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Issue Cover for Volume 11, Number 1—January 2005

Volume 11, Number 1—January 2005

[PDF - 5.91 MB - 195 pages]

Synopses

Hedgehog Zoonoses [PDF - 48 KB - 5 pages]
P. Y. Riley and B. B. Chomel

Exotic pets, including hedgehogs, have become popular in recent years among pet owners, especially in North America. Such animals can carry and introduce zoonotic agents, a fact well illustrated by the recent outbreak of monkeypox in pet prairie dogs. We reviewed known and potential zoonotic diseases that could be carried and transmitted by pet hedgehogs or when rescuing and caring for wild-caught hedgehogs.

EID Riley PY, Chomel BB. Hedgehog Zoonoses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):1-5. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040752
AMA Riley PY, Chomel BB. Hedgehog Zoonoses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):1-5. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040752.
APA Riley, P. Y., & Chomel, B. B. (2005). Hedgehog Zoonoses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 1-5. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040752.
Research

Border Screening for SARS [PDF - 183 KB - 5 pages]
R. K. St. John et al.

With the rapid international spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) from March through May 2003, Canada introduced various measures to screen airplane passengers at selected airports for symptoms and signs of SARS. The World Health Organization requested that all affected areas screen departing passengers for SARS symptoms. In spite of intensive screening, no SARS cases were detected. SARS has an extremely low prevalence, and the positive predictive value of screening is essentially zero. Canadian screening results raise questions about the effectiveness of available screening measures for SARS at international borders.

EID St. John RK, King A, de Jong D, Bodie-Collins M, Squires SG, Tam TW. Border Screening for SARS. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):6-10. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040835
AMA St. John RK, King A, de Jong D, et al. Border Screening for SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):6-10. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040835.
APA St. John, R. K., King, A., de Jong, D., Bodie-Collins, M., Squires, S. G., & Tam, T. W. (2005). Border Screening for SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 6-10. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040835.

Capacity of State and Territorial Health Agencies to Prevent Foodborne Illness [PDF - 126 KB - 6 pages]
R. E. Hoffman et al.

The capacity of state and territorial health departments to investigate foodborne diseases was assessed by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists from 2001 to 2002 with a self-administered, web-based survey. Forty-eight health departments responded (47 states and 1 territory). The primary reason for not conducting more active case surveillance of enteric disease is lack of staff, while the primary reasons for not investigating foodborne disease outbreaks are limited staff and delayed notification of the outbreak. Sixty-four percent of respondents have the capacity to conduct analytic epidemiologic investigations. States receiving Emerging Infections Program (EIP) funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention more often reported having a dedicated foodborne disease epidemiologist and the capability to perform analytic studies than non-EIP states. We conclude that by addressing shortages in the number of dedicated personnel and reducing delays in reporting, the capacity of state health departments to respond to foodborne disease can be improved.

EID Hoffman RE, Greenblatt J, Matyas BT, Sharp DJ, Esteban E, Hodge K, et al. Capacity of State and Territorial Health Agencies to Prevent Foodborne Illness. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):11-16. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040334
AMA Hoffman RE, Greenblatt J, Matyas BT, et al. Capacity of State and Territorial Health Agencies to Prevent Foodborne Illness. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):11-16. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040334.
APA Hoffman, R. E., Greenblatt, J., Matyas, B. T., Sharp, D. J., Esteban, E., Hodge, K....Liang, A. (2005). Capacity of State and Territorial Health Agencies to Prevent Foodborne Illness. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 11-16. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040334.

Hepatitis C Virus Infection, Linxian, China [PDF - 139 KB - 5 pages]
M. Zhang et al.

Bloodborne viruses may have spread in rural China during the past 25 years, but population-based prevalence estimates are lacking. We examined the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV type 1 (HIV-1) among residents of Linxian, a rural community in Henan Province. In 2000, blood was collected from participants (>55 years of age) who had enrolled in a population-based nutritional intervention trial in 1985. We randomly selected 500 participants for HCV testing and 200 participants for HIV-1 testing. For HCV, 48 (9.6%) of 500 participants were positive by enzyme immunoassay and recombinant immunoblot assay (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.0%–12.2%), and prevalence was lowest in the most geographically isolated participants. Among the HCV-infected participants, 42 had a specimen available from1985, of which 16 (38.1%) were positive for HCV. For HIV-1, 0/200 participants were positive. We conclude that HCV is now a common infection among older adults in Linxian, China.

EID Zhang M, Sun X, Mark SD, Chen W, Wong L, Dawsey SM, et al. Hepatitis C Virus Infection, Linxian, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):17-21. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.031005
AMA Zhang M, Sun X, Mark SD, et al. Hepatitis C Virus Infection, Linxian, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):17-21. doi:10.3201/eid1101.031005.
APA Zhang, M., Sun, X., Mark, S. D., Chen, W., Wong, L., Dawsey, S. M....O’Brien, T. R. (2005). Hepatitis C Virus Infection, Linxian, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 17-21. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.031005.

Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii [PDF - 215 KB - 8 pages]
A. Abbo et al.

To understand the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and define individual risk factors for MDR, we used epidemiologic methods, performed organism typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and conducted a matched case-control retrospective study. We investigated 118 patients, on 27 wards, in whom MDR A. baumannii was isolated from clinical cultures. Each case-patient had a control without MDR A. baumannii and was matched for hospital length of stay, ward, and calendar time. The epidemiologic investigation found small clusters of up to 6 patients each with no common identified source. Ten different PFGE clones were found, of which 2 dominated. The PFGE pattern differed within temporospatial clusters, and antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns varied within and between clones. Multivariate analysis identified the following significant risk factors: male sex, cardiovascular disease, having undergone mechanical ventilation, and having been treated with antimicrobial drugs (particularly metronidazole). Penicillins were protective. The complex epidemiology may explain why the emergence of MDR A. baumannii is difficult to control.

EID Abbo A, Navon-Venezia S, Hammer-Muntz O, Krichali T, Siegman-Igra Y, Carmeli Y. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):22-29. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040001
AMA Abbo A, Navon-Venezia S, Hammer-Muntz O, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):22-29. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040001.
APA Abbo, A., Navon-Venezia, S., Hammer-Muntz, O., Krichali, T., Siegman-Igra, Y., & Carmeli, Y. (2005). Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 22-29. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040001.

Hybrid Vibrio vulnificus [PDF - 357 KB - 6 pages]
N. Bisharat et al.

The recent emergence of the human-pathogenic Vibrio vulnificus in Israel was investigated by using multilocus genotype data and modern molecular evolutionary analysis tools. We show that this pathogen is a hybrid organism that evolved by the hybridization of the genomes from 2 distinct and independent populations. These findings provide clear evidence of how hybridization between 2 existing and nonpathogenic forms has apparently led to the emergence of an epidemic infectious disease caused by this pathogenic variant. This novel observation shows yet another way in which epidemic organisms arise.

EID Bisharat N, Cohen DI, Harding RM, Falush D, Crook DW, Peto T, et al. Hybrid Vibrio vulnificus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):30-35. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040440
AMA Bisharat N, Cohen DI, Harding RM, et al. Hybrid Vibrio vulnificus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):30-35. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040440.
APA Bisharat, N., Cohen, D. I., Harding, R. M., Falush, D., Crook, D. W., Peto, T....Maiden, M. C. (2005). Hybrid Vibrio vulnificus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 30-35. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040440.

Hypersensitivity to Ticks and Lyme Disease Risk [PDF - 215 KB - 6 pages]
G. Burke et al.

Although residents of Lyme disease–endemic regions describe frequent exposure to ticks, Lyme disease develops in relatively few. To determine whether people who experience cutaneous hypersensitivity against tick bite have fewer episodes of Lyme disease than those who do not, we examined several factors that might restrict the incidence of Lyme disease among residents of Block Island, Rhode Island. Of 1,498 study participants, 27% (95% confidence interval [CI] 23%–31%) reported >1 tick bites, and 17% (95% CI 13%–21%) reported itch associated with tick bite in the previous year. Borrelia burgdorferi infected 23% (95% CI 20%–26%) of 135 nymphal Ixodes scapularis (I. dammini) ticks. The likelihood of Lyme disease infection decreased with >3 reports of tick-associated itch (odds ratio 0.14, 95% CI 0.94–0.03, p = 0.01). Prior exposure to uninfected vector ticks protects residents of disease-endemic sites from Lyme disease.

EID Burke G, Wikel SK, Spielman A, Telford SR, McKay K, Krause PJ. Hypersensitivity to Ticks and Lyme Disease Risk. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):36-41. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040303
AMA Burke G, Wikel SK, Spielman A, et al. Hypersensitivity to Ticks and Lyme Disease Risk. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):36-41. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040303.
APA Burke, G., Wikel, S. K., Spielman, A., Telford, S. R., McKay, K., & Krause, P. J. (2005). Hypersensitivity to Ticks and Lyme Disease Risk. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 36-41. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040303.

Demand for Prophylaxis after Bioterrorism-Related Anthrax Cases, 2001 [PDF - 110 KB - 6 pages]
E. A. Belongia et al.

Media reports suggested increased public demand for anthrax prophylaxis after the intentional anthrax cases in 2001, but the magnitude of anthrax-related prescribing in unaffected regions was not assessed. We surveyed a random sample of 400 primary care clinicians in Minnesota and Wisconsin to assess requests for and provision of anthrax-related antimicrobial agents. The survey was returned by 239 (60%) of clinicians, including 210 in outpatient practice. Fifty-eight (28%) of those in outpatient practice received requests for anthrax-related antimicrobial agents, and 9 (4%) dispensed them. Outpatient fluoroquinolone use in both states was also analyzed with regression models to compare predicted and actual use in October and November 2001. Fluoroquinolone use as a proportion of total antimicrobial use was not elevated, and anthrax concerns accounted for an estimated 0.3% of all fluoroquinolone prescriptions. Most physicians in Minnesota and Wisconsin managed anthrax-related requests without dispensing antimicrobial agents.

EID Belongia EA, Kieke B, Lynfield R, Davis JP, Besser RE. Demand for Prophylaxis after Bioterrorism-Related Anthrax Cases, 2001. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):42-47. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040272
AMA Belongia EA, Kieke B, Lynfield R, et al. Demand for Prophylaxis after Bioterrorism-Related Anthrax Cases, 2001. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):42-47. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040272.
APA Belongia, E. A., Kieke, B., Lynfield, R., Davis, J. P., & Besser, R. E. (2005). Demand for Prophylaxis after Bioterrorism-Related Anthrax Cases, 2001. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 42-47. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040272.

Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Brazil, 1981–2002 [PDF - 165 KB - 6 pages]
J. B. Siqueira et al.
EID Siqueira JB, Martelli CM, Coelho GE, Simplício AC, Hatch DL. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Brazil, 1981–2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):48-53. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.031091
AMA Siqueira JB, Martelli CM, Coelho GE, et al. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Brazil, 1981–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):48-53. doi:10.3201/eid1101.031091.
APA Siqueira, J. B., Martelli, C. M., Coelho, G. E., Simplício, A. C., & Hatch, D. L. (2005). Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Brazil, 1981–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 48-53. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.031091.

Genetic Background of Escherichia coli and Extended-spectrum β-Lactamase Type [PDF - 180 KB - 8 pages]

To assess the implication of the genetic background of Escherichia coli strains in the emergence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBL), 55 TEM-, 52 CTX-M-, and 22 SHV-type ESBL-producing clinical isolates involved in various extraintestinal infections or colonization were studied in terms of phylogenetic group, virulence factor (VF) content (pap, sfa/foc, hly, and aer genes), and fluoroquinolone resistance. A factorial analysis of correspondence showed that SHV type, and to a lesser extent TEM type, were preferentially observed in B2 phylogenetic group strains that exhibited numerous VFs but were fluoroquinolone-susceptible, whereas the newly emerged CTX-M type was associated with the D phylogenetic group strains that lacked VF but were fluoroquinolone-resistant. Thus, the emergence of ESBL-producing E. coli seems to be the result of complex interactions between the type of ESBL, genetic background of the strain, and selective pressures in ecologic niches.

EID Genetic Background of Escherichia coli and Extended-spectrum β-Lactamase Type. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):54-61. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040257
AMA Genetic Background of Escherichia coli and Extended-spectrum β-Lactamase Type. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):54-61. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040257.
APA (2005). Genetic Background of Escherichia coli and Extended-spectrum β-Lactamase Type. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 54-61. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040257.

Mycobacterium haemophilum and Lymphadenitis in Children [PDF - 218 KB - 7 pages]
L. E. Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet et al.

Infections associated with Mycobacterium haemophilum are underdiagnosed because specific culture methods required for its recovery are not applied routinely. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology on fine needle aspirates and biopsied specimens from 89 children with cervicofacial lymphadenitis, we assessed the importance of M. haemophilum. Application of a Mycobacterium genus–specific real-time PCR in combination with amplicon sequencing and a M. haemophilum–specific PCR resulted in the recognition of M. haemophilum as the causative agent in 16 (18%) children with cervicofacial lymphadenitis. Mycobacterium avium was the most frequently found species (56%), and M. haemophilum was the second most commonly recognized pathogen. Real-time PCR results were superior to culture because only 9 (56%) of the 16 diagnosed M. haemophilum infections were positive by culture.

EID Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet LE, Kuijper EJ, Lindeboom JA, Prins JM, Claas EC. Mycobacterium haemophilum and Lymphadenitis in Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):62-68. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040589
AMA Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet LE, Kuijper EJ, Lindeboom JA, et al. Mycobacterium haemophilum and Lymphadenitis in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):62-68. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040589.
APA Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, L. E., Kuijper, E. J., Lindeboom, J. A., Prins, J. M., & Claas, E. C. (2005). Mycobacterium haemophilum and Lymphadenitis in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 62-68. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040589.

HEPA/Vaccine Plan for Indoor Anthrax Remediation [PDF - 195 KB - 8 pages]
L. M. Wein et al.

We developed a mathematical model to compare 2 indoor remediation strategies in the aftermath of an outdoor release of 1.5 kg of anthrax spores in lower Manhattan. The 2 strategies are the fumigation approach used after the 2001 postal anthrax attack and a HEPA/vaccine plan, which relies on HEPA vacuuming, HEPA air cleaners, and vaccination of reoccupants. The HEPA/vaccine approach leads to few anthrax cases among reoccupants if applied to all but the most heavily contaminated buildings, and recovery is much faster than under the decades-long fumigation plan. Only modest environmental sampling is needed. A surge capacity of 10,000 to 20,000 Hazmat workers is required to perform remediation within 6 to 12 months and to avoid permanent mass relocation. Because of the possibility of a campaign of terrorist attacks, serious consideration should be given to allowing or encouraging voluntary self-service cleaning of lightly contaminated rooms by age-appropriate, vaccinated, partially protected (through masks or hoods) reoccupants or owners.

EID Wein LM, Liu Y, Leighton TJ. HEPA/Vaccine Plan for Indoor Anthrax Remediation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):69-76. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040635
AMA Wein LM, Liu Y, Leighton TJ. HEPA/Vaccine Plan for Indoor Anthrax Remediation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):69-76. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040635.
APA Wein, L. M., Liu, Y., & Leighton, T. J. (2005). HEPA/Vaccine Plan for Indoor Anthrax Remediation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 69-76. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040635.

Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections, Clinical Manifestations and Their Predictors, Montreal, 1995–2002 [PDF - 96 KB - 6 pages]
M. Hollm-Delgado et al.

We identified 306 invasive group A streptococcal infections (IGASI) by passive population-based surveillance in Montreal, Canada, from 1995 to 2001. The average yearly reported incidence was 2.4 per 100,000 persons, with a 14% death rate. Among clinical manifestations, incidence of pneumonia increased from 0.06 per 100,000 in 1995 to 0.50 per 100,000 in 2000. Over a span of 7 years, the odds of developing pneumonia increased (odds ratio [OR] = 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–1.5), while they decreased for soft-tissue infections (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.7–1.0). Serotypes M1 and M3 accounted for 30% of IGASI. However, neither serotype was significantly associated with specific clinical manifestations, which suggests that manifestation development among IGASI might be attributable to host or environmental factors rather than the pathogen. In our study, these factors included age, gender, underlying medical conditions, and living environment, yet none explained temporal changes in risk for pneumonia and soft-tissue infections.

EID Hollm-Delgado M, Allard R, Pilon PA. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections, Clinical Manifestations and Their Predictors, Montreal, 1995–2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):77-82. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.030651
AMA Hollm-Delgado M, Allard R, Pilon PA. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections, Clinical Manifestations and Their Predictors, Montreal, 1995–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):77-82. doi:10.3201/eid1101.030651.
APA Hollm-Delgado, M., Allard, R., & Pilon, P. A. (2005). Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections, Clinical Manifestations and Their Predictors, Montreal, 1995–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 77-82. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.030651.

Malassezia pachydermatis Carriage in Dog Owners [PDF - 148 KB - 6 pages]
D. O. Morris et al.

Yeasts of the genus Malassezia serve as both commensal microorganisms and pathogens on the skin of humans and domestic animals. Although rare, cases of life-threatening fungemia in people have been attributed to Malassezia pachydermatis, for which dogs are a natural host. Zoonotic transfer has been documented from dogs to immunocompromised patients by healthcare workers who own dogs. We investigated the role of pet dogs as risk factors for mechanical carriage of M. pachydermatis on human hands. Dogs and their owners were sampled as pairs, by fungal culture and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although fungal culture was not a reliable means by which to detect carriage of the yeast on human hands, PCR identified M. pachydermatis on most (≈93%) human participants. Human carriage of ubiquitous opportunistic pathogens such as M. pachydermatis underscores the importance of good hand hygiene by healthcare professionals.

EID Morris DO, O’Shea K, Shofer FS, Rankin S. Malassezia pachydermatis Carriage in Dog Owners. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):83-88. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040882
AMA Morris DO, O’Shea K, Shofer FS, et al. Malassezia pachydermatis Carriage in Dog Owners. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):83-88. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040882.
APA Morris, D. O., O’Shea, K., Shofer, F. S., & Rankin, S. (2005). Malassezia pachydermatis Carriage in Dog Owners. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 83-88. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040882.

Anti–SARS-CoV Immunoglobulin G in Healthcare Workers, Guangzhou, China [PDF - 249 KB - 6 pages]
W. Chen et al.

To determine the prevalence of inapparent infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among healthcare workers, we performed a serosurvey to test for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) among 1,147 healthcare workers in 3 hospitals that admitted SARS patients in mid-May 2003. Among them were 90 healthcare workers with SARS. As a reference group, 709 healthcare workers who worked in 2 hospitals that never admitted any SARS patients were similarly tested. The seroprevalence rate was 88.9% (80/90) for healthcare workers with SARS and 1.4% (15/1,057) for healthcare workers who were apparently healthy. The seroprevalence in the reference group was 0.4% (3/709). These findings suggest that inapparent infection is uncommon. Low level of immunity among unaffected healthcare workers reinforces the need for adequate personal protection and other infection control measures in hospitals to prevent future epidemics.

EID Chen W, Lu C, Wong T, Ling W, Lin Z, Hao Y, et al. Anti–SARS-CoV Immunoglobulin G in Healthcare Workers, Guangzhou, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):89-94. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040138
AMA Chen W, Lu C, Wong T, et al. Anti–SARS-CoV Immunoglobulin G in Healthcare Workers, Guangzhou, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):89-94. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040138.
APA Chen, W., Lu, C., Wong, T., Ling, W., Lin, Z., Hao, Y....Yan, G. (2005). Anti–SARS-CoV Immunoglobulin G in Healthcare Workers, Guangzhou, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 89-94. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040138.

Norovirus and Foodborne Disease, United States, 1991–2000 [PDF - 203 KB - 8 pages]
M. Widdowson et al.

Efforts to prevent foodborne illness target bacterial pathogens, yet noroviruses (NoV) are suspected to be the most common cause of gastroenteritis. New molecular assays allow for better estimation of the role of NoV in foodborne illness. We analyzed 8,271 foodborne outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1991 to 2000 and additional data from 6 states. The proportion of NoV-confirmed outbreaks increased from 1% in 1991 to 12% in 2000. However, from 1998 to 2000, 76% of NoV outbreaks were reported by only 11 states. In 2000, an estimated 50% of foodborne outbreaks in 6 states were attributable to NoV. NoV outbreaks were larger than bacterial outbreaks (median persons affected: 25 versus 15), and 10% of affected persons sought medical care; 1% were hospitalized. More widespread use of molecular assays will permit better estimates of the role of NoV illness and help direct efforts to control foodborne illness.

EID Widdowson M, Sulka A, Bulens SN, Beard RS, Chaves SS, Hammond R, et al. Norovirus and Foodborne Disease, United States, 1991–2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):95-102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040426
AMA Widdowson M, Sulka A, Bulens SN, et al. Norovirus and Foodborne Disease, United States, 1991–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):95-102. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040426.
APA Widdowson, M., Sulka, A., Bulens, S. N., Beard, R. S., Chaves, S. S., Hammond, R....Glass, R. I. (2005). Norovirus and Foodborne Disease, United States, 1991–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 95-102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040426.

Human Parechovirus-3 and Neonatal Infections [PDF - 174 KB - 5 pages]
G. Boivin et al.

A third serotype of human parechovirus (HPeV) has been recently isolated from stool specimens of a young Japanese child with transient paralysis. We report 3 additional cases of neonatal sepsis caused by HPeV-3 in the fall of 2001 in Canadian infants 7–27 days old. All children were hospitalized with high fever, erythematous rash, and tachypnea for a median of 5 days. The viruses isolated from nasopharyngeal aspirates grew slowly on tertiary monkey kidney cells and were successfully passaged on Vero cells. The predicted amino acid identity of the VP0-VP3-VP1 region of the three viruses was 74.6%–74.8%, 73.4%–73.6%, and 97.0%–97.1% when compared to HPeV-1, -2, and –3 prototype strains, respectively. Although different, our isolates were closely related; amino acid identity was 99.6%–100% for the latter three proteins.

EID Boivin G, Abed Y, Boucher FD. Human Parechovirus-3 and Neonatal Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):103-107. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040606
AMA Boivin G, Abed Y, Boucher FD. Human Parechovirus-3 and Neonatal Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):103-107. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040606.
APA Boivin, G., Abed, Y., & Boucher, F. D. (2005). Human Parechovirus-3 and Neonatal Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 103-107. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040606.
Dispatches

A Novel Paramyxovirus? [PDF - 332 KB - 5 pages]
C. F. Basler et al.

In public databases, we identified sequences reported as human genes expressed in kidney mesangial cells. The similarity of these genes to paramyxovirus matrix, fusion, and phosphoprotein genes suggests that they are derived from a novel paramyxovirus. These genes are sufficiently unique to suggest the existence of a novel paramyxovirus genus.

EID Basler CF, García-Sastre A, Palese P. A Novel Paramyxovirus?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):108-112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040653
AMA Basler CF, García-Sastre A, Palese P. A Novel Paramyxovirus?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):108-112. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040653.
APA Basler, C. F., García-Sastre, A., & Palese, P. (2005). A Novel Paramyxovirus?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 108-112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040653.

Estimate of Illnesses from Salmonella Enteritidis in Eggs, United States, 2000 [PDF - 177 KB - 3 pages]
C. M. Schroeder et al.

Results from our model suggest that eating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis–contaminated shell eggs caused 182,060 illnesses in the United States during 2000. Uncertainty about the estimate ranged from 81,535 (5th percentile) to 276,500 illnesses (95th percentile). Our model provides 1 approach for estimating foodborne illness and quantifying estimate uncertainty.

EID Schroeder CM, Naugle AL, Schlosser WD, Hogue AT, Angulo FJ, Rose JS, et al. Estimate of Illnesses from Salmonella Enteritidis in Eggs, United States, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):113-115. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040401
AMA Schroeder CM, Naugle AL, Schlosser WD, et al. Estimate of Illnesses from Salmonella Enteritidis in Eggs, United States, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):113-115. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040401.
APA Schroeder, C. M., Naugle, A. L., Schlosser, W. D., Hogue, A. T., Angulo, F. J., Rose, J. S....Goldman, D. P. (2005). Estimate of Illnesses from Salmonella Enteritidis in Eggs, United States, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 113-115. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040401.

Mosquitoborne Viruses, Czech Republic, 2002 [PDF - 135 KB - 3 pages]
Z. Hubálek et al.

Specimens from residents (n = 497) of an area affected by the 2002 flood were examined serologically for mosquitoborne viruses. Antibodies were detected against Tahyna (16%), Sindbis (1%), and Batai (0.2%) viruses, but not West Nile virus. An examination of paired serum samples showed 1 Tahyna bunyavirus (California group) infection.

EID Hubálek Z, Zeman P, Halouzka J, Juřicová Z, Šťovíčková E, Bálková H, et al. Mosquitoborne Viruses, Czech Republic, 2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):116-118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040444
AMA Hubálek Z, Zeman P, Halouzka J, et al. Mosquitoborne Viruses, Czech Republic, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):116-118. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040444.
APA Hubálek, Z., Zeman, P., Halouzka, J., Juřicová, Z., Šťovíčková, E., Bálková, H....Rudolf, I. (2005). Mosquitoborne Viruses, Czech Republic, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 116-118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040444.

Mycobacterium lentiflavum Infection in Immunocompetent Patient [PDF - 138 KB - 4 pages]
C. Molteni et al.

Mycobacterium lentiflavum is a recently described nontuberculous mycobacterium that has mainly clinical importance in young children with cervical lymphadenitis and in immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of chronic pulmonary infection in an immunocompetent patient. Our observation confirms clinical, diagnostic, and treatment difficulties in the management of M. lentiflavum infection.

EID Molteni C, Gazzola L, Cesari M, Lombardi A, Salerno F, Tortoli E, et al. Mycobacterium lentiflavum Infection in Immunocompetent Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):119-122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040523
AMA Molteni C, Gazzola L, Cesari M, et al. Mycobacterium lentiflavum Infection in Immunocompetent Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):119-122. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040523.
APA Molteni, C., Gazzola, L., Cesari, M., Lombardi, A., Salerno, F., Tortoli, E....Gori, A. (2005). Mycobacterium lentiflavum Infection in Immunocompetent Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 119-122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040523.

G, N, and P Gene-based Analysis of Chandipura Viruses, India [PDF - 145 KB - 4 pages]
V. A. Arankalle et al.

An encephalitis outbreak in 2003 in children from India was attributed to Chandipura virus. Sequence analyses of G, N, and P genes showed 95.6%–97.6% nucleotide identity with the 1965 isolate (G gene, 7–11 amino acid changes); N and P genes were highly conserved.

EID Arankalle VA, Prabhakar SS, Madhukar WA, Dattatraya PS, Chandra MA. G, N, and P Gene-based Analysis of Chandipura Viruses, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):123-126. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040602
AMA Arankalle VA, Prabhakar SS, Madhukar WA, et al. G, N, and P Gene-based Analysis of Chandipura Viruses, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):123-126. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040602.
APA Arankalle, V. A., Prabhakar, S. S., Madhukar, W. A., Dattatraya, P. S., & Chandra, M. A. (2005). G, N, and P Gene-based Analysis of Chandipura Viruses, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 123-126. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040602.

Emergent Strain of Human Adenovirus Endemic in Iowa [PDF - 40 KB - 2 pages]
G. C. Gray et al.

We evaluated 76 adenovirus type 7 (Ad7) isolates collected in Iowa from 1992 to 2002 and found that genome type Ad7d2 became increasingly prevalent. By 2002, it had supplanted all other Ad7 genome types. The association of Ad7d2 with severe illness and death calls for heightened public health concern.

EID Gray GC, Setterquist SF, Jirsa SJ, DesJardin LE, Erdman DD. Emergent Strain of Human Adenovirus Endemic in Iowa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):127-128. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040490
AMA Gray GC, Setterquist SF, Jirsa SJ, et al. Emergent Strain of Human Adenovirus Endemic in Iowa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):127-128. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040490.
APA Gray, G. C., Setterquist, S. F., Jirsa, S. J., DesJardin, L. E., & Erdman, D. D. (2005). Emergent Strain of Human Adenovirus Endemic in Iowa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 127-128. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040490.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus Diarrhea, Chile, 1998 and 2004 [PDF - 75 KB - 3 pages]
N. González-Escalona et al.

Analysis of clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from outbreaks in Chile in the cities of Puerto Montt in 2004 and in Antofagasta in 1998 indicated that 23 of 24 isolates from Puerto Montt and 19 of 20 from Antofagasta belonged to the pandemic clonal complex that emerged in Southeast Asia in 1996.

EID González-Escalona N, Cachicas V, Acevedo C, Rioseco ML, Vergara JA, Cabello F, et al. Vibrio parahaemolyticus Diarrhea, Chile, 1998 and 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):129-131. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040762
AMA González-Escalona N, Cachicas V, Acevedo C, et al. Vibrio parahaemolyticus Diarrhea, Chile, 1998 and 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):129-131. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040762.
APA González-Escalona, N., Cachicas, V., Acevedo, C., Rioseco, M. L., Vergara, J. A., Cabello, F....Espejo, R. T. (2005). Vibrio parahaemolyticus Diarrhea, Chile, 1998 and 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 129-131. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040762.

Plasmodium vivax Malaria [PDF - 96 KB - 3 pages]
D. K. Kochar et al.

We report 11 cases of severe Plasmodium vivax malaria in Bikaner (western India). Patients exhibited cerebral malaria, renal failure, circulatory collapse, severe anemia, hemoglobinurea, abnormal bleeding, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and jaundice. Peripheral blood microscopy, parasite antigen–based assays, and parasite 18s rRNA gene–based polymerase chain reaction showed the presence of P. vivax and absence of P. falciparum.

EID Kochar DK, Saxena V, Singh N, Kochar SK, Kumar SV, Das A. Plasmodium vivax Malaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):132-134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040519
AMA Kochar DK, Saxena V, Singh N, et al. Plasmodium vivax Malaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):132-134. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040519.
APA Kochar, D. K., Saxena, V., Singh, N., Kochar, S. K., Kumar, S. V., & Das, A. (2005). Plasmodium vivax Malaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 132-134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040519.

SARS Clinical Features, United States, 2003 [PDF - 181 KB - 4 pages]
P. Srikantiah et al.

We compared the clinical features of 8 U.S. case-patients with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) to 65 controls who tested negative for SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. Shortness of breath, vomiting, diarrhea, progressive bilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph, and need for supplemental oxygen were significantly associated with confirmed SARS-CoV infection.

EID Srikantiah P, Charles MD, Reagan S, Clark TA, Pletz MW, Patel PR, et al. SARS Clinical Features, United States, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):135-138. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040585
AMA Srikantiah P, Charles MD, Reagan S, et al. SARS Clinical Features, United States, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):135-138. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040585.
APA Srikantiah, P., Charles, M. D., Reagan, S., Clark, T. A., Pletz, M. W., Patel, P. R....Fischer, M. (2005). SARS Clinical Features, United States, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 135-138. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040585.

Melioidosis in Mauritius [PDF - 52 KB - 2 pages]
M. I. Issack et al.

We report the first case of human melioidosis from Mauritius, where Burkholderia pseudomallei has never been isolated. The patient was immunocompromised, had never traveled abroad, and had a history of regular exposure to mud. She became ill at a time when rainfall was higher than the monthly average.

EID Issack MI, Bundhun CD, Gokhool H. Melioidosis in Mauritius. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):139-140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040605
AMA Issack MI, Bundhun CD, Gokhool H. Melioidosis in Mauritius. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):139-140. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040605.
APA Issack, M. I., Bundhun, C. D., & Gokhool, H. (2005). Melioidosis in Mauritius. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 139-140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040605.

Distribution and Characteristics of Escherichia coli Clonal Group A [PDF - 195 KB - 5 pages]
J. R. Johnson et al.

Among 1,102 recent Escherichia coli clinical isolates, clonal group A was identified in 17 of 20 (U.S. and non-U.S.) geographic locales, mainly among U.S. isolates (9% vs. 3%; p < 0.001) and those resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (10% vs. 1.7%; p < 0.001). The extensive antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of clonal group A may underlie its recent widespread emergence.

EID Johnson JR, Murray AC, Kuskowski MA, Schubert S, Prère M, Picard B, et al. Distribution and Characteristics of Escherichia coli Clonal Group A1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):141-145. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040418
AMA Johnson JR, Murray AC, Kuskowski MA, et al. Distribution and Characteristics of Escherichia coli Clonal Group A1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):141-145. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040418.
APA Johnson, J. R., Murray, A. C., Kuskowski, M. A., Schubert, S., Prère, M., Picard, B....Raz, R. (2005). Distribution and Characteristics of Escherichia coli Clonal Group A1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 141-145. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040418.

Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection in High School Football Players, New York City, 2003 [PDF - 137 KB - 4 pages]
S. E. Manning et al.

After being notified that 2 high school football teammates were hospitalized with confirmed or suspected invasive group A streptococcal infections, we conducted an investigation of possible spread among other team members. This investigation highlights a need for guidelines on management of streptococcal and other infectious disease outbreaks in team sport settings.

EID Manning SE, Lee E, Bambino M, Ackelsberg J, Weiss D, Sathyakumar C, et al. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection in High School Football Players, New York City, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):146-149. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040559
AMA Manning SE, Lee E, Bambino M, et al. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection in High School Football Players, New York City, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):146-149. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040559.
APA Manning, S. E., Lee, E., Bambino, M., Ackelsberg, J., Weiss, D., Sathyakumar, C....Layton, M. (2005). Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection in High School Football Players, New York City, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 146-149. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040559.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype, Northern Malawi [PDF - 194 KB - 4 pages]
J. R. Glynn et al.

In a 7-year population-based study in Malawi, we showed that Beijing genotype tuberculosis (TB) increased as a proportion of TB cases. All the Beijing genotype strains were fully drug sensitive. Contact histories, TB type, and case-fatality rates were similar for Beijing and non-Beijing genotype TB.

EID Glynn JR, Crampin AC, Traore H, Yates MD, Mwaungulu FD, Ngwira BM, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype, Northern Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):150-153. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040869
AMA Glynn JR, Crampin AC, Traore H, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype, Northern Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):150-153. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040869.
APA Glynn, J. R., Crampin, A. C., Traore, H., Yates, M. D., Mwaungulu, F. D., Ngwira, B. M....Fine, P. E. (2005). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype, Northern Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 150-153. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040869.

Norovirus Transmission on Cruise Ship [PDF - 182 KB - 4 pages]
E. T. Isakbaeva et al.

We describe an investigation of a norovirus gastroenteritis outbreak aboard a cruise ship affecting 6 consecutive cruises and the use of sequence analysis to determine modes of virus transmission. Noroviruses (NoV), are the most common cause of infectious acute gastroenteritis and are transmitted feco-orally through food and water, directly from person to person and by environmental contamination (1). These viruses are often responsible for protracted outbreaks in closed settings, such as cruise ships, nursing homes, and hospitals (2,3).

EID Isakbaeva ET, Widdowson M, Beard RS, Bulens SN, Mullins J, Monroe SS, et al. Norovirus Transmission on Cruise Ship. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):154-157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040434
AMA Isakbaeva ET, Widdowson M, Beard RS, et al. Norovirus Transmission on Cruise Ship. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):154-157. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040434.
APA Isakbaeva, E. T., Widdowson, M., Beard, R. S., Bulens, S. N., Mullins, J., Monroe, S. S....Glass, R. I. (2005). Norovirus Transmission on Cruise Ship. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 154-157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040434.

Serologic Evidence of Human and Swine Influenza in Mayan Persons [PDF - 45 KB - 3 pages]
G. Ayora-Talavera et al.

Antibodies against influenza viruses were detected in 115 serum samples from indigenous Mayan persons from Kochol, Yucatán. Seropositivity rates were 26.9% to A/Bayern/7/95, 40.8% to A/Sydney/5/97, 1.7% to A/Swine/Wisconsin/238/97, and 79.1% to A/Swine/Minnesota/593/99. This report is the first in Mexico of the prevalence of antibodies to swine influenza virus in humans.

EID Ayora-Talavera G, Cadavieco-Burgos JM, Canul-Armas AB. Serologic Evidence of Human and Swine Influenza in Mayan Persons. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):158-160. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040554
AMA Ayora-Talavera G, Cadavieco-Burgos JM, Canul-Armas AB. Serologic Evidence of Human and Swine Influenza in Mayan Persons. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):158-160. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040554.
APA Ayora-Talavera, G., Cadavieco-Burgos, J. M., & Canul-Armas, A. B. (2005). Serologic Evidence of Human and Swine Influenza in Mayan Persons. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 158-160. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040554.
Letters

Occupational Health Response to SARS [PDF - 24 KB - 2 pages]
D. Koh et al.
EID Koh D, Lim M, Ong C, Chia S. Occupational Health Response to SARS. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):167-168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040637
AMA Koh D, Lim M, Ong C, et al. Occupational Health Response to SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):167-168. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040637.
APA Koh, D., Lim, M., Ong, C., & Chia, S. (2005). Occupational Health Response to SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 167-168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040637.

SARS-CoV Sampling from 3 Portals
T. R. Tong
EID Tong TR. SARS-CoV Sampling from 3 Portals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040645
AMA Tong TR. SARS-CoV Sampling from 3 Portals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):167. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040645.
APA Tong, T. R. (2005). SARS-CoV Sampling from 3 Portals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040645.

Tracing SARS-Coronavirus Variant with Large Genomic Deletion [PDF - 70 KB - 3 pages]
R. W. Chiu et al.
EID Chiu RW, Chim SS, Tong Y, Fung KS, Chan P, Zhao G, et al. Tracing SARS-Coronavirus Variant with Large Genomic Deletion. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):168-170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040544
AMA Chiu RW, Chim SS, Tong Y, et al. Tracing SARS-Coronavirus Variant with Large Genomic Deletion. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):168-170. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040544.
APA Chiu, R. W., Chim, S. S., Tong, Y., Fung, K. S., Chan, P., Zhao, G....Lo, Y. D. (2005). Tracing SARS-Coronavirus Variant with Large Genomic Deletion. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 168-170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040544.

Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Java [PDF - 24 KB - 2 pages]
J. Threlfall et al.
EID Threlfall J, Levent B, Hopkins KL, de Pinna E, Ward LR, Brown DJ. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Java. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):170-171. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.031092
AMA Threlfall J, Levent B, Hopkins KL, et al. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Java. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):170-171. doi:10.3201/eid1101.031092.
APA Threlfall, J., Levent, B., Hopkins, K. L., de Pinna, E., Ward, L. R., & Brown, D. J. (2005). Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Java. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 170-171. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.031092.

1990s Vibrio cholerae Epidemic, Brazil [PDF - 23 KB - 2 pages]
A. C. Vicente and A. M. Coelho
EID Vicente AC, Coelho AM. 1990s Vibrio cholerae Epidemic, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):171-172. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040484
AMA Vicente AC, Coelho AM. 1990s Vibrio cholerae Epidemic, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):171-172. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040484.
APA Vicente, A. C., & Coelho, A. M. (2005). 1990s Vibrio cholerae Epidemic, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 171-172. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040484.

Fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella Paratyphi A [PDF - 41 KB - 3 pages]
T. Adachi et al.
EID Adachi T, Sagara H, Hirose K, Watanabe H. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella Paratyphi A. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):172-174. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040145
AMA Adachi T, Sagara H, Hirose K, et al. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella Paratyphi A. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):172-174. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040145.
APA Adachi, T., Sagara, H., Hirose, K., & Watanabe, H. (2005). Fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella Paratyphi A. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 172-174. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040145.

Pygmy Populations Seronegative for Marburg Virus [PDF - 108 KB - 4 pages]
M. Borchert et al.
EID Borchert M, Mulangu S, Swanepoel R, Tshomba A, Afounde A, Kulidri A, et al. Pygmy Populations Seronegative for Marburg Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):174-177. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040378
AMA Borchert M, Mulangu S, Swanepoel R, et al. Pygmy Populations Seronegative for Marburg Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):174-177. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040378.
APA Borchert, M., Mulangu, S., Swanepoel, R., Tshomba, A., Afounde, A., Kulidri, A....Van der Stuyft, P. (2005). Pygmy Populations Seronegative for Marburg Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 174-177. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040378.

Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis [PDF - 71 KB - 3 pages]
C. Wang et al.
EID Wang C, Jerng J, Ko J, Lin M, Hsiao C, Lee L, et al. Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):177-179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040613
AMA Wang C, Jerng J, Ko J, et al. Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):177-179. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040613.
APA Wang, C., Jerng, J., Ko, J., Lin, M., Hsiao, C., Lee, L....Kuo, S. (2005). Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 177-179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040613.

Kytococcus schroeteri Endocarditis [PDF - 35 KB - 2 pages]
C. Le Brun et al.
EID Le Brun C, Bouet J, Gautier P, Avril J, Gaillot O. Kytococcus schroeteri Endocarditis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):179-180. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040761
AMA Le Brun C, Bouet J, Gautier P, et al. Kytococcus schroeteri Endocarditis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):179-180. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040761.
APA Le Brun, C., Bouet, J., Gautier, P., Avril, J., & Gaillot, O. (2005). Kytococcus schroeteri Endocarditis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 179-180. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040761.

Viral Gastroenteritis in Mongolian Infants [PDF - 42 KB - 3 pages]
G. S. Hansman et al.
EID Hansman GS, Kuramitsu M, Kuroiwa C, Yoshida H, Kimura H, Takeda N, et al. Viral Gastroenteritis in Mongolian Infants. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):180-182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040337
AMA Hansman GS, Kuramitsu M, Kuroiwa C, et al. Viral Gastroenteritis in Mongolian Infants. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):180-182. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040337.
APA Hansman, G. S., Kuramitsu, M., Kuroiwa, C., Yoshida, H., Kimura, H., Takeda, N....Gantulga, D. (2005). Viral Gastroenteritis in Mongolian Infants. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 180-182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040337.

Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Finland [PDF - 35 KB - 2 pages]
J. Mäkinen et al.
EID Mäkinen J, Mertsola J, Mooi FR, Van Amersfoorth S, Arvilommi H, Viljanen MK, et al. Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Finland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):183-184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040632
AMA Mäkinen J, Mertsola J, Mooi FR, et al. Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):183-184. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040632.
APA Mäkinen, J., Mertsola, J., Mooi, F. R., Van Amersfoorth, S., Arvilommi, H., Viljanen, M. K....He, Q. (2005). Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 183-184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040632.
Another Dimension

Death of Seurat [PDF - 183 KB - 5 pages]
S. K. Vora
EID Vora SK. Death of Seurat. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):162-166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040269
AMA Vora SK. Death of Seurat. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):162-166. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040269.
APA Vora, S. K. (2005). Death of Seurat. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 162-166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040269.
Books and Media

Real-Time PCR: An Essential Guide [PDF - 20 KB - 2 pages]
K. McCaustland
EID McCaustland K. Real-Time PCR: An Essential Guide. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):185-186. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040896
AMA McCaustland K. Real-Time PCR: An Essential Guide. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):185-186. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040896.
APA McCaustland, K. (2005). Real-Time PCR: An Essential Guide. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 185-186. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040896.

Textbook–Atlas of Intestinal Infection in AIDS [PDF - 15 KB - 1 page]
M. J. Blaser
EID Blaser MJ. Textbook–Atlas of Intestinal Infection in AIDS. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):186. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040986
AMA Blaser MJ. Textbook–Atlas of Intestinal Infection in AIDS. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):186. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040986.
APA Blaser, M. J. (2005). Textbook–Atlas of Intestinal Infection in AIDS. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 186. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040986.

Public Health Response to Biological and Chemical Weapons: WHO Guidance [PDF - 118 KB - 2 pages]
J. W. Buehler
EID Buehler JW. Public Health Response to Biological and Chemical Weapons: WHO Guidance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):186-187. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040927
AMA Buehler JW. Public Health Response to Biological and Chemical Weapons: WHO Guidance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):186-187. doi:10.3201/eid1101.040927.
APA Buehler, J. W. (2005). Public Health Response to Biological and Chemical Weapons: WHO Guidance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 186-187. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040927.
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Genre Painting and the World's Kitchen [PDF - 112 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Genre Painting and the World's Kitchen. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(1):188-189. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.ac1101
AMA Potter P. Genre Painting and the World's Kitchen. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(1):188-189. doi:10.3201/eid1101.ac1101.
APA Potter, P. (2005). Genre Painting and the World's Kitchen. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 188-189. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.ac1101.
Page created: April 25, 2012
Page updated: May 04, 2012
Page reviewed: May 04, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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