monnet et al.

Similar to many hospitals worldwide, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary has had an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this setting, the outbreak is attributable to two major clones. The relationships between antimicrobial use and MRSA prevalence were analyzed by time-series analysis. From June 1997 to December 2000, dynamic, temporal relationships were found between monthly %MRSA and previous %MRSA, macrolide use, third-generation cephalosporin use, and fluoroquinolone use. This study suggests that use of antimicrobial drugs to which the MRSA outbreak strains are resistant may be an important factor in perpetuating the outbreak. Moreover, this study confirmed the ecologic effect of antimicrobial drug use (i.e., current antimicrobial use) may have an effect on resistance in future patients. Although these results may not be generalized to other hospitals, they suggest new directions for control of MRSA, which has thus far proved difficult and expensive.

EID Monnet DL, MacKenzie FM, López-Lozano JM, Beyaert A, Camacho M, Wilson R, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Use and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Aberdeen, 1996–2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1432-1441. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.020694
AMA Monnet DL, MacKenzie FM, López-Lozano JM, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Use and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Aberdeen, 1996–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1432-1441. doi:10.3201/eid1008.020694.
APA Monnet, D. L., MacKenzie, F. M., López-Lozano, J. M., Beyaert, A., Camacho, M., Wilson, R....Gould, I. M. (2004). Antimicrobial Drug Use and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Aberdeen, 1996–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1432-1441. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.020694.

Acute Encephalitis Hospitalizations, California, 1990–1999: Unrecognized Arboviral Encephalitis? [PDF - 144 KB - 8 pages]
R. T. Trevejo

Historically, Western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis caused substantial human and equine illness and death in California. This study describes the epidemiology of encephalitis with data from 13,807 patients hospitalized in California with acute encephalitis from 1990 through 1999. The incidence of encephalitis hospitalizations decreased over this period. The greatest proportion of case-patients was hospitalized in the winter. Encephalitis of unspecified origin was the most common diagnosis, and arboviral encephalitis was the least common. Some California counties had concurrent increases in encephalitis rates and in detected arboviral activity in sentinel chickens and mosquito vectors. However, a diagnosis of arboviral encephalitis was made for few hospitalized patients in these counties during these periods. Although some arboviral encephalitis cases may have been undiagnosed, such cases probably did not occur frequently. Active hospital-based surveillance during periods of heightened sylvatic arboviral activity could increase detection of arboviral encephalitis.

EID Trevejo RT. Acute Encephalitis Hospitalizations, California, 1990–1999: Unrecognized Arboviral Encephalitis?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1442-1449. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030698
AMA Trevejo RT. Acute Encephalitis Hospitalizations, California, 1990–1999: Unrecognized Arboviral Encephalitis?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1442-1449. doi:10.3201/eid1008.030698.
APA Trevejo, R. T. (2004). Acute Encephalitis Hospitalizations, California, 1990–1999: Unrecognized Arboviral Encephalitis?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1442-1449. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030698.

Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7 and Central Nervous System Infection in Children [PDF - 43 KB - 5 pages]
A. Ansari et al.

The role and frequency of human herpesviruses (HHV)-6 and -7 in central nervous system (CNS) diseases of children are unclear. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from 245 pediatric patients (median age 43 days), submitted for evaluations of possible sepsis or of neurologic symptoms, were tested for HHV-6 and HHV-7 DNA by polymerase chain reaction. HHV-6 DNA was found in 3 of 245 samples, and HHV-7 was found in 0 of 245 samples. The three patients with HHV-6 DNA were <2 months of age. HHV-6 was likely pathogenic in two patients in whom meningitis was diagnosed who lacked evidence of another microbiologic cause. HHV-6 and HHV-7 are uncommon causes of CNS infection in children. HHV-6 may occasionally cause meningitis in young infants.

EID Ansari A, Li S, Abzug MJ, Weinberg A. Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7 and Central Nervous System Infection in Children1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1450-1454. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030788
AMA Ansari A, Li S, Abzug MJ, et al. Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7 and Central Nervous System Infection in Children1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1450-1454. doi:10.3201/eid1008.030788.
APA Ansari, A., Li, S., Abzug, M. J., & Weinberg, A. (2004). Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7 and Central Nervous System Infection in Children1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1450-1454. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030788.

Group G Streptococcal Bacteremia in Jerusalem [PDF - 98 KB - 6 pages]
R. Cohen-Poradosu et al.

Group G Streptococcus (GGS) can cause severe infections, including bacteremia. These organisms often express a surface protein homologous to the Streptococcus pyogenes M protein. We retrospectively studied the characteristics of patients from the Hadassah Medical Center with GGS bacteremia from 1989 to 2000. Ninety-four cases of GGS bacteremia were identified in 84 patients. The median age was 62 years, 54% were males, and 92% had underlying diseases (35% had a malignancy, and 35% had diabetes mellitus). The most frequent source for bacteremia was cellulitis (61%). emm typing of 56 available isolates disclosed 13 different types, including 2 novel types. Six patients had recurrent bacteremia with two to four bacteremic episodes, five had chronic lymphatic disorders, and two had emm type stG840.0 in every episode. Recurrent bacteremia has not been described for invasive group A Streptococcus. We describe an entity of recurrent GGS bacteremia, which is associated with lymphatic disorders and possibly with emm stG840.0.

EID Cohen-Poradosu R, Jaffe J, Lavi D, Grisariu-Greenzaid S, Nir-Paz R, Valinsky L, et al. Group G Streptococcal Bacteremia in Jerusalem. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1455-1460. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030840
AMA Cohen-Poradosu R, Jaffe J, Lavi D, et al. Group G Streptococcal Bacteremia in Jerusalem. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1455-1460. doi:10.3201/eid1008.030840.
APA Cohen-Poradosu, R., Jaffe, J., Lavi, D., Grisariu-Greenzaid, S., Nir-Paz, R., Valinsky, L....Moses, A. E. (2004). Group G Streptococcal Bacteremia in Jerusalem. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1455-1460. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030840.

Pharmacy Data for Tuberculosis Surveillance and Assessment of Patient Management [PDF - 93 KB - 6 pages]
D. S. Yokoe et al.

Underreporting tuberculosis (TB) cases can compromise surveillance. We evaluated the contribution of pharmacy data in three different managed-care settings and geographic areas. Persons with more than two anti-TB medications were identified by using pharmacy databases. Active TB was confirmed by using state TB registries, medical record review, or questionnaires from prescribing physicians. We identified 207 active TB cases, including 13 (6%) missed by traditional surveillance. Pharmacy screening identified 80% of persons with TB who had received their medications through health plan–reimbursed sources, but missed those treated solely in public health clinics. The positive predictive value of receiving more than two anti-TB medications was 33%. Pharmacy data also provided useful information about physicians’ management of TB and patients’ adherence to prescribed therapy. Pharmacy data can help public health officials to find TB cases and assess their management in populations that receive care in the private sector.

EID Yokoe DS, Coon SW, Dokholyan R, Iannuzzi MC, Jones TF, Meredith S, et al. Pharmacy Data for Tuberculosis Surveillance and Assessment of Patient Management. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1426-1431. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.031075
AMA Yokoe DS, Coon SW, Dokholyan R, et al. Pharmacy Data for Tuberculosis Surveillance and Assessment of Patient Management. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1426-1431. doi:10.3201/eid1008.031075.
APA Yokoe, D. S., Coon, S. W., Dokholyan, R., Iannuzzi, M. C., Jones, T. F., Meredith, S....Platt, R. (2004). Pharmacy Data for Tuberculosis Surveillance and Assessment of Patient Management. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1426-1431. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.031075.
Dispatches

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Bulgaria [PDF - 297 KB - 3 pages]
A. Papa et al.

We report the epidemiologic characteristics of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria, as well as the first genetic characterization of the virus strains circulating in the country in 2002–2003 that caused disease in humans.

EID Papa A, Christova I, Papadimitriou E, Antoniadis A. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Bulgaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1465-1467. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040162
AMA Papa A, Christova I, Papadimitriou E, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Bulgaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1465-1467. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040162.
APA Papa, A., Christova, I., Papadimitriou, E., & Antoniadis, A. (2004). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Bulgaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1465-1467. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040162.

Recombinant Human Enterovirus 71 in Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Patients [PDF - 339 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Chan and S. AbuBakar

Two human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) isolates were identified from hand, foot and mouth disease patients with genome sequences that had high similarity to HEV71 (>93%) at 5′UTR, P1, and P2 and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16, >85%) at P3 and 3′UTR. Intertypic recombination is likely to have occurred between HEV71 and CV-A16 or an as-yet to be described CV-A16-like virus.

EID Chan Y, AbuBakar S. Recombinant Human Enterovirus 71 in Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1468-1470. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040059
AMA Chan Y, AbuBakar S. Recombinant Human Enterovirus 71 in Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1468-1470. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040059.
APA Chan, Y., & AbuBakar, S. (2004). Recombinant Human Enterovirus 71 in Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1468-1470. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040059.

Syphilis in the HIV Era [PDF - 174 KB - 3 pages]
S. Kassutto and J. P. Doweiko

The incidence of syphilis has consistently increased from 2000 to 2002. We report a case of acquired syphilis with symptoms of Tullio phenomenon in a patient concurrently diagnosed with HIV infection. The resurgence of syphilis in HIV-positive groups at high risk has public health implications for prevention of both diseases.

EID Kassutto S, Doweiko JP. Syphilis in the HIV Era. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1471-1473. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.031107
AMA Kassutto S, Doweiko JP. Syphilis in the HIV Era. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1471-1473. doi:10.3201/eid1008.031107.
APA Kassutto, S., & Doweiko, J. P. (2004). Syphilis in the HIV Era. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1471-1473. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.031107.

Swimming and Campylobacter Infections [PDF - 215 KB - 4 pages]
D. Schönberg-Norio et al.

A matched case-control study was conducted to study risk factors for domestically acquired sporadic Campylobacter infections in Finland. Swimming in natural sources of water was a novel risk factor. Eating undercooked meat and drinking dug well water were also independent risk factors for Campylobacter infection.

EID Schönberg-Norio D, Takkinen J, Hänninen M, Katila M, Kaukoranta S, Mattila L, et al. Swimming and Campylobacter Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1474-1477. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030924
AMA Schönberg-Norio D, Takkinen J, Hänninen M, et al. Swimming and Campylobacter Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1474-1477. doi:10.3201/eid1008.030924.
APA Schönberg-Norio, D., Takkinen, J., Hänninen, M., Katila, M., Kaukoranta, S., Mattila, L....Rautelin, H. (2004). Swimming and Campylobacter Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1474-1477. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030924.

Spotted-Fever Group Rickettsia in Dermacentor variabilis, Maryland [PDF - 353 KB - 4 pages]
N. C. Ammerman et al.

Three-hundred ninety-two adult Dermacentor variabilis were collected from six Maryland counties during the spring, summer, and fall of 2002. Infection prevalence for spotted fever group Rickettsia was 3.8%, as determined by polymerase chain reaction. Single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis followed by sequencing indicated that all infections represented a single rickettsial taxon, Rickettsia montanensis.

EID Ammerman NC, Swanson KI, Anderson JM, Schwartz TR, Seaberg EC, Glass GE, et al. Spotted-Fever Group Rickettsia in Dermacentor variabilis, Maryland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1478-1481. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030882
AMA Ammerman NC, Swanson KI, Anderson JM, et al. Spotted-Fever Group Rickettsia in Dermacentor variabilis, Maryland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1478-1481. doi:10.3201/eid1008.030882.
APA Ammerman, N. C., Swanson, K. I., Anderson, J. M., Schwartz, T. R., Seaberg, E. C., Glass, G. E....Norris, D. E. (2004). Spotted-Fever Group Rickettsia in Dermacentor variabilis, Maryland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1478-1481. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030882.

Human Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genetic Marker in Isolates of Bovine Origin [PDF - 328 KB - 4 pages]
J. T. LeJeune et al.

The antiterminator Q gene of bacteriophage 933W (Q933) was identified upstream of the stx2 gene in 90% of human disease–origin Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates and in 44.5% of bovine isolates. Shiga toxin production was higher in Q933-positive isolates than Q933-negative isolates. This genetic marker may provide a useful molecular tool for epidemiologic studies.

EID LeJeune JT, Abedon ST, Takemura K, Christie NP, Sreevatsan S. Human Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genetic Marker in Isolates of Bovine Origin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1482-1485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030784
AMA LeJeune JT, Abedon ST, Takemura K, et al. Human Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genetic Marker in Isolates of Bovine Origin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1482-1485. doi:10.3201/eid1008.030784.
APA LeJeune, J. T., Abedon, S. T., Takemura, K., Christie, N. P., & Sreevatsan, S. (2004). Human Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genetic Marker in Isolates of Bovine Origin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1482-1485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030784.

SARS Risk Perception, Knowledge, Precautions, and Information Sources, the Netherlands [PDF - 227 KB - 4 pages]
J. Brug et al.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)–related risk perceptions, knowledge, precautionary actions, and information sources were studied in the Netherlands during the 2003 SARS outbreak. Although respondents were highly aware of the SARS outbreak, the outbreak did not result in unnecessary precautionary actions or fears.

EID Brug J, Aro AR, Oenema A, de Zwart O, Richardus JH, Bishop GD. SARS Risk Perception, Knowledge, Precautions, and Information Sources, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1486-1489. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040283
AMA Brug J, Aro AR, Oenema A, et al. SARS Risk Perception, Knowledge, Precautions, and Information Sources, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1486-1489. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040283.
APA Brug, J., Aro, A. R., Oenema, A., de Zwart, O., Richardus, J. H., & Bishop, G. D. (2004). SARS Risk Perception, Knowledge, Precautions, and Information Sources, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1486-1489. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040283.

Flies and Campylobacter Infection of Broiler Flocks [PDF - 265 KB - 3 pages]
B. Hald et al.

A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks in summer.

EID Hald B, Skovgård H, Bang DD, Pedersen K, Dybdahl J, Jespersen JB, et al. Flies and Campylobacter Infection of Broiler Flocks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1490-1492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040129
AMA Hald B, Skovgård H, Bang DD, et al. Flies and Campylobacter Infection of Broiler Flocks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1490-1492. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040129.
APA Hald, B., Skovgård, H., Bang, D. D., Pedersen, K., Dybdahl, J., Jespersen, J. B....Madsen, M. (2004). Flies and Campylobacter Infection of Broiler Flocks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1490-1492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040129.

Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma triste from Uruguay [PDF - 206 KB - 3 pages]
J. M. Venzal et al.

Our goal was to detect whether spotted fever group Rickettsia are found in the suspected vector of rickettsioses, Amblyomma triste, in Uruguay. Rickettsia parkeri was detected in A. triste, which suggests that this species could be considered a pathogenic agent responsible for human rickettsioses in Uruguay.

EID Venzal JM, Portillo A, Estrada-Peña A, Castro O, Cabrera PA, Oteo JA. Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma triste from Uruguay. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1493-1495. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030999
AMA Venzal JM, Portillo A, Estrada-Peña A, et al. Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma triste from Uruguay. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1493-1495. doi:10.3201/eid1008.030999.
APA Venzal, J. M., Portillo, A., Estrada-Peña, A., Castro, O., Cabrera, P. A., & Oteo, J. A. (2004). Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma triste from Uruguay. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1493-1495. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030999.

Hantavirus Infection in Anajatuba, Maranhão, Brazil [PDF - 181 KB - 3 pages]
W. S. Mendes et al.

In 2000, the first outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome was recognized in the Brazilian Amazon (Maranhão State). An epidemiologic study identified a 13.3% prevalence of hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin G. The analysis of risk factors suggests that persons are occupationally exposed to infected rodents in the crop fields.

EID Mendes WS, da Silva AA, Aragão LF, Aragão NJ, Raposo Md, Elkhoury MR, et al. Hantavirus Infection in Anajatuba, Maranhão, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1496-1498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040002
AMA Mendes WS, da Silva AA, Aragão LF, et al. Hantavirus Infection in Anajatuba, Maranhão, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1496-1498. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040002.
APA Mendes, W. S., da Silva, A. A., Aragão, L. F., Aragão, N. J., Raposo, M. d., Elkhoury, M. R....Pannuti, C. S. (2004). Hantavirus Infection in Anajatuba, Maranhão, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1496-1498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040002.

West Nile Virus in British Columbia [PDF - 187 KB - 3 pages]
M. Aquino et al.

We investigated personal protective behaviors against West Nile virus infection. Barriers to adopting these behaviors were identified, including the perception that DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide and related compounds) is a health and environmental hazard. Televised public health messages and knowing that family or friends practiced protective behaviors were important cues to action.

EID Aquino M, Fyfe M, MacDougall L, Remple V. West Nile Virus in British Columbia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1499-1501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.031053
AMA Aquino M, Fyfe M, MacDougall L, et al. West Nile Virus in British Columbia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1499-1501. doi:10.3201/eid1008.031053.
APA Aquino, M., Fyfe, M., MacDougall, L., & Remple, V. (2004). West Nile Virus in British Columbia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1499-1501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.031053.

Print Media Response to SARS in New Zealand [PDF - 225 KB - 4 pages]
N. Wilson et al.

To examine the media response to severe acute respiratory syndrome, we reviewed New Zealand’s major newspaper (261 articles for 3 months). While important accurate health messages were frequently included, some were missed (e.g., handwashing in only 2% of articles). No incorrect information was identified, and health spokespersons were accurately reported.

EID Wilson N, Thomson G, Mansoor O. Print Media Response to SARS in New Zealand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1461-1464. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.031096
AMA Wilson N, Thomson G, Mansoor O. Print Media Response to SARS in New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1461-1464. doi:10.3201/eid1008.031096.
APA Wilson, N., Thomson, G., & Mansoor, O. (2004). Print Media Response to SARS in New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1461-1464. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.031096.
Letters

SARS Transmission and Commercial Aircraft [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
J. G. Breugelmans et al.
EID Breugelmans JG, Zucs P, Porten K, Broll S, Niedrig M, Ammon A, et al. SARS Transmission and Commercial Aircraft. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1502-1503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040093
AMA Breugelmans JG, Zucs P, Porten K, et al. SARS Transmission and Commercial Aircraft. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1502-1503. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040093.
APA Breugelmans, J. G., Zucs, P., Porten, K., Broll, S., Niedrig, M., Ammon, A....Krause, G. (2004). SARS Transmission and Commercial Aircraft. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1502-1503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040093.

Detecting Bioterror Attack [PDF - 102 KB - 3 pages]
E. H. Kaplan et al.
EID Kaplan EH, Bicout D, Wein LM. Detecting Bioterror Attack. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1504-1505. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.031044
AMA Kaplan EH, Bicout D, Wein LM. Detecting Bioterror Attack. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1504-1505. doi:10.3201/eid1008.031044.
APA Kaplan, E. H., Bicout, D., & Wein, L. M. (2004). Detecting Bioterror Attack. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1504-1505. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.031044.

Aeromonas spp. and Infectious Diarrhea, Hong Kong [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
S. S. Chan and K. C. Ng
EID Chan SS, Ng KC. Aeromonas spp. and Infectious Diarrhea, Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1506-1507. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030518
AMA Chan SS, Ng KC. Aeromonas spp. and Infectious Diarrhea, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1506-1507. doi:10.3201/eid1008.030518.
APA Chan, S. S., & Ng, K. C. (2004). Aeromonas spp. and Infectious Diarrhea, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1506-1507. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.030518.

Trichinella papuae in Saltwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) of Papua New Guinea [PDF - 69 KB - 3 pages]
E. Pozio et al.
EID Pozio E, Owen IL, Marucci G, La Rosa G. Trichinella papuae in Saltwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) of Papua New Guinea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1507-1509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040082
AMA Pozio E, Owen IL, Marucci G, et al. Trichinella papuae in Saltwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) of Papua New Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1507-1509. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040082.
APA Pozio, E., Owen, I. L., Marucci, G., & La Rosa, G. (2004). Trichinella papuae in Saltwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) of Papua New Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1507-1509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040082.

Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–positive Staphylococcus aureus, Singapore [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
L. Hsu et al.
EID Hsu L, Koh T, Anantham D, Kurup A, Chan KP, Tan B. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–positive Staphylococcus aureus, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1509-1510. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.031088
AMA Hsu L, Koh T, Anantham D, et al. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–positive Staphylococcus aureus, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1509-1510. doi:10.3201/eid1008.031088.
APA Hsu, L., Koh, T., Anantham, D., Kurup, A., Chan, K. P., & Tan, B. (2004). Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–positive Staphylococcus aureus, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1509-1510. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.031088.

Balamuthia Amebic Encephalitis Risk, Hispanic-Americans [PDF - 50 KB - 3 pages]
F. L. Schuster et al.
EID Schuster FL, Glaser CA, Honarmand S, Maguire JH, Visvesvara GS. Balamuthia Amebic Encephalitis Risk, Hispanic-Americans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1510-1512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040139
AMA Schuster FL, Glaser CA, Honarmand S, et al. Balamuthia Amebic Encephalitis Risk, Hispanic-Americans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1510-1512. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040139.
APA Schuster, F. L., Glaser, C. A., Honarmand, S., Maguire, J. H., & Visvesvara, G. S. (2004). Balamuthia Amebic Encephalitis Risk, Hispanic-Americans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1510-1512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040139.

SARS Alert Applicability in Post-Outbreak Period [PDF - 84 KB - 3 pages]
V. Puro
EID Puro V. SARS Alert Applicability in Post-Outbreak Period. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1512-1514. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040221
AMA Puro V. SARS Alert Applicability in Post-Outbreak Period. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1512-1514. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040221.
APA Puro, V. (2004). SARS Alert Applicability in Post-Outbreak Period. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1512-1514. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040221.

SARS Outbreak in Taiwan [PDF - 187 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Hsieh et al.
EID Hsieh Y, Hsueh P, Chen CW, Yang P, Hsu S. SARS Outbreak in Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1514-1515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040115
AMA Hsieh Y, Hsueh P, Chen CW, et al. SARS Outbreak in Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1514-1515. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040115.
APA Hsieh, Y., Hsueh, P., Chen, C. W., Yang, P., & Hsu, S. (2004). SARS Outbreak in Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1514-1515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040115.

Estimating SARS Incubation Period [PDF - 24 KB - 2 pages]
T. Wong et al.
EID Wong T, Meltzer MI, Tam W. Estimating SARS Incubation Period. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1503-1504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040284
AMA Wong T, Meltzer MI, Tam W. Estimating SARS Incubation Period. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1503-1504. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040284.
APA Wong, T., Meltzer, M. I., & Tam, W. (2004). Estimating SARS Incubation Period. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1503-1504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040284.

Detecting Bioterror Attack [PDF - 102 KB - 2 pages]
E. H. Kaplan and L. M. Wein
EID Kaplan EH, Wein LM. Detecting Bioterror Attack. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1505-1506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040291
AMA Kaplan EH, Wein LM. Detecting Bioterror Attack. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1505-1506. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040291.
APA Kaplan, E. H., & Wein, L. M. (2004). Detecting Bioterror Attack. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1505-1506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040291.

SARS Outbreak in Taiwan [PDF - 187 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Hsieh et al.
EID Hsieh Y, Chen CW, Hsu S. SARS Outbreak in Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1515-1516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040329
AMA Hsieh Y, Chen CW, Hsu S. SARS Outbreak in Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1515-1516. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040329.
APA Hsieh, Y., Chen, C. W., & Hsu, S. (2004). SARS Outbreak in Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1515-1516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040329.

Estimating SARS Incubation Period [PDF - 24 KB - 2 pages]
M. I. Meltzer
EID Meltzer MI. Estimating SARS Incubation Period. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040427
AMA Meltzer MI. Estimating SARS Incubation Period. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1504. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040427.
APA Meltzer, M. I. (2004). Estimating SARS Incubation Period. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040427.
Books and Media

Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy [PDF - 42 KB - 1 page]
P. E. Rollin
EID Rollin PE. Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1517. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040350
AMA Rollin PE. Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1517. doi:10.3201/eid1008.040350.
APA Rollin, P. E. (2004). Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1517. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.040350.
About the Cover

North American Birds and West Nile Virus [PDF - 144 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. North American Birds and West Nile Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(8):1518-1519. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.ac1008
AMA Potter P. North American Birds and West Nile Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1518-1519. doi:10.3201/eid1008.ac1008.
APA Potter, P. (2004). North American Birds and West Nile Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1518-1519. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1008.ac1008.
Conference Summaries

FACES 2004 Encephalitis Conference
Page created: June 14, 2011
Page updated: June 14, 2011
Page reviewed: June 14, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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