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Issue Cover for Volume 13, Number 12—December 2007

Volume 13, Number 12—December 2007

[PDF - 5.93 MB - 175 pages]

Perspective

Effects of Local Anthropogenic Changes on Potential Malaria Vector Anopheles hyrcanus and West Nile Virus Vector Culex modestus, Camargue, France [PDF - 137 KB - 6 pages]
N. Ponçon et al.

Using historical data, we highlight the consequences of anthropogenic ecosystem modifications on the abundance of mosquitoes implicated as the current most important potential malaria vector, Anopheles hyrcanus, and the most important West Nile virus (WNV) vector, Culex modestus, in the Camargue region, France. From World War II to 1971, populations of these species increased as rice cultivation expanded in the region in a political context that supported agriculture. They then fell, likely because of decreased cultivation and increased pesticide use to control a rice pest. The species increased again after 2000 with the advent of more targeted pest-management strategies, mainly the results of European regulations decisions. An intertwined influence of political context, environmental constraints, technical improvements, and social factors led to changes in mosquito abundance that had potential consequences on malaria and WNV transmission. These findings suggest that anthropogenic changes should not be underestimated in vectorborne disease recrudescence.

EID Ponçon N, Balenghien T, Toty C, Ferré JB, Thomas C, Dervieux A, et al. Effects of Local Anthropogenic Changes on Potential Malaria Vector Anopheles hyrcanus and West Nile Virus Vector Culex modestus, Camargue, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1810-1815. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070730
AMA Ponçon N, Balenghien T, Toty C, et al. Effects of Local Anthropogenic Changes on Potential Malaria Vector Anopheles hyrcanus and West Nile Virus Vector Culex modestus, Camargue, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1810-1815. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070730.
APA Ponçon, N., Balenghien, T., Toty, C., Ferré, J. B., Thomas, C., Dervieux, A....Fontenille, D. (2007). Effects of Local Anthropogenic Changes on Potential Malaria Vector Anopheles hyrcanus and West Nile Virus Vector Culex modestus, Camargue, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1810-1815. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070730.

Need for Improved Methods to Collect and Present Spatial Epidemiologic Data for Vectorborne Diseases [PDF - 224 KB - 5 pages]
L. Eisen and R. J. Eisen

Improved methods for collection and presentation of spatial epidemiologic data are needed for vectorborne diseases in the United States. Lack of reliable data for probable pathogen exposure site has emerged as a major obstacle to the development of predictive spatial risk models. Although plague case investigations can serve as a model for how to ideally generate needed information, this comprehensive approach is cost-prohibitive for more common and less severe diseases. New methods are urgently needed to determine probable pathogen exposure sites that will yield reliable results while taking into account economic and time constraints of the public health system and attending physicians. Recent data demonstrate the need for a change from use of the county spatial unit for presentation of incidence of vectorborne diseases to more precise ZIP code or census tract scales. Such fine-scale spatial risk patterns can be communicated to the public and medical community through Web-mapping approaches.

EID Eisen L, Eisen RJ. Need for Improved Methods to Collect and Present Spatial Epidemiologic Data for Vectorborne Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1816-1820. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070211
AMA Eisen L, Eisen RJ. Need for Improved Methods to Collect and Present Spatial Epidemiologic Data for Vectorborne Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1816-1820. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070211.
APA Eisen, L., & Eisen, R. J. (2007). Need for Improved Methods to Collect and Present Spatial Epidemiologic Data for Vectorborne Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1816-1820. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070211.
Research

Susceptibility of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) [PDF - 522 KB - 7 pages]
J. Pasick et al.

Migratory birds have been implicated in the long-range spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A virus (H5N1) from Asia to Europe and Africa. Although sampling of healthy wild birds representing a large number of species has not identified possible carriers of influenza virus (H5N1) into Europe, surveillance of dead and sick birds has demonstrated mute (Cygnus olor) and whooper (C. cygnus) swans as potential sentinels. Because of concerns that migratory birds could spread H5N1 subtype to the Western Hemisphere and lead to its establishment within free-living avian populations, experimental studies have addressed the susceptibility of several indigenous North American duck and gull species. We examined the susceptibility of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) to HPAI virus (H5N1). Large populations of this species can be found in periagricultural and periurban settings and thus may be of potential epidemiologic importance if H5N1 subtype were to establish itself in North American wild bird populations.

EID Pasick J, Berhane Y, Embury-Hyatt C, Copps J, Kehler H, Handel K, et al. Susceptibility of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1821-1827. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070502
AMA Pasick J, Berhane Y, Embury-Hyatt C, et al. Susceptibility of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1821-1827. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070502.
APA Pasick, J., Berhane, Y., Embury-Hyatt, C., Copps, J., Kehler, H., Handel, K....Phuong, S. L. (2007). Susceptibility of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1821-1827. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070502.

Fishborne Zoonotic Intestinal Trematodes, Vietnam [PDF - 396 KB - 6 pages]
D. T. Dung et al.

Although fishborne zoonotic trematodes that infect the liver are well documented in Vietnam, intestinal fishborne zoonotic trematodes are unreported. Recent discoveries of the metacercarial stage of these flukes in wild and farmed fish prompted an assessment of their risk to a community that eats raw fish. A fecal survey of 615 persons showed a trematode egg prevalence of 64.9%. Infected persons were treated to expel liver and intestinal parasites for specific identification. The liver trematode Clonorchis sinensis was recovered from 51.5%, but >1 of 4 intestinal species of the family Heterophyidae was recovered from 100%. The most numerous were Haplorchis spp. (90.4% of all worms recovered). These results demonstrate that fishborne intestinal parasites are an unrecognized food safety risk in a country whose people have a strong tradition of eating raw fish.

EID Dung DT, Van De N, Waikagul J, Dalsgaard A, Chai J, Sohn W, et al. Fishborne Zoonotic Intestinal Trematodes, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1828-1833. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070554
AMA Dung DT, Van De N, Waikagul J, et al. Fishborne Zoonotic Intestinal Trematodes, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1828-1833. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070554.
APA Dung, D. T., Van De, N., Waikagul, J., Dalsgaard, A., Chai, J., Sohn, W....Murrell, K. D. (2007). Fishborne Zoonotic Intestinal Trematodes, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1828-1833. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070554.

Emergence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus of Animal Origin in Humans [PDF - 358 KB - 6 pages]
I. van Loo et al.

In 2003 in the Netherlands, a new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain emerged that could not be typed with Sma1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (NT-MRSA). The association of NT-MRSA in humans with a reservoir in animals was investigated. The frequency of NT-MRSA increased from 0% in 2002 to >21% after intensified surveillance was implemented in July 2006. Geographically, NT-MRSA clustered with pig farming. A case–control study showed that carriers of NT-MRSA were more often pig or cattle farmers (pig farmers odds ratio [OR] 12.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1–48.6; cattle farmers OR 19.7, 95% CI 2.3–169.5). Molecular typing showed that the NT-MRSA strains belonged to a new clonal complex, ST 398. This study shows that MRSA from an animal reservoir has recently entered the human population and is now responsible for >20% of all MRSA in the Netherlands.

EID van Loo I, Huijsdens X, Tiemersma E, de Neeling AJ, van de Sande-Bruinsma N, Beaujean D, et al. Emergence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus of Animal Origin in Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1834-1839. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070384
AMA van Loo I, Huijsdens X, Tiemersma E, et al. Emergence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus of Animal Origin in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1834-1839. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070384.
APA van Loo, I., Huijsdens, X., Tiemersma, E., de Neeling, A. J., van de Sande-Bruinsma, N., Beaujean, D....Kluytmans, J. (2007). Emergence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus of Animal Origin in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1834-1839. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070384.

Hospitalizations and Deaths Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, United States, 1999–2005 [PDF - 192 KB - 7 pages]
E. Klein et al.

Hospital-acquired infections with Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections, are a major cause of illness and death and impose serious economic costs on patients and hospitals. However, the recent magnitude and trend of these infections have not been reported. We used national hospitalization and resistance data to estimate the annual number of hospitalizations and deaths associated with S. aureus and MRSA from 1999 through 2005. During this period, the estimated number of S. aureus–related hospitalizations increased 62%, from 294,570 to 477,927, and the estimated number of MRSA-related hospitalizations more than doubled, from 127,036 to 278,203. Our findings suggest that S. aureus and MRSA should be considered a national priority for disease control.

EID Klein E, Smith DL, Laxminarayan R. Hospitalizations and Deaths Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, United States, 1999–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1840-1846. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070629
AMA Klein E, Smith DL, Laxminarayan R. Hospitalizations and Deaths Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, United States, 1999–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1840-1846. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070629.
APA Klein, E., Smith, D. L., & Laxminarayan, R. (2007). Hospitalizations and Deaths Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, United States, 1999–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1840-1846. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070629.

Studies of Reservoir Hosts for Marburg Virus [PDF - 158 KB - 5 pages]
R. Swanepoel et al.

To determine reservoir hosts for Marburg virus (MARV), we examined the fauna of a mine in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The mine was associated with a protracted outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever during 1998–2000. We found MARV nucleic acid in 12 bats, comprising 3.0%–3.6% of 2 species of insectivorous bat and 1 species of fruit bat. We found antibody to the virus in the serum of 9.7% of 1 of the insectivorous species and in 20.5% of the fruit bat species, but attempts to isolate virus were unsuccessful.

EID Swanepoel R, Smit SB, Rollin PE, Formenty P, Leman PA, Kemp A, et al. Studies of Reservoir Hosts for Marburg Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1847-1851. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.071115
AMA Swanepoel R, Smit SB, Rollin PE, et al. Studies of Reservoir Hosts for Marburg Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1847-1851. doi:10.3201/eid1312.071115.
APA Swanepoel, R., Smit, S. B., Rollin, P. E., Formenty, P., Leman, P. A., Kemp, A....Paweska, J. T. (2007). Studies of Reservoir Hosts for Marburg Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1847-1851. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.071115.

Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection in Older Adults in Long-term Care Facilities and the Community, United States, 1998–2003 [PDF - 215 KB - 8 pages]
M. C. Thigpen et al.

Limited information exists on the incidence and characteristics of invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections among residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). We reviewed cases of invasive GAS infections occurring among persons >65 years of age identified through active, population-based surveillance from 1998 through 2003. We identified 1,762 invasive GAS cases among persons >65 years, including 1,662 with known residence type (LTCF or community). Incidence of invasive GAS infection among LTCF residents compared to community-based elderly was 41.0 versus 6.9 cases per 100,000 population. LTCF case-patients were 1.5 times as likely to die from the infection as community-based case-patients (33% vs. 21%, p<0.01) but were less often hospitalized (90% vs. 95%, p<0.01). In multivariate logistic regression modeling, LTCF residence remained an independent predictor of death. Additional prevention strategies against GAS infection in this high-risk population are urgently needed.

EID Thigpen MC, Richards CL, Lynfield R, Barrett NL, Harrison LH, Arnold KE, et al. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection in Older Adults in Long-term Care Facilities and the Community, United States, 1998–2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1852-1859. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070303
AMA Thigpen MC, Richards CL, Lynfield R, et al. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection in Older Adults in Long-term Care Facilities and the Community, United States, 1998–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1852-1859. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070303.
APA Thigpen, M. C., Richards, C. L., Lynfield, R., Barrett, N. L., Harrison, L. H., Arnold, K. E....Van Beneden, C. A. (2007). Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection in Older Adults in Long-term Care Facilities and the Community, United States, 1998–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1852-1859. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070303.

Pig Herds Free from Human Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica [PDF - 273 KB - 5 pages]
T. Nesbakken et al.

Pork products are a substantial source of human yersiniosis, a foodborne disease caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. Thus, the ability to eliminate this agent from pig herds would be an important step in producing human pathogen–free pork. Pig herds free from Y. enterocolitica O:3/biovar 4 have been established and maintained. According to serologic and cultural testing results, 15 of 16 specific pathogen–free herds were free from Y. enterocolitica O:3/biovar 4; this closed breeding pyramid has remained free from this organism since 1996. Pig herds free from human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica suggest that human pathogen–free herds could be attained to provide pork free from zoonotic agents.

EID Nesbakken T, Iversen T, Lium B. Pig Herds Free from Human Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1860-1864. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070531
AMA Nesbakken T, Iversen T, Lium B. Pig Herds Free from Human Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1860-1864. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070531.
APA Nesbakken, T., Iversen, T., & Lium, B. (2007). Pig Herds Free from Human Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1860-1864. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070531.

Swine Influenza (H3N2) Infection in a Child and Possible Community Transmission, Canada [PDF - 268 KB - 6 pages]
J. L. Robinson et al.

An influenza A virus (H3N2) of probable swine origin, designated A/Canada/1158/2006, was isolated from a 7-month-old hospitalized child who lived on a communal farm in Canada. The child recovered uneventfully. A serosurvey that used a hemagglutination-inhibition assay for A/Canada/1158/2006 was conducted on 54 of the 90 members of the farm. Seropositivity was demonstrated in the index patient, 4 of 7 household members, and 4 of 46 nonhousehold members; none had a history of hospital admission for respiratory illness in the preceding year. Serologic evidence for this strain of swine influenza was also found in 1 of 10 pigs (12 weeks–6 months of age) on the farm. Human infection with swine influenza virus is underrecognized in Canada, and because viral strains could adapt or reassort into a form that results in efficient human-to-human transmission, routine surveillance of swine workers should be considered as part of pandemic influenza preparedness.

EID Robinson JL, Lee BE, Patel J, Bastien N, Grimsrud K, Seal RF, et al. Swine Influenza (H3N2) Infection in a Child and Possible Community Transmission, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1865-1870. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070615
AMA Robinson JL, Lee BE, Patel J, et al. Swine Influenza (H3N2) Infection in a Child and Possible Community Transmission, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1865-1870. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070615.
APA Robinson, J. L., Lee, B. E., Patel, J., Bastien, N., Grimsrud, K., Seal, R. F....Li, Y. (2007). Swine Influenza (H3N2) Infection in a Child and Possible Community Transmission, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1865-1870. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070615.

Swine Workers and Swine Influenza Virus Infections [PDF - 154 KB - 8 pages]
G. C. Gray et al.

In 2004, 803 rural Iowans from the Agricultural Health Study were enrolled in a 2-year prospective study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Demographic and occupational exposure data from enrollment, 12-month, and 24-month follow-up encounters were examined for association with evidence of previous and incident influenza virus infections. When proportional odds modeling with multivariable adjustment was used, upon enrollment, swine-exposed participants (odds ratio [OR] 54.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 13.0–232.6) and their nonswine-exposed spouses (OR 28.2, 95% CI 6.1–130.1) were found to have an increased odds of elevated antibody level to swine influenza (H1N1) virus compared with 79 nonexposed University of Iowa personnel. Further evidence of occupational swine influenza virus infections was observed through self-reported influenza-like illness data, comparisons of enrollment and follow-up serum samples, and the isolation of a reassortant swine influenza (H1N1) virus from an ill swine farmer. Study data suggest that swine workers and their nonswine-exposed spouses are at increased risk of zoonotic influenza virus infections.

EID Gray GC, McCarthy T, Capuano AW, Setterquist SF, Olsen CW, Alavanja MC, et al. Swine Workers and Swine Influenza Virus Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1871-1878. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.061323
AMA Gray GC, McCarthy T, Capuano AW, et al. Swine Workers and Swine Influenza Virus Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1871-1878. doi:10.3201/eid1312.061323.
APA Gray, G. C., McCarthy, T., Capuano, A. W., Setterquist, S. F., Olsen, C. W., Alavanja, M. C....Lynch, C. F. (2007). Swine Workers and Swine Influenza Virus Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1871-1878. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.061323.

Epidemiology and Molecular Virus Characterization of Reemerging Rabies, South Africa [PDF - 302 KB - 8 pages]
S. Tempia et al.

The incidence of dog rabies in Limpopo Province, South Africa, increased from 5 cases in 2004 to 100 in 2006. Human rabies had last been confirmed in 1981, but investigations instituted after an index case was recognized in February 2006 identified 21 confirmed, 4 probable, and 5 possible human cases between August 5, 2005, and December 31, 2006. Twelve of these case-patients were identified retrospectively because the diagnosis of rabies was not considered: 6 of these patients consulted a traditional healer, 6 had atypical manifestations with prominent abdominal symptoms, and 6 of 7 patients tested had elevated liver enzyme activity. Molecular genetic analysis indicated that outbreak virus strains were most closely related to recent canine strains from southern Zimbabwe. Delayed recognition of the human cases may have resulted from decreased clinical suspicion after many years of effective control of the disease and the occurrence of atypical clinical presentations.

EID Tempia S, Sartorius B, Sabeta C, Zulu G, Pawęska JT, Mogoswane M, et al. Epidemiology and Molecular Virus Characterization of Reemerging Rabies, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1879-1886. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070836
AMA Tempia S, Sartorius B, Sabeta C, et al. Epidemiology and Molecular Virus Characterization of Reemerging Rabies, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1879-1886. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070836.
APA Tempia, S., Sartorius, B., Sabeta, C., Zulu, G., Pawęska, J. T., Mogoswane, M....Blumberg, L. (2007). Epidemiology and Molecular Virus Characterization of Reemerging Rabies, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1879-1886. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070836.

Phenotypic Similarity of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy in Cattle and L-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in a Mouse Model [PDF - 817 KB - 8 pages]
T. Baron et al.

Transmissible mink encepholapathy (TME) is a foodborne transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of ranch-raised mink; infection with a ruminant TSE has been proposed as the cause, but the precise origin of TME is unknown. To compare the phenotypes of each TSE, bovine-passaged TME isolate and 3 distinct natural bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agents (typical BSE, H-type BSE, and L-type BSE) were inoculated into an ovine transgenic mouse line (TgOvPrP4). Transgenic mice were susceptible to infection with bovine-passaged TME, typical BSE, and L-type BSE but not to H-type BSE. Based on survival periods, brain lesions profiles, disease-associated prion protein brain distribution, and biochemical properties of protease-resistant prion protein, typical BSE had a distint phenotype in ovine transgenic mice compared to L-type BSE and bovine TME. The similar phenotypic properties of L-type BSE and bovine TME in TgOvPrP4 mice suggest that L-type BSE is a much more likely candidate for the origin of TME than is typical BSE.

EID Baron T, Bencsik A, Biacabe A, Morignat E, Bessen RA. Phenotypic Similarity of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy in Cattle and L-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in a Mouse Model. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1887-1894. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070635
AMA Baron T, Bencsik A, Biacabe A, et al. Phenotypic Similarity of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy in Cattle and L-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in a Mouse Model. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1887-1894. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070635.
APA Baron, T., Bencsik, A., Biacabe, A., Morignat, E., & Bessen, R. A. (2007). Phenotypic Similarity of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy in Cattle and L-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in a Mouse Model. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1887-1894. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070635.

Changing Epidemiology of Human Brucellosis, Germany, 1962–2005 [PDF - 230 KB - 6 pages]
S. Al Dahouk et al.

Trends in the epidemiology of human brucellosis in Germany were investigated by analyzing national surveillance data (1962–2005) complemented by a questionnaire-based survey (1995–2000). After a steady decrease in brucellosis incidence from 1962 to the 1980s, a persistent number of cases has been reported in recent years, with the highest incidence in Turkish immigrants (0.3/100,000 Turks vs. 0.01/100,000 in the German population; incidence rate ratio 29). Among cases with reported exposure risks, 59% were related to the consumption of unpasteurized cheese from brucellosis-endemic countries. The mean diagnostic delay was 2.5 months. Case fatality rates increased from 0.4% (1978–1981) to a maximum of 6.5% (1998–2001). The epidemiology of brucellosis in Germany has evolved from an endemic occupational disease among the German population into a travel-associated foodborne zoonosis, primarily affecting Turkish immigrants. Prolonged diagnostic delays and high case fatality call for targeted public health measures.

EID Al Dahouk S, Neubauer H, Hensel A, Schöneberg I, Nöckler K, Alpers K, et al. Changing Epidemiology of Human Brucellosis, Germany, 1962–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1895-1900. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070527
AMA Al Dahouk S, Neubauer H, Hensel A, et al. Changing Epidemiology of Human Brucellosis, Germany, 1962–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1895-1900. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070527.
APA Al Dahouk, S., Neubauer, H., Hensel, A., Schöneberg, I., Nöckler, K., Alpers, K....Jansen, A. (2007). Changing Epidemiology of Human Brucellosis, Germany, 1962–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1895-1900. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070527.
Dispatches

Viable Newcastle Disease Vaccine Strains in a Pharmaceutical Dump [PDF - 211 KB - 3 pages]
A. Amendola et al.

To assess the viability of discarded and buried vaccine strains, we examined vaccines that had been buried for >20 years in an industrial waste dump in the city of Milan, Italy. Viability results showed potential biological risk associated with uncontrolled burial of pharmaceutical industry waste, including some live vaccines.

EID Amendola A, Bianchi S, Canuti M, Zappa A, Zanoni G, Koncan R, et al. Viable Newcastle Disease Vaccine Strains in a Pharmaceutical Dump. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1901-1903. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070715
AMA Amendola A, Bianchi S, Canuti M, et al. Viable Newcastle Disease Vaccine Strains in a Pharmaceutical Dump. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1901-1903. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070715.
APA Amendola, A., Bianchi, S., Canuti, M., Zappa, A., Zanoni, G., Koncan, R....Tridente, G. (2007). Viable Newcastle Disease Vaccine Strains in a Pharmaceutical Dump. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1901-1903. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070715.

Parachlamydia spp. and Related Chlamydia-like Organisms and Bovine Abortion [PDF - 268 KB - 4 pages]
N. Borel et al.

Chlamydophila abortus and Waddlia chondrophila cause abortion in ruminants. We investigated the role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in bovine abortion. Results of immunohistochemical analyses were positive in 30 (70%) of 43 placentas from which Chlamydia-like DNA was amplified, which supports the role of Parachlamydia spp. in bovine abortion.

EID Borel N, Ruhl S, Casson N, Kaiser C, Pospischil A, Greub G. Parachlamydia spp. and Related Chlamydia-like Organisms and Bovine Abortion. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1904-1907. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070655
AMA Borel N, Ruhl S, Casson N, et al. Parachlamydia spp. and Related Chlamydia-like Organisms and Bovine Abortion. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1904-1907. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070655.
APA Borel, N., Ruhl, S., Casson, N., Kaiser, C., Pospischil, A., & Greub, G. (2007). Parachlamydia spp. and Related Chlamydia-like Organisms and Bovine Abortion. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1904-1907. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070655.

Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Feral Swine near Spinach Fields and Cattle, Central California Coast [PDF - 277 KB - 4 pages]
M. T. Jay et al.

We investigated involvement of feral swine in contamination of agricultural fields and surface waterways with Escherichia coli O157:H7 after a nationwide outbreak traced to bagged spinach from California. Isolates from feral swine, cattle, surface water, sediment, and soil at 1 ranch were matched to the outbreak strain.

EID Jay MT, Cooley M, Carychao D, Wiscomb GW, Sweitzer RA, Crawford-Miksza L, et al. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Feral Swine near Spinach Fields and Cattle, Central California Coast. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1908-1911. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070763
AMA Jay MT, Cooley M, Carychao D, et al. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Feral Swine near Spinach Fields and Cattle, Central California Coast. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1908-1911. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070763.
APA Jay, M. T., Cooley, M., Carychao, D., Wiscomb, G. W., Sweitzer, R. A., Crawford-Miksza, L....Mandrell, R. E. (2007). Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Feral Swine near Spinach Fields and Cattle, Central California Coast. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1908-1911. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070763.

Crow Deaths Caused by West Nile Virus during Winter [PDF - 190 KB - 3 pages]
J. R. Dawson et al.

In New York, an epizootic of American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) deaths from West Nile virus (WNV) infection occurred during winter 2004–2005, a cold season when mosquitoes are not active. Detection of WNV in feces collected at the roost suggests lateral transmission through contact or fecal contamination.

EID Dawson JR, Stone WB, Ebel GD, Young DS, Galinski DS, Pensabene JP, et al. Crow Deaths Caused by West Nile Virus during Winter. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1912-1914. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070413
AMA Dawson JR, Stone WB, Ebel GD, et al. Crow Deaths Caused by West Nile Virus during Winter. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1912-1914. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070413.
APA Dawson, J. R., Stone, W. B., Ebel, G. D., Young, D. S., Galinski, D. S., Pensabene, J. P....Kramer, L. D. (2007). Crow Deaths Caused by West Nile Virus during Winter. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1912-1914. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070413.

Seroconversion in Wild Birds and Local Circulation of West Nile Virus, Spain [PDF - 214 KB - 3 pages]
J. Figuerola et al.

A serosurvey for neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) in common coots (Fulica atra) was conducted in Doñana, Spain. Antibody prevalence was highest in 2003, intermediate in 2004, and lowest in 2005. Some birds seroreverted <1 year after first capture. Seroconversion of birds suggests local circulation of the virus.

EID Figuerola J, Soriguer R, Rojo G, Tejedor CG, Jimenez-Clavero MA. Seroconversion in Wild Birds and Local Circulation of West Nile Virus, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1915-1917. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070343
AMA Figuerola J, Soriguer R, Rojo G, et al. Seroconversion in Wild Birds and Local Circulation of West Nile Virus, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1915-1917. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070343.
APA Figuerola, J., Soriguer, R., Rojo, G., Tejedor, C. G., & Jimenez-Clavero, M. A. (2007). Seroconversion in Wild Birds and Local Circulation of West Nile Virus, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1915-1917. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070343.

Risk Factors for West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease, California, 2005 [PDF - 246 KB - 3 pages]
C. M. Jean et al.

In 2005, 880 West Nile virus cases were reported in California; 305 case-patients exhibited neuroinvasive disease, including meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis. Risk factors independently associated with developing neuroinvasive disease rather than West Nile fever included older age, male sex, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus.

EID Jean CM, Honarmand S, Louie JK, Glaser CA. Risk Factors for West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease, California, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1918-1920. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.061265
AMA Jean CM, Honarmand S, Louie JK, et al. Risk Factors for West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease, California, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1918-1920. doi:10.3201/eid1312.061265.
APA Jean, C. M., Honarmand, S., Louie, J. K., & Glaser, C. A. (2007). Risk Factors for West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease, California, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1918-1920. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.061265.

Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex Mosquitoes in Relation to Trap Habitat [PDF - 232 KB - 3 pages]
L. A. Patrican et al.

Mosquito feeding patterns identify vertebrate species potentially involved in the amplification of West Nile virus. In New York, northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) were the predominant hosts in most habitats. Crow (Corvus sp.) blood meals were most frequently identified from sewage treatment plant and storm water catch basin habitats.

EID Patrican LA, Hackett LE, McGowan JW, Unnasch TR, Lee J. Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex Mosquitoes in Relation to Trap Habitat. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1921-1923. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070275
AMA Patrican LA, Hackett LE, McGowan JW, et al. Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex Mosquitoes in Relation to Trap Habitat. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1921-1923. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070275.
APA Patrican, L. A., Hackett, L. E., McGowan, J. W., Unnasch, T. R., & Lee, J. (2007). Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex Mosquitoes in Relation to Trap Habitat. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1921-1923. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070275.

Human and Animal Infections with Mycobacterium microti, Scotland [PDF - 302 KB - 4 pages]
F. X. Emmanuel et al.

During 1994–2005, we isolated Mycobacterium microti from 5 animals and 4 humans. Only 1 person was immunocompromised. Spoligotyping showed 3 patterns: vole type, llama type, and a new variant llama type.

EID Emmanuel FX, Seagar A, Doig C, Rayner A, Claxton P, Laurenson I. Human and Animal Infections with Mycobacterium microti, Scotland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1924-1927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.061536
AMA Emmanuel FX, Seagar A, Doig C, et al. Human and Animal Infections with Mycobacterium microti, Scotland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1924-1927. doi:10.3201/eid1312.061536.
APA Emmanuel, F. X., Seagar, A., Doig, C., Rayner, A., Claxton, P., & Laurenson, I. (2007). Human and Animal Infections with Mycobacterium microti, Scotland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1924-1927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.061536.

African Swine Fever Virus DNA in Soft Ticks, Senegal [PDF - 377 KB - 4 pages]
L. Vial et al.

African swine fever is a highly contagious disease of pigs in Africa. Although its persistence in Senegal may be caused by asymptomatic carriers involved in the domestic transmission cycle, we demonstrated that the soft tick Ornithodoros sonrai can be naturally infected with the causative agent.

EID Vial L, Wieland B, Jori F, Etter E, Dixon L, Roger F. African Swine Fever Virus DNA in Soft Ticks, Senegal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1928-1931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.071022
AMA Vial L, Wieland B, Jori F, et al. African Swine Fever Virus DNA in Soft Ticks, Senegal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1928-1931. doi:10.3201/eid1312.071022.
APA Vial, L., Wieland, B., Jori, F., Etter, E., Dixon, L., & Roger, F. (2007). African Swine Fever Virus DNA in Soft Ticks, Senegal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1928-1931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.071022.

Enhanced Subtyping Scheme for Salmonella Enteritidis [PDF - 211 KB - 4 pages]
J. Zheng et al.

To improve pulsed-field gel electrophoresis–based strain discrimination of 76 Salmonella Enteritidis strains, we evaluated 6 macro-restriction endonucleases, separately and in various combinations. One 3-enzyme subset, SfiI/PacI/NotI, was highly discriminatory. Five different indices, including the Simpson diversity index, supported this 3-enzyme combination for improved differentiation of S. Enteritidis.

EID Zheng J, Keys CE, Zhao S, Meng J, Brown EW. Enhanced Subtyping Scheme for Salmonella Enteritidis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1932-1935. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070185
AMA Zheng J, Keys CE, Zhao S, et al. Enhanced Subtyping Scheme for Salmonella Enteritidis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1932-1935. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070185.
APA Zheng, J., Keys, C. E., Zhao, S., Meng, J., & Brown, E. W. (2007). Enhanced Subtyping Scheme for Salmonella Enteritidis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1932-1935. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070185.

Clinical and Epidemiologic Characterization of WU Polyomavirus Infection, St. Louis, Missouri [PDF - 231 KB - 3 pages]
B. Le et al.

WU polyomavirus is a recently described polyomavirus found in patients with respiratory infections. Of 2,637 respiratory samples tested in St. Louis, Missouri, 2.7% were positive for WU polyomavirus by PCR, and 71% were coinfected with other respiratory viruses. Persistent human infection with WU polyomavirus is described.

EID Le B, Demertzis LM, Wu G, Tibbets RJ, Buller RS, Arens MQ, et al. Clinical and Epidemiologic Characterization of WU Polyomavirus Infection, St. Louis, Missouri. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1936-1938. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070977
AMA Le B, Demertzis LM, Wu G, et al. Clinical and Epidemiologic Characterization of WU Polyomavirus Infection, St. Louis, Missouri. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1936-1938. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070977.
APA Le, B., Demertzis, L. M., Wu, G., Tibbets, R. J., Buller, R. S., Arens, M. Q....Wang, D. (2007). Clinical and Epidemiologic Characterization of WU Polyomavirus Infection, St. Louis, Missouri. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1936-1938. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070977.

WU Polyomavirus in Children, Canada [PDF - 215 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Abed et al.

WU polyomavirus was detected in nasopharyngeal aspirates in 2 (2.5%) of 79 children with respiratory infections (both infected with respiratory syncytial virus) and in 5 (6.4%) of 78 asymptomatic children during the same winter season in Canada. The strains were closely related to Australian and American viruses based on analysis of large T antigen (TAg) and VP2 genes. The pathogenic role of WU virus is still uncertain.

EID Abed Y, Wang D, Boivin G. WU Polyomavirus in Children, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1939-1941. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070909
AMA Abed Y, Wang D, Boivin G. WU Polyomavirus in Children, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1939-1941. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070909.
APA Abed, Y., Wang, D., & Boivin, G. (2007). WU Polyomavirus in Children, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1939-1941. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070909.

Rhodococcus equi Infection after Alemtuzumab Therapy for T-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia [PDF - 123 KB - 2 pages]
J. J. Meeuse et al.

Rhodococcus equi, mainly known from veterinary medicine as a pathogen in domestic animals, can also cause infections in immunocompromised humans, especially in those with defects in cellular immunity. Alemtuzumab, an anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody, causes lymphocytopenia by eliminating CD52-positive cells. We report a patient in whom Rhodococcus equi infection developed after alemtuzumab therapy.

EID Meeuse JJ, Sprenger HG, van Assen S, Leduc D, Daenen SM, Arends JP, et al. Rhodococcus equi Infection after Alemtuzumab Therapy for T-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1942-1943. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.061559
AMA Meeuse JJ, Sprenger HG, van Assen S, et al. Rhodococcus equi Infection after Alemtuzumab Therapy for T-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1942-1943. doi:10.3201/eid1312.061559.
APA Meeuse, J. J., Sprenger, H. G., van Assen, S., Leduc, D., Daenen, S. M., Arends, J. P....van der Werf, T. S. (2007). Rhodococcus equi Infection after Alemtuzumab Therapy for T-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1942-1943. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.061559.

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Singapore Hospitals [PDF - 291 KB - 4 pages]
L. Hsu et al.

A new national antimicrobial resistance surveillance program in Singapore public hospitals that uses WHONET detected high levels of methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus (35.3%), carbapenem resistance among Acinetobacter spp. (49.6%), and third-generation cephalosporin resistance among Klebsiella pneumoniae (35.9%) hospital isolates in 2006. Antimicrobial drug resistance is a major problem in Singapore.

EID Hsu L, Tan T, Jureen R, Koh T, Krishnan P, Lin RT, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Singapore Hospitals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1944-1947. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070299
AMA Hsu L, Tan T, Jureen R, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Singapore Hospitals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1944-1947. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070299.
APA Hsu, L., Tan, T., Jureen, R., Koh, T., Krishnan, P., Lin, R. T....Tambyah, P. A. (2007). Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Singapore Hospitals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1944-1947. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070299.

Bartonella DNA in Dog Saliva [PDF - 232 KB - 3 pages]
A. W. Duncan et al.

Bartonella species, transmitted by arthropods or animal bites and scratches, are emerging pathogens in human and veterinary medicine. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to test oral swabs collected from dogs. Results indicated the presence of 4 Bartonella species: B. bovis, B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii.

EID Duncan AW, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella DNA in Dog Saliva. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1948-1950. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070653
AMA Duncan AW, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella DNA in Dog Saliva. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1948-1950. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070653.
APA Duncan, A. W., Maggi, R. G., & Breitschwerdt, E. B. (2007). Bartonella DNA in Dog Saliva. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1948-1950. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070653.

Use of Fly Screens to Reduce Campylobacter spp. Introduction in Broiler Houses [PDF - 198 KB - 3 pages]
B. Hald et al.

Fly screens that prevented influx of flies in 20 broiler houses during the summer of 2006 in Denmark caused a decrease in Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks from 51.4% in control houses to 15.4% in case houses. A proportional reduction in the incidence of chicken-borne campylobacteriosis can be expected by comprehensive intervention against flies in broiler production houses.

EID Hald B, Sommer HM, Skovgård H. Use of Fly Screens to Reduce Campylobacter spp. Introduction in Broiler Houses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1951-1953. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070488
AMA Hald B, Sommer HM, Skovgård H. Use of Fly Screens to Reduce Campylobacter spp. Introduction in Broiler Houses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1951-1953. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070488.
APA Hald, B., Sommer, H. M., & Skovgård, H. (2007). Use of Fly Screens to Reduce Campylobacter spp. Introduction in Broiler Houses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1951-1953. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070488.
Commentaries

Impact of Globalization and Animal Trade on Infectious Disease Ecology [PDF - 180 KB - 3 pages]
N. Marano et al.
EID Marano N, Arguin PM, Pappaioanou M. Impact of Globalization and Animal Trade on Infectious Disease Ecology. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1807-1809. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.071276
AMA Marano N, Arguin PM, Pappaioanou M. Impact of Globalization and Animal Trade on Infectious Disease Ecology. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1807-1809. doi:10.3201/eid1312.071276.
APA Marano, N., Arguin, P. M., & Pappaioanou, M. (2007). Impact of Globalization and Animal Trade on Infectious Disease Ecology. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1807-1809. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.071276.
Letters

Multidrug-Resistant Typhoid Fever Outbreak in Travelers Returning from Bangladesh [PDF - 126 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Kato et al.
EID Kato Y, Fukayama M, Adachi T, Imamura A, Tsunoda T, Takayama N, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Typhoid Fever Outbreak in Travelers Returning from Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1954-1955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070422
AMA Kato Y, Fukayama M, Adachi T, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Typhoid Fever Outbreak in Travelers Returning from Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1954-1955. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070422.
APA Kato, Y., Fukayama, M., Adachi, T., Imamura, A., Tsunoda, T., Takayama, N....Sagara, H. (2007). Multidrug-Resistant Typhoid Fever Outbreak in Travelers Returning from Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1954-1955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070422.

Human Rabies Cluster Following Badger Bites, People’s Republic of China [PDF - 176 KB - 3 pages]
G. Zhenyu et al.
EID Zhenyu G, Zhen W, Enfu C, Fan H, Junfen L, Yixin L, et al. Human Rabies Cluster Following Badger Bites, People’s Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1955-1957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070465
AMA Zhenyu G, Zhen W, Enfu C, et al. Human Rabies Cluster Following Badger Bites, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1955-1957. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070465.
APA Zhenyu, G., Zhen, W., Enfu, C., Fan, H., Junfen, L., Yixin, L....Fontaine, R. (2007). Human Rabies Cluster Following Badger Bites, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1955-1957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070465.

Diphyllobothrium latum Outbreak from Marinated Raw Perch, Lake Geneva, Switzerland [PDF - 122 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Jackson et al.
EID Jackson Y, Pastore R, Sudre P, Loutan L, Chappuis F. Diphyllobothrium latum Outbreak from Marinated Raw Perch, Lake Geneva, Switzerland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1957-1958. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.071034
AMA Jackson Y, Pastore R, Sudre P, et al. Diphyllobothrium latum Outbreak from Marinated Raw Perch, Lake Geneva, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1957-1958. doi:10.3201/eid1312.071034.
APA Jackson, Y., Pastore, R., Sudre, P., Loutan, L., & Chappuis, F. (2007). Diphyllobothrium latum Outbreak from Marinated Raw Perch, Lake Geneva, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1957-1958. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.071034.

Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Strategies [PDF - 123 KB - 2 pages]
S. P. Cachafeiro
EID Cachafeiro SP. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Strategies. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1958-1959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070701
AMA Cachafeiro SP. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Strategies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1958-1959. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070701.
APA Cachafeiro, S. P. (2007). Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Strategies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1958-1959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070701.

Distemper in a Dolphin [PDF - 194 KB - 3 pages]
P. Wohlsein et al.
EID Wohlsein P, Puff C, Kreutzer M, Siebert U, Baumgärtner W. Distemper in a Dolphin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1959-1961. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070309
AMA Wohlsein P, Puff C, Kreutzer M, et al. Distemper in a Dolphin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1959-1961. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070309.
APA Wohlsein, P., Puff, C., Kreutzer, M., Siebert, U., & Baumgärtner, W. (2007). Distemper in a Dolphin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1959-1961. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070309.

Bartonella australis sp. nov. from Kangaroos, Australia [PDF - 168 KB - 3 pages]
P. Fournier et al.
EID Fournier P, Taylor C, Rolain J, Barrassi L, Smith G, Raoult D. Bartonella australis sp. nov. from Kangaroos, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1961-1963. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.060559
AMA Fournier P, Taylor C, Rolain J, et al. Bartonella australis sp. nov. from Kangaroos, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1961-1963. doi:10.3201/eid1312.060559.
APA Fournier, P., Taylor, C., Rolain, J., Barrassi, L., Smith, G., & Raoult, D. (2007). Bartonella australis sp. nov. from Kangaroos, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1961-1963. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.060559.

Q Fever in Migrant Workers, Scotland [PDF - 136 KB - 2 pages]
K. Pollock et al.
EID Pollock K, Mellor DJ, Browning LM, Wilson L, Donaghy M. Q Fever in Migrant Workers, Scotland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1963-1964. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.071058
AMA Pollock K, Mellor DJ, Browning LM, et al. Q Fever in Migrant Workers, Scotland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1963-1964. doi:10.3201/eid1312.071058.
APA Pollock, K., Mellor, D. J., Browning, L. M., Wilson, L., & Donaghy, M. (2007). Q Fever in Migrant Workers, Scotland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1963-1964. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.071058.

Fatal Streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum Infection in a Man [PDF - 180 KB - 3 pages]
H. Marchandin et al.
EID Marchandin H, Jumas-Bilak E, Boumzebra A, Vidal D, Jonquet O, Corne P. Fatal Streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum Infection in a Man. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1964-1966. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070109
AMA Marchandin H, Jumas-Bilak E, Boumzebra A, et al. Fatal Streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum Infection in a Man. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1964-1966. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070109.
APA Marchandin, H., Jumas-Bilak, E., Boumzebra, A., Vidal, D., Jonquet, O., & Corne, P. (2007). Fatal Streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum Infection in a Man. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1964-1966. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070109.

Rabies Prophylaxis for Pregnant Women [PDF - 111 KB - 2 pages]
M. E. Abazeed and S. Cinti
EID Abazeed ME, Cinti S. Rabies Prophylaxis for Pregnant Women. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1966-1967. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070157
AMA Abazeed ME, Cinti S. Rabies Prophylaxis for Pregnant Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1966-1967. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070157.
APA Abazeed, M. E., & Cinti, S. (2007). Rabies Prophylaxis for Pregnant Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1966-1967. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070157.

Novel Orthoreovirus from Diseased Crow, Finland [PDF - 156 KB - 3 pages]
E. Huhtamo et al.
EID Huhtamo E, Uzcátegui NY, Manni T, Munsterhjelm R, Brummer-Korvenkontio M, Vaheri A, et al. Novel Orthoreovirus from Diseased Crow, Finland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1967-1969. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070394
AMA Huhtamo E, Uzcátegui NY, Manni T, et al. Novel Orthoreovirus from Diseased Crow, Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1967-1969. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070394.
APA Huhtamo, E., Uzcátegui, N. Y., Manni, T., Munsterhjelm, R., Brummer-Korvenkontio, M., Vaheri, A....Vapalahti, O. (2007). Novel Orthoreovirus from Diseased Crow, Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1967-1969. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070394.

Detecting Human-to-Human Transmission of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) [PDF - 334 KB - 3 pages]
I. M. Longini et al.
EID Longini IM, Yang Y, Sugimoto JD, Halloran M, Uyeki TM, Bresee JS. Detecting Human-to-Human Transmission of Avian Influenza A (H5N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1969-1971. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.071153
AMA Longini IM, Yang Y, Sugimoto JD, et al. Detecting Human-to-Human Transmission of Avian Influenza A (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1969-1971. doi:10.3201/eid1312.071153.
APA Longini, I. M., Yang, Y., Sugimoto, J. D., Halloran, M., Uyeki, T. M., & Bresee, J. S. (2007). Detecting Human-to-Human Transmission of Avian Influenza A (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1969-1971. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.071153.
Another Dimension

Swimming With A Hundred Year Old Snapping Turtle [PDF - 198 KB - 1 page]
F. Manfred
EID Manfred F. Swimming With A Hundred Year Old Snapping Turtle. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1971. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.ad1312
AMA Manfred F. Swimming With A Hundred Year Old Snapping Turtle. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1971. doi:10.3201/eid1312.ad1312.
APA Manfred, F. (2007). Swimming With A Hundred Year Old Snapping Turtle. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1971. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.ad1312.
Books and Media

Silent Victories: The History and Practice of Public Health in Twentieth-Century America [PDF - 103 KB - 1 page]
S. S. Morse
EID Morse SS. Silent Victories: The History and Practice of Public Health in Twentieth-Century America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1972. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.071159
AMA Morse SS. Silent Victories: The History and Practice of Public Health in Twentieth-Century America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1972. doi:10.3201/eid1312.071159.
APA Morse, S. S. (2007). Silent Victories: The History and Practice of Public Health in Twentieth-Century America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1972. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.071159.

Emerging Viruses in Human Populations [PDF - 109 KB - 2 pages]
A. C. Brault
EID Brault AC. Emerging Viruses in Human Populations. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1972-1973. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070974
AMA Brault AC. Emerging Viruses in Human Populations. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1972-1973. doi:10.3201/eid1312.070974.
APA Brault, A. C. (2007). Emerging Viruses in Human Populations. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1972-1973. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.070974.

Francisella tularensis: Biology, Pathogenicity, Epidemiology, and Biodefense [PDF - 104 KB - 1 page]
L. Eisen
EID Eisen L. Francisella tularensis: Biology, Pathogenicity, Epidemiology, and Biodefense. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1973. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.071169
AMA Eisen L. Francisella tularensis: Biology, Pathogenicity, Epidemiology, and Biodefense. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1973. doi:10.3201/eid1312.071169.
APA Eisen, L. (2007). Francisella tularensis: Biology, Pathogenicity, Epidemiology, and Biodefense. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1973. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.071169.
About the Cover

Uncommon Denominators [PDF - 162 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Uncommon Denominators. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1974-1975. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.ac1312
AMA Potter P. Uncommon Denominators. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1974-1975. doi:10.3201/eid1312.ac1312.
APA Potter, P. (2007). Uncommon Denominators. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(12), 1974-1975. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1312.ac1312.
Page created: July 09, 2012
Page updated: July 09, 2012
Page reviewed: July 09, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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