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Issue Cover for Volume 12, Number 7—July 2006

Volume 12, Number 7—July 2006

[PDF - 5.58 MB - 139 pages]

Perspective

Emerging Infectious Determinants of Chronic Diseases [PDF - 145 KB - 7 pages]
S. M. O'Connor et al.

Evidence now confirms that noncommunicable chronic diseases can stem from infectious agents. Furthermore, at least 13 of 39 recently described infectious agents induce chronic syndromes. Identifying the relationships can affect health across populations, creating opportunities to reduce the impact of chronic disease by preventing or treating infection. As the concept is progressively accepted, advances in laboratory technology and epidemiology facilitate the detection of noncultivable, novel, and even recognized microbial origins. A spectrum of diverse pathogens and chronic syndromes emerges, with a range of pathways from exposure to chronic illness or disability. Complex systems of changing human behavioral traits superimposed on human, microbial, and environmental factors often determine risk for exposure and chronic outcome. Yet the strength of causal evidence varies widely, and detecting a microbe does not prove causality. Nevertheless, infectious agents likely determine more cancers, immune-mediated syndromes, neurodevelopmental disorders, and other chronic conditions than currently appreciated.

EID O'Connor SM, Taylor CE, Hughes JM. Emerging Infectious Determinants of Chronic Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1051-1057. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060037
AMA O'Connor SM, Taylor CE, Hughes JM. Emerging Infectious Determinants of Chronic Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1051-1057. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060037.
APA O'Connor, S. M., Taylor, C. E., & Hughes, J. M. (2006). Emerging Infectious Determinants of Chronic Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1051-1057. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060037.

Global Public Health Surveillance under New International Health Regulations [PDF - 287 KB - 8 pages]
M. G. Baker and D. P. Fidler

The new International Health Regulations adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 2005 (IHR 2005) represents a major development in the use of international law for public health purposes. One of the most important aspects of IHR 2005 is the establishment of a global surveillance system for public health emergencies of international concern. This article assesses the surveillance system in IHR 2005 by applying well-established frameworks for evaluating public health surveillance. The assessment shows that IHR 2005 constitutes a major advance in global surveillance from what has prevailed in the past. Effectively implementing the IHR 2005 surveillance objectives requires surmounting technical, resource, governance, legal, and political obstacles. Although IHR 2005 contains some provisions that directly address these obstacles, active support by the World Health Organization and its member states is required to strengthen national and global surveillance capabilities.

EID Baker MG, Fidler DP. Global Public Health Surveillance under New International Health Regulations. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1058-1065. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051497
AMA Baker MG, Fidler DP. Global Public Health Surveillance under New International Health Regulations. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1058-1065. doi:10.3201/eid1207.051497.
APA Baker, M. G., & Fidler, D. P. (2006). Global Public Health Surveillance under New International Health Regulations. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1058-1065. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051497.
Research

Neisseria meningitidis Sequence Type and Risk for Death, Iceland [PDF - 270 KB - 8 pages]
M. Gottfreðsson et al.

Invasive meningococcal infections are hyperendemic in Iceland, a relatively isolated country in the mid-Atlantic. We performed a nationwide study on all viable meningococcal strains (N = 362) from 1977 to 2004. We analyzed the association of patient's age and sex, meningococcal serogroups, and sequence types (STs) with outcomes. Overall, 59 different STs were identified, 19 of which were unique to Iceland. The most common STs were 32 (24.6%), 11 (19.9%), and 10 (10.2%). The unique ST-3492 ranked fourth (7.7%). The most common serogroups were B (56.4%), C (39.8%), and A (2.2%). Age (p<0.001) and infection with a unique ST (p = 0.011) were independently associated with increased death rates, whereas isolation of meningococci from cerebrospinal fluid only was associated with lower death rates (p = 0.046). This study shows evolutionary trends of meningococcal isolates in a relatively isolated community and highlights an association between unique STs and poor outcome.

EID Gottfreðsson M, Diggle MA, Lawrie DI, Erlendsdóttir H, Harðardóttir H, Kristinsson KG, et al. Neisseria meningitidis Sequence Type and Risk for Death, Iceland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1066-1073. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051624
AMA Gottfreðsson M, Diggle MA, Lawrie DI, et al. Neisseria meningitidis Sequence Type and Risk for Death, Iceland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1066-1073. doi:10.3201/eid1207.051624.
APA Gottfreðsson, M., Diggle, M. A., Lawrie, D. I., Erlendsdóttir, H., Harðardóttir, H., Kristinsson, K. G....Clarke, S. C. (2006). Neisseria meningitidis Sequence Type and Risk for Death, Iceland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1066-1073. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051624.

Tickborne Arbovirus Surveillance in Market Livestock, Nairobi, Kenya [PDF - 123 KB - 7 pages]
R. Sang et al.

To identify tickborne viruses circulating in Kenya and the surrounding region, we conducted surveillance at abattoirs in Nairobi, Kenya. Species of ticks collected included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (56%), Amblyomma gemma (14%), R. appendiculatus (8%), A. variegatum (6%), and others. A total of 56 virus isolates were obtained, 26 from A. gemma, 17 from R. pulchellus, 6 from A. variegatum, and 7 from other species. Virus isolates included Dugbe virus (DUGV), an unknown virus related to DUGV, Thogoto, Bhanja, Kadam, Dhori, Barur, and foot-and-mouth disease (FMDV) viruses. This is the first report of Dhori virus isolation in East Africa and the first known isolation of FMDV associated with tick collection. Our results demonstrate the potential for tickborne dissemination of endemic and emergent viruses and the relevance of A. gemma in the maintenance of tickborne viruses in this region.

EID Sang R, Onyango C, Gachoya J, Mabinda E, Konongoi S, Ofula V, et al. Tickborne Arbovirus Surveillance in Market Livestock, Nairobi, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1074-1080. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060253
AMA Sang R, Onyango C, Gachoya J, et al. Tickborne Arbovirus Surveillance in Market Livestock, Nairobi, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1074-1080. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060253.
APA Sang, R., Onyango, C., Gachoya, J., Mabinda, E., Konongoi, S., Ofula, V....Miller, B. (2006). Tickborne Arbovirus Surveillance in Market Livestock, Nairobi, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1074-1080. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060253.

Rodent-associated Bartonella Febrile Illness, Southwestern United States [PDF - 237 KB - 6 pages]
J. Iralu et al.

Serum specimens from 114 patients hospitalized with a febrile illness were tested with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Bartonella antigens prepared from 6 species of sigmodontine rodents and 3 known human Bartonella pathogens: B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. elizabethae. Acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples from 5 of these patients showed seroconversion with an IFA titer >512 to rodent-associated Bartonella antigens. The highest titer was against antigen derived from the white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula), although this rodent is not necessarily implicated as the source of infection. Three of the 5 who seroconverted showed no cross-reaction to the 3 Bartonella human pathogens. Common clinical characteristics were fever, chills, myalgias, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and transaminasemia. Although antibodies to Bartonella are cross-reactive, high-titer seroconversions to rodent-associated Bartonella antigens in adults with common clinical characteristics should stimulate the search for additional Bartonella human pathogens.

EID Iralu J, Bai Y, Crook L, Tempest B, Simpson G, McKenzie T, et al. Rodent-associated Bartonella Febrile Illness, Southwestern United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1081-1086. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.040397
AMA Iralu J, Bai Y, Crook L, et al. Rodent-associated Bartonella Febrile Illness, Southwestern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1081-1086. doi:10.3201/eid1207.040397.
APA Iralu, J., Bai, Y., Crook, L., Tempest, B., Simpson, G., McKenzie, T....Koster, F. (2006). Rodent-associated Bartonella Febrile Illness, Southwestern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1081-1086. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.040397.

Migratory Passerine Birds as Reservoirs of Lyme Borreliosis in Europe [PDF - 305 KB - 16 pages]
P. Comstedt et al.

To define the role of birds as reservoirs and disseminators of Borrelia spirochetes, we characterized tick infestation and reservoir competence of migratory passerine birds in Sweden. A total of 1,120 immature Ixodes ricinus ticks were removed from 13,260 birds and assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Borrelia, followed by DNA sequencing for species and genotype identification. Distributions of ticks on birds were aggregated, presumably because of varying encounters with ticks along migratory routes. Lyme borreliosis spirochetes were detected in 160 (14%) ticks. Borrelia garinii was the most common species in PCR-positive samples and included genotypes associated with human infections. Infestation prevalence with infected ticks was 5 times greater among ground-foraging birds than other bird species, but the 2 groups were equally competent in transmitting Borrelia. Migratory passerine birds host epidemiologically important vector ticks and Borrelia species and vary in effectiveness as reservoirs on the basis of their feeding behavior.

EID Comstedt P, Bergström S, Olsen B, Garpmo U, Marjavaara L, Mejlon H, et al. Migratory Passerine Birds as Reservoirs of Lyme Borreliosis in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1087-1102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060127
AMA Comstedt P, Bergström S, Olsen B, et al. Migratory Passerine Birds as Reservoirs of Lyme Borreliosis in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1087-1102. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060127.
APA Comstedt, P., Bergström, S., Olsen, B., Garpmo, U., Marjavaara, L., Mejlon, H....Bunikis, J. (2006). Migratory Passerine Birds as Reservoirs of Lyme Borreliosis in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1087-1102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060127.

Reinfestation Sources for Chagas Disease Vector, Triatoma infestans, Argentina [PDF - 182 KB - 7 pages]
M. C. Cecere et al.

Reinfestation by Triatoma infestans after insecticide spraying has caused elimination efforts in the dry Chaco region to fail repeatedly. The sources and spatial extent that need to be considered to understand the reinfestation pattern and to plan a comprehensive control program were studied in 2 adjacent rural communities in northwestern Argentina from 1993 to 1997. The effects of external, residual, and primary sources on the reinfestation pattern were evaluated by using geographic information systems, satellite imagery, spatial statistics, and 5-year retrospective data for 1,881 sites. The reinfestation process depended on primary internal sources and on surrounding infested communities. In the dry Chaco, successfully reducing the risk for reinfestation in a community depends on treating all communities and isolated sites within 1,500 m of the target community. In addition, during the surveillance phase, spraying all sites within 500 m of new foci will delay reinfestation.

EID Cecere MC, Vazquez-Prokopec G, Gürtler RE, Kitron U. Reinfestation Sources for Chagas Disease Vector, Triatoma infestans, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1096-1102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051445
AMA Cecere MC, Vazquez-Prokopec G, Gürtler RE, et al. Reinfestation Sources for Chagas Disease Vector, Triatoma infestans, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1096-1102. doi:10.3201/eid1207.051445.
APA Cecere, M. C., Vazquez-Prokopec, G., Gürtler, R. E., & Kitron, U. (2006). Reinfestation Sources for Chagas Disease Vector, Triatoma infestans, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1096-1102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051445.

Rickettsia sibirica Isolation from a Patient and Detection in Ticks, Portugal [PDF - 139 KB - 6 pages]
R. de Sousa et al.

We report the first isolation of Rickettsia sibirica (strain mongolotimonae) from the blood of a patient and detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the rickettsia in a Rhipicephalus pusillus tick collected from a dead mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) in the Alentejo region, Portugal. We describe also the first PCR detection of a new Rickettsia strain that is related to R. sibirica.

EID de Sousa R, Barata C, Vitorino L, Santos-Silva M, Carrapato C, Torgal J, et al. Rickettsia sibirica Isolation from a Patient and Detection in Ticks, Portugal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1103-1108. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051494
AMA de Sousa R, Barata C, Vitorino L, et al. Rickettsia sibirica Isolation from a Patient and Detection in Ticks, Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1103-1108. doi:10.3201/eid1207.051494.
APA de Sousa, R., Barata, C., Vitorino, L., Santos-Silva, M., Carrapato, C., Torgal, J....Bacellar, F. (2006). Rickettsia sibirica Isolation from a Patient and Detection in Ticks, Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1103-1108. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051494.

Orientia tsutsugamushi in Eschars from Scrub Typhus Patients [PDF - 144 KB - 4 pages]
Y. Liu et al.

To verify the value of eschars for the diagnosis of scrub typhus and to characterize genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi in patients, we examined eschars and blood specimens of 7 patients from Shandong Province, People's Republic of China, for O. tsutsugamushi by polymerase chain reaction targeting the Sta56 gene. All 7 eschars and acute-phase blood samples were positive, while no specific DNA amplicons were obtained from the 7 convalescent-phase blood samples collected after antimicrobial drug therapy. The findings indicate that patients' eschars can be used for detection and genetic characterization of O. tsutsugamushi during the convalescent phase.

EID Liu Y, Cao W, Gao Y, Zhang J, Yang Z, Zhao Z, et al. Orientia tsutsugamushi in Eschars from Scrub Typhus Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1109-1112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.050827
AMA Liu Y, Cao W, Gao Y, et al. Orientia tsutsugamushi in Eschars from Scrub Typhus Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1109-1112. doi:10.3201/eid1207.050827.
APA Liu, Y., Cao, W., Gao, Y., Zhang, J., Yang, Z., Zhao, Z....Foley, J. (2006). Orientia tsutsugamushi in Eschars from Scrub Typhus Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1109-1112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.050827.

Epidemiologic and Molecular Analysis of Human Tularemia, United States, 1964–2004 [PDF - 263 KB - 9 pages]
J. Staples et al.

Tularemia in the United States is caused by 2 subspecies of Francisella tularensis, subspecies tularensis (type A) and subspecies holarctica (type B). We compared clinical and demographic features of human tularemia cases from 1964 to 2004 from 39 states in which an isolate was recovered and subtyped. Our data indicate that type A and type B infections differ with respect to affected populations, anatomic site of isolation, and geographic distribution. Molecular subtyping with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis further defined 2 subpopulations of type A (type A-east and type A-west) that differ with respect to geographic distribution, disease outcome, and transmission. Our data suggest that type A-west infections are less severe than either type B or type A-east infections. Through a combined epidemiologic and molecular approach to human cases of tularemia, we provide new insights into the disease for future investigation.

EID Staples J, Kubota KA, Chalcraft LG, Mead PS, Petersen J. Epidemiologic and Molecular Analysis of Human Tularemia, United States, 1964–2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1113-1121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051504
AMA Staples J, Kubota KA, Chalcraft LG, et al. Epidemiologic and Molecular Analysis of Human Tularemia, United States, 1964–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1113-1121. doi:10.3201/eid1207.051504.
APA Staples, J., Kubota, K. A., Chalcraft, L. G., Mead, P. S., & Petersen, J. (2006). Epidemiologic and Molecular Analysis of Human Tularemia, United States, 1964–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1113-1121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051504.
Dispatches

Smallpox during Pregnancy and Maternal Outcomes [PDF - 124 KB - 3 pages]
H. Nishiura

A historical study evaluated maternal outcomes in pregnancy complicated by smallpox. The overall case fatality was estimated to be 34.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 31.4–37.1), and the proportion of miscarriage or premature birth was estimated to be 39.9% (95% CI 36.5–43.2). Vaccination before pregnancy reduced the risk for death.

EID Nishiura H. Smallpox during Pregnancy and Maternal Outcomes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1119-1121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051531
AMA Nishiura H. Smallpox during Pregnancy and Maternal Outcomes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1119-1121. doi:10.3201/eid1207.051531.
APA Nishiura, H. (2006). Smallpox during Pregnancy and Maternal Outcomes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1119-1121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051531.

Japanese Spotted Fever, South Korea [PDF - 260 KB - 3 pages]
M. Chung et al.

We describe the first case of Japanese spotted fever and the first isolate of spotted fever group rickettsia from a patient in South Korea. The isolated rickettsia from the patient was identified as Rickettsia japonica by analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA, gltA, ompA, ompB, and sca4 genes.

EID Chung M, Lee S, Kim M, Lee J, Kim E, Lee J, et al. Japanese Spotted Fever, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1122-1124. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051372
AMA Chung M, Lee S, Kim M, et al. Japanese Spotted Fever, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1122-1124. doi:10.3201/eid1207.051372.
APA Chung, M., Lee, S., Kim, M., Lee, J., Kim, E., Lee, J....Kang, J. (2006). Japanese Spotted Fever, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1122-1124. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051372.

Transmission of New Bovine Prion to Mice [PDF - 303 KB - 4 pages]
T. Baron et al.

We previously reported that cattle were affected by a prion disorder that differed from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by showing distinct molecular features of disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres). We show that intracerebral injection of such isolates into C57BL/6 mice produces a disease with preservation of PrPres molecular features distinct from BSE.

EID Baron T, Biacabe A, Bencsik A, Langeveld J. Transmission of New Bovine Prion to Mice. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1125-1128. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060107
AMA Baron T, Biacabe A, Bencsik A, et al. Transmission of New Bovine Prion to Mice. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1125-1128. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060107.
APA Baron, T., Biacabe, A., Bencsik, A., & Langeveld, J. (2006). Transmission of New Bovine Prion to Mice. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1125-1128. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060107.

Follow-up of 2003 Human West Nile Virus Infections, Denver, Colorado [PDF - 67 KB - 3 pages]
J. L. Patnaik et al.

Tri-County Health Department and Boulder County Public Health conducted a follow-up study of all nonfatal West Nile virus (WNV) cases reported during 2003 in 4 metropolitan Denver, Colorado, counties. Self-reported patient information was obtained ≈6 months after onset. A total of 656 (81.2%) eligible WNV patients are included in this study.

EID Patnaik JL, Harmon H, Vogt RL. Follow-up of 2003 Human West Nile Virus Infections, Denver, Colorado. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1129-1131. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051399
AMA Patnaik JL, Harmon H, Vogt RL. Follow-up of 2003 Human West Nile Virus Infections, Denver, Colorado. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1129-1131. doi:10.3201/eid1207.051399.
APA Patnaik, J. L., Harmon, H., & Vogt, R. L. (2006). Follow-up of 2003 Human West Nile Virus Infections, Denver, Colorado. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1129-1131. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051399.

Triple Reassortant H3N2 Influenza A Viruses, Canada, 2005 [PDF - 347 KB - 4 pages]
C. W. Olsen et al.

Since January 2005, H3N2 influenza viruses have been isolated from pigs and turkeys throughout Canada and from a swine farmer and pigs on the same farm in Ontario. These are human/classical swine/avian reassortants similar to viruses that emerged in US pigs in 1998 but with a distinct human-lineage neuraminidase gene.

EID Olsen CW, Karasin AI, Carman S, Li Y, Bastien N, Ojkic D, et al. Triple Reassortant H3N2 Influenza A Viruses, Canada, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1132-1135. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060268
AMA Olsen CW, Karasin AI, Carman S, et al. Triple Reassortant H3N2 Influenza A Viruses, Canada, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1132-1135. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060268.
APA Olsen, C. W., Karasin, A. I., Carman, S., Li, Y., Bastien, N., Ojkic, D....Broukhanski, G. (2006). Triple Reassortant H3N2 Influenza A Viruses, Canada, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1132-1135. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060268.

Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Norway and Denmark [PDF - 94 KB - 3 pages]
T. Skarpaas et al.

Serum from 2 Norwegians with tickborne encephalitis (TBE) (1 of whom was infected in Denmark) and 810 Norwegian ticks were tested for TBE virus (TBEV) RNA by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed. This is the first genome detection of TBEV in serum from Norwegian patients.

EID Skarpaas T, Golovljova I, Vene S, Ljøstad U, Sjursen H, Plyusnin A, et al. Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Norway and Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1136-1138. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051567
AMA Skarpaas T, Golovljova I, Vene S, et al. Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Norway and Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1136-1138. doi:10.3201/eid1207.051567.
APA Skarpaas, T., Golovljova, I., Vene, S., Ljøstad, U., Sjursen, H., Plyusnin, A....Lundkvist, Å. (2006). Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Norway and Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1136-1138. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051567.

Detection of Infectious Poxvirus Particles [PDF - 348 KB - 3 pages]
A. Nitsche et al.

To enable rapid and reliable detection of poxviruses in clinical and environmental specimens, a diagnostic approach was developed to detect <3 PFU of infectious poxvirus particles in <5 hours. This approach involved virus culture combined with real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction detection of 2 viral genes expressed immediately after infection.

EID Nitsche A, Stern D, Ellerbrok H, Pauli G. Detection of Infectious Poxvirus Particles. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1139-1141. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060093
AMA Nitsche A, Stern D, Ellerbrok H, et al. Detection of Infectious Poxvirus Particles. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1139-1141. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060093.
APA Nitsche, A., Stern, D., Ellerbrok, H., & Pauli, G. (2006). Detection of Infectious Poxvirus Particles. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1139-1141. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060093.

European Bat Lyssavirus Type 2 RNA in Myotis daubentonii [PDF - 116 KB - 3 pages]
N. Johnson et al.

Organ distribution of European bat lyssavirus type 2 viral RNA in its reservoir host, Myotis daubentonii (Daubenton's bat), was measured with a novel quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction assay. High levels of genomic RNA were found in the brain and were also detectable in the tongue, bladder, and stomach.

EID Johnson N, Wakeley PR, Brookes SM, Fooks AR. European Bat Lyssavirus Type 2 RNA in Myotis daubentonii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1142-1144. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060287
AMA Johnson N, Wakeley PR, Brookes SM, et al. European Bat Lyssavirus Type 2 RNA in Myotis daubentonii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1142-1144. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060287.
APA Johnson, N., Wakeley, P. R., Brookes, S. M., & Fooks, A. R. (2006). European Bat Lyssavirus Type 2 RNA in Myotis daubentonii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1142-1144. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060287.

Replicon Typing of Plasmids Encoding Resistance to Newer β-Lactams [PDF - 211 KB - 4 pages]
A. Carattoli et al.

Polymerase chain reaction–based replicon typing represents a novel method to describe the dissemination and follow the evolution of resistance plasmids. We used this approach to study 26 epidemiologically unrelated Enterobacteriaceae and demonstrate the dominance of incompatibility (Inc) A/C or Inc N-related plasmids carrying some emerging resistance determinants to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems.

EID Carattoli A, Miriagou V, Bertini A, Loli A, Colinon C, Villa L, et al. Replicon Typing of Plasmids Encoding Resistance to Newer β-Lactams. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1145-1148. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051555
AMA Carattoli A, Miriagou V, Bertini A, et al. Replicon Typing of Plasmids Encoding Resistance to Newer β-Lactams. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1145-1148. doi:10.3201/eid1207.051555.
APA Carattoli, A., Miriagou, V., Bertini, A., Loli, A., Colinon, C., Villa, L....Rossolini, G. (2006). Replicon Typing of Plasmids Encoding Resistance to Newer β-Lactams. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1145-1148. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051555.

Azithromycin Failure in Mycoplasma genitalium Urethritis [PDF - 199 KB - 4 pages]
C. S. Bradshaw et al.

We report significant failure rates (28%, 95% confidence interval 15%–45%) after administering 1 g azithromycin to men with Mycoplasma genitalium–positive nongonococcal urethritis. In vitro evidence supported reduced susceptibility of M. genitalium to macrolides. Moxifloxacin administration resulted in rapid symptom resolution and eradication of infection in all cases. These findings have implications for management of urethritis.

EID Bradshaw CS, Jensen JS, Tabrizi SN, Read T, Garland SM, Hopkins CA, et al. Azithromycin Failure in Mycoplasma genitalium Urethritis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1149-1152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051558
AMA Bradshaw CS, Jensen JS, Tabrizi SN, et al. Azithromycin Failure in Mycoplasma genitalium Urethritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1149-1152. doi:10.3201/eid1207.051558.
APA Bradshaw, C. S., Jensen, J. S., Tabrizi, S. N., Read, T., Garland, S. M., Hopkins, C. A....Fairley, C. K. (2006). Azithromycin Failure in Mycoplasma genitalium Urethritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1149-1152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051558.

Leptospirosis in Squirrels Imported from United States to Japan [PDF - 104 KB - 3 pages]
T. Masuzawa et al.

We diagnosed leptospirosis in 2 patients exposed to southern flying squirrels imported from the United States to Japan. Patients worked with exotic animals in their company. Leptospira isolates from 1 patient and 5 of 10 squirrels at the company were genetically and serologically identical and were identified as Leptospira kirschneri.

EID Masuzawa T, Okamoto Y, Une Y, Takeuchi T, Tsukagoshi K, Koizumi N, et al. Leptospirosis in Squirrels Imported from United States to Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1153-1155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060370
AMA Masuzawa T, Okamoto Y, Une Y, et al. Leptospirosis in Squirrels Imported from United States to Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1153-1155. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060370.
APA Masuzawa, T., Okamoto, Y., Une, Y., Takeuchi, T., Tsukagoshi, K., Koizumi, N....Yoshikawa, Y. (2006). Leptospirosis in Squirrels Imported from United States to Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1153-1155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060370.

Tuberculosis Outbreak in Marijuana Users, Seattle, Washington, 2004 [PDF - 181 KB - 4 pages]
J. E. Oeltmann et al.

Matching Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were noted among 11 young tuberculosis patients socially linked through illicit drug–related activities. A large proportion of their friends, 14 (64%) of 22, had positive tuberculin skin-test results. The behavior of "hotboxing" (smoking marijuana inside a closed car with friends to repeatedly inhale exhaled smoke) fueled transmission.

EID Oeltmann JE, Oren E, Haddad MB, Lake LK, Harrington TA, Ijaz K, et al. Tuberculosis Outbreak in Marijuana Users, Seattle, Washington, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1156-1159. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051436
AMA Oeltmann JE, Oren E, Haddad MB, et al. Tuberculosis Outbreak in Marijuana Users, Seattle, Washington, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1156-1159. doi:10.3201/eid1207.051436.
APA Oeltmann, J. E., Oren, E., Haddad, M. B., Lake, L. K., Harrington, T. A., Ijaz, K....Narita, M. (2006). Tuberculosis Outbreak in Marijuana Users, Seattle, Washington, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1156-1159. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051436.
Commentaries

60 Years of Progress—CDC and Infectious Diseases [PDF - 84 KB - 2 pages]
T. Popovic and D. E. Snider
EID Popovic T, Snider DE. 60 Years of Progress—CDC and Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1160-1161. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060531
AMA Popovic T, Snider DE. 60 Years of Progress—CDC and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1160-1161. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060531.
APA Popovic, T., & Snider, D. E. (2006). 60 Years of Progress—CDC and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1160-1161. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060531.
Letters

Influenzalike Illness Among Homeless Persons [PDF - 36 KB - 2 pages]
S. J. Bucher et al.
EID Bucher SJ, Brickner PW, Vincent RL. Influenzalike Illness Among Homeless Persons. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1162-1163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060217
AMA Bucher SJ, Brickner PW, Vincent RL. Influenzalike Illness Among Homeless Persons. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1162-1163. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060217.
APA Bucher, S. J., Brickner, P. W., & Vincent, R. L. (2006). Influenzalike Illness Among Homeless Persons. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1162-1163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060217.

Human West Nile Virus Infection, Catalonia, Spain [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
D. Bofill et al.
EID Bofill D, Domingo C, Cardeñosa N, Zaragoza J, de Ory F, Minguell S, et al. Human West Nile Virus Infection, Catalonia, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1163-1164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060164
AMA Bofill D, Domingo C, Cardeñosa N, et al. Human West Nile Virus Infection, Catalonia, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1163-1164. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060164.
APA Bofill, D., Domingo, C., Cardeñosa, N., Zaragoza, J., de Ory, F., Minguell, S....Tenorio, A. (2006). Human West Nile Virus Infection, Catalonia, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1163-1164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060164.

Shigellosis and Cryptosporidiosis, Baltimore, Maryland [PDF - 25 KB - 2 pages]
D. M. Hartley et al.
EID Hartley DM, Klontz KC, Ryan P, Morris J. Shigellosis and Cryptosporidiosis, Baltimore, Maryland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1164-1165. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060449
AMA Hartley DM, Klontz KC, Ryan P, et al. Shigellosis and Cryptosporidiosis, Baltimore, Maryland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1164-1165. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060449.
APA Hartley, D. M., Klontz, K. C., Ryan, P., & Morris, J. (2006). Shigellosis and Cryptosporidiosis, Baltimore, Maryland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1164-1165. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060449.

Human Hantavirus Infection, Brazilian Amazon [PDF - 40 KB - 3 pages]
M. Cordeiro dos Santos et al.
EID Cordeiro dos Santos M, Guimarães de Lacerda M, Benedetti S, Albuquerque B, Filho A, Elkhoury M, et al. Human Hantavirus Infection, Brazilian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1165-1167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060074
AMA Cordeiro dos Santos M, Guimarães de Lacerda M, Benedetti S, et al. Human Hantavirus Infection, Brazilian Amazon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1165-1167. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060074.
APA Cordeiro dos Santos, M., Guimarães de Lacerda, M., Benedetti, S., Albuquerque, B., Filho, A., Elkhoury, M....Mourão, M. (2006). Human Hantavirus Infection, Brazilian Amazon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1165-1167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060074.

H5N1 Influenza Virus, Domestic Birds, Western Siberia, Russia [PDF - 112 KB - 3 pages]
A. Shestopalov et al.
EID Shestopalov A, Durimanov AG, Evseenko VA, Ternovoi VA, Rassadkin Y, Razumova YV, et al. H5N1 Influenza Virus, Domestic Birds, Western Siberia, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1167-1169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051338
AMA Shestopalov A, Durimanov AG, Evseenko VA, et al. H5N1 Influenza Virus, Domestic Birds, Western Siberia, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1167-1169. doi:10.3201/eid1207.051338.
APA Shestopalov, A., Durimanov, A. G., Evseenko, V. A., Ternovoi, V. A., Rassadkin, Y., Razumova, Y. V....Netesov, S. V. (2006). H5N1 Influenza Virus, Domestic Birds, Western Siberia, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1167-1169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051338.

Leishmaniasis among Gold Miners, French Guiana [PDF - 53 KB - 2 pages]
B. Rotureau et al.
EID Rotureau B, Joubert M, Clyti E, Djossou F, Carme B. Leishmaniasis among Gold Miners, French Guiana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1169-1170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051466
AMA Rotureau B, Joubert M, Clyti E, et al. Leishmaniasis among Gold Miners, French Guiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1169-1170. doi:10.3201/eid1207.051466.
APA Rotureau, B., Joubert, M., Clyti, E., Djossou, F., & Carme, B. (2006). Leishmaniasis among Gold Miners, French Guiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1169-1170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051466.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance, Ghana [PDF - 56 KB - 3 pages]
E. Owusu-Dabo et al.
EID Owusu-Dabo E, Adjei O, Meyer CG, Horstmann RD, Enimil A, Kruppa TF, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance, Ghana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1170-1172. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051028
AMA Owusu-Dabo E, Adjei O, Meyer CG, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1170-1172. doi:10.3201/eid1207.051028.
APA Owusu-Dabo, E., Adjei, O., Meyer, C. G., Horstmann, R. D., Enimil, A., Kruppa, T. F....Ruesch-Gerdes, S. (2006). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1170-1172. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.051028.

Avian Influenza Risk Communication, Thailand [PDF - 44 KB - 2 pages]
M. T. Takeuchi
EID Takeuchi MT. Avian Influenza Risk Communication, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1172-1173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060277
AMA Takeuchi MT. Avian Influenza Risk Communication, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1172-1173. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060277.
APA Takeuchi, M. T. (2006). Avian Influenza Risk Communication, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1172-1173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060277.

Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Genes in Staphylococcus aureus [PDF - 50 KB - 2 pages]
D. C. Melles et al.
EID Melles DC, van Leeuwen WB, Boelens H, Peeters JK, Verbrugh HA, van Belkum A. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Genes in Staphylococcus aureus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1174-1175. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.050865
AMA Melles DC, van Leeuwen WB, Boelens H, et al. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Genes in Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1174-1175. doi:10.3201/eid1207.050865.
APA Melles, D. C., van Leeuwen, W. B., Boelens, H., Peeters, J. K., Verbrugh, H. A., & van Belkum, A. (2006). Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Genes in Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1174-1175. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.050865.

Small Anellovirus in Hepatitis C Patients and Healthy Controls [PDF - 48 KB - 2 pages]
E. Andreoli et al.
EID Andreoli E, Maggi F, Pistello M, Meschi S, Vatteroni M, Nelli L, et al. Small Anellovirus in Hepatitis C Patients and Healthy Controls. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1175-1176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060234
AMA Andreoli E, Maggi F, Pistello M, et al. Small Anellovirus in Hepatitis C Patients and Healthy Controls. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1175-1176. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060234.
APA Andreoli, E., Maggi, F., Pistello, M., Meschi, S., Vatteroni, M., Nelli, L....Bendinelli, M. (2006). Small Anellovirus in Hepatitis C Patients and Healthy Controls. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1175-1176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060234.

Lyme Borreliosis and Borrelia spielmanii [PDF - 28 KB - 1 page]
V. Maraspin et al.
EID Maraspin V, Ruzic-Sabljic E, Strle F. Lyme Borreliosis and Borrelia spielmanii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1177. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060077
AMA Maraspin V, Ruzic-Sabljic E, Strle F. Lyme Borreliosis and Borrelia spielmanii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1177. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060077.
APA Maraspin, V., Ruzic-Sabljic, E., & Strle, F. (2006). Lyme Borreliosis and Borrelia spielmanii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1177. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060077.

Feral Cats and Risk for Nipah Virus Transmission [PDF - 120 KB - 2 pages]
J. H. Epstein et al.
EID Epstein JH, Rahman S, Zambriski JA, Halpin K, Meehan G, Jamaluddin A, et al. Feral Cats and Risk for Nipah Virus Transmission. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1178-1179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.050799
AMA Epstein JH, Rahman S, Zambriski JA, et al. Feral Cats and Risk for Nipah Virus Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1178-1179. doi:10.3201/eid1207.050799.
APA Epstein, J. H., Rahman, S., Zambriski, J. A., Halpin, K., Meehan, G., Jamaluddin, A....Daszak, P. (2006). Feral Cats and Risk for Nipah Virus Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1178-1179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.050799.
Books and Media

Gastroenteritis at a University in Texas: An Epidemiologic Case Study [PDF - 14 KB - 1 page]
P. S. Brachman
EID Brachman PS. Gastroenteritis at a University in Texas: An Epidemiologic Case Study. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1180. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060457
AMA Brachman PS. Gastroenteritis at a University in Texas: An Epidemiologic Case Study. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1180. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060457.
APA Brachman, P. S. (2006). Gastroenteritis at a University in Texas: An Epidemiologic Case Study. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1180. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060457.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin [PDF - 154 KB - 1 page]
S. Holzbauer and T. M. Chiller
EID Holzbauer S, Chiller TM. Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1180. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060503
AMA Holzbauer S, Chiller TM. Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1180. doi:10.3201/eid1207.060503.
APA Holzbauer, S., & Chiller, T. M. (2006). Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1180. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.060503.
About the Cover

Fine Art and Good Health for the Masses [PDF - 153 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Fine Art and Good Health for the Masses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1182-1183. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.ac1207
AMA Potter P. Fine Art and Good Health for the Masses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1182-1183. doi:10.3201/eid1207.ac1207.
APA Potter, P. (2006). Fine Art and Good Health for the Masses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1182-1183. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.ac1207.
Etymologia

Etymologia: malaria [PDF - 46 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: malaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(7):1138. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.et1207
AMA Etymologia: malaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(7):1138. doi:10.3201/eid1207.et1207.
APA (2006). Etymologia: malaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7), 1138. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1207.et1207.
Conference Summaries

Preparedness for Anthrax Epizootics in Wildlife Areas
S. Clegg

Critical Issues in Responding to Pandemic Influenza
J. W. Buehler et al.
Page created: December 19, 2011
Page updated: December 19, 2011
Page reviewed: December 19, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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