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Issue Cover for Volume 14, Number 2—February 2008

Volume 14, Number 2—February 2008

[PDF - 10.57 MB - 175 pages]

Research

Dissemination of Clonally Related Escherichia coli Strains Expressing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase CTX-M-15 [PDF - 275 KB - 6 pages]
T. M. Coque et al.

We analyzed 43 CTX-M-15–producing Escherichia coli isolates and 6 plasmids encoding the blaCTX-M-15 gene from Canada, India, Kuwait, France, Switzerland, Portugal, and Spain. Most isolates belonged to phylogroups B2 (50%) and D (25%). An EC-B2 strain of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 131 was detected in all countries; other B2 isolates corresponded to ST28, ST405, ST354, and ST695 from specific areas. EC-D strains were clonally unrelated but isolates from 3 countries belonged to ST405. All CTX-M-15 plasmids corresponded to IncFII group with overrepresentation of 3 HpaI-digested plasmid DNA profiles (A, B and C; 85–120kb, similarity >70%). Plasmid A was detected in EC-B2 strains (ST131, ST354, or ST405), plasmid C was detected in B2 and D strains, and plasmid B was confined to worldwide-disseminated ST131. Most plasmids contained blaOXA-1, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, and blaTEM-1. Worldwide dissemination of CTX-M-15 seems to be determined by clonal complexes ST131 and ST405 and multidrug-resistant IncFII plasmids.

EID Coque TM, Novais Â, Carattoli A, Poirel L, Pitout J, Peixe L, et al. Dissemination of Clonally Related Escherichia coli Strains Expressing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase CTX-M-15. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):195-200. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070350
AMA Coque TM, Novais Â, Carattoli A, et al. Dissemination of Clonally Related Escherichia coli Strains Expressing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase CTX-M-15. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):195-200. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070350.
APA Coque, T. M., Novais, Â., Carattoli, A., Poirel, L., Pitout, J., Peixe, L....Nordmann, P. (2008). Dissemination of Clonally Related Escherichia coli Strains Expressing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase CTX-M-15. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 195-200. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070350.

Severe Streptococcus pyogenes Infections, United Kingdom, 2003–2004 [PDF - 604 KB - 9 pages]
T. L. Lamagni et al.

As part of a Europe-wide initiative to explore current epidemiologic patterns of severe disease caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the United Kingdom undertook enhanced population-based surveillance during 2003–2004. A total of 3,775 confirmed cases of severe S. pyogenes infection were identified over 2 years, 3.33/100,000 population, substantially more than previously estimated. Skin/soft tissue infections were the most common manifestation (42%), followed by respiratory tract infections (17%). Injection drug use was identified as a risk factor for 20% of case-patients. One in 5 infected case-patients died within 7 days of diagnosis; the highest mortality rate was for cases of necrotizing fasciitis (34%). Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, alcoholism, young age, and infection with emm/M3 types were independently associated with increased risk for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Understanding the pattern of these diseases and predictors of poor patient outcome will help with identification and assessment of the potential effect of targeted interventions.

EID Lamagni TL, Neal S, Keshishian C, Alhaddad N, George RC, Duckworth G, et al. Severe Streptococcus pyogenes Infections, United Kingdom, 2003–2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):201-209. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070888
AMA Lamagni TL, Neal S, Keshishian C, et al. Severe Streptococcus pyogenes Infections, United Kingdom, 2003–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):201-209. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070888.
APA Lamagni, T. L., Neal, S., Keshishian, C., Alhaddad, N., George, R. C., Duckworth, G....Efstratiou, A. (2008). Severe Streptococcus pyogenes Infections, United Kingdom, 2003–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 201-209. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070888.

Effectiveness of Personal Protective Measures to Prevent Lyme Disease [PDF - 210 KB - 7 pages]
M. Vázquez et al.

After the manufacture of Lyme vaccine was discontinued in 2002, strategies to prevent Lyme disease (LD) have focused on personal protective measures. Effectiveness of these measures has not been conclusively demonstrated. The aim of our case–control study was to assess the effectiveness of personal preventive measures in a highly disease-endemic area. Case-patients were persons with LD reported to Connecticut’s Department of Public Health and classified as having definite, possible, or unlikely LD. Age-matched controls without LD were identified. Study participants were interviewed to assess the practice of preventive measures and to obtain information on occupational and recreational risk factors. Use of protective clothing was 40% effective; routine use of tick repellents on skin or clothing was 20% effective. Checking one’s body for ticks and spraying property with acaricides were not effective. We concluded that use of protective clothing and of tick repellents (on skin or clothing) are effective in preventing LD.

EID Vázquez M, Muehlenbein C, Cartter ML, Hayes EB, Ertel S, Shapiro ED. Effectiveness of Personal Protective Measures to Prevent Lyme Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):210-216. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070725
AMA Vázquez M, Muehlenbein C, Cartter ML, et al. Effectiveness of Personal Protective Measures to Prevent Lyme Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):210-216. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070725.
APA Vázquez, M., Muehlenbein, C., Cartter, M. L., Hayes, E. B., Ertel, S., & Shapiro, E. D. (2008). Effectiveness of Personal Protective Measures to Prevent Lyme Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 210-216. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070725.

Human Bocavirus Infections in Hospitalized Children and Adults [PDF - 243 KB - 5 pages]
J. Longtin et al.

Studies have reported human bocavirus (HBoV) in children with respiratory tract infections (RTIs), but only occasionally in adults. We searched for HBoV DNA in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) from adults with exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or pneumonia, from children hospitalized for acute RTIs, and from asymptomatic children during the winter of 2002–2003 in Canada. HBoV was detected in NPAs of 1 (0.8%) of 126 symptomatic adults, 31 (13.8%) of 225 symptomatic children, and 43 (43%) of 100 asymptomatic children undergoing elective surgery. Another virus was detected in 22 (71%) of the 31 HBoV-positive NPAs from symptomatic children. Two clades of HBoV were identified. The pathogenic role of HBoV in RTIs is uncertain because it was frequently detected in symptomatic and asymptomatic children and was commonly found with other viruses in symptomatic children.

EID Longtin J, Bastien M, Gilca R, Leblanc E, De Serres G, Bergeron MG, et al. Human Bocavirus Infections in Hospitalized Children and Adults. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):217-221. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070851
AMA Longtin J, Bastien M, Gilca R, et al. Human Bocavirus Infections in Hospitalized Children and Adults. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):217-221. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070851.
APA Longtin, J., Bastien, M., Gilca, R., Leblanc, E., De Serres, G., Bergeron, M. G....Boivin, G. (2008). Human Bocavirus Infections in Hospitalized Children and Adults. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 217-221. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070851.

Genetic Determinants of Virulence in Pathogenic Lineage 2 West Nile Virus Strains [PDF - 512 KB - 9 pages]
E. M. Botha et al.

We determined complete genome sequences of lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strains isolated from patients in South Africa who had mild or severe WNV infections. These strains had previously been shown to produce either highly or less neuroinvasive infection and induced genes similar to corresponding highly or less neuroinvasive lineage 1 strains in mice. Phylogenetic and amino acid comparison of highly and less neuroinvasive lineage 2 strains demonstrated that the nonstructural genes, especially the nonstructural protein 5 gene, were most variable. All South African lineage 2 strains possessed the envelope-protein glycosylation site previously postulated to be associated with virulence. Major deletions existed in the 3′ noncoding region of 2 lineage 2 strains previously shown to be either less or not neuroinvasive relative to the highly neuroinvasive strains sequenced in this study.

EID Botha EM, Markotter W, Wolfaardt M, Paweska JT, Swanepoel R, Palacios G, et al. Genetic Determinants of Virulence in Pathogenic Lineage 2 West Nile Virus Strains. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):222-230. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070457
AMA Botha EM, Markotter W, Wolfaardt M, et al. Genetic Determinants of Virulence in Pathogenic Lineage 2 West Nile Virus Strains. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):222-230. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070457.
APA Botha, E. M., Markotter, W., Wolfaardt, M., Paweska, J. T., Swanepoel, R., Palacios, G....Venter, M. (2008). Genetic Determinants of Virulence in Pathogenic Lineage 2 West Nile Virus Strains. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 222-230. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070457.

Unexpected Occurrence of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Determinants in Environmental Aeromonas spp. [PDF - 366 KB - 8 pages]
V. Cattoir et al.

We searched for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants of the Qnr type in several water samples collected at diverse locations from the Seine River (Paris, France). The qnrS2 genes were identified from Aeromonas punctata subsp. punctata and A. media. The qnrS2 gene was located on IncU-type plasmids in both isolates, which resulted in increased MIC values of quinolones and fluoroquinolones, once they were transferred into Escherichia coli. The qnrS2 gene identified in A. punctata was part of novel genetic structure corresponding to a mobile insertion cassette element. This identification of plasmid-mediated qnr genes outside Enterobacteriaceae underlines a possible diffusion of those resistance determinants within gram-negative rods.

EID Cattoir V, Poirel L, Aubert C, Soussy C, Nordmann P. Unexpected Occurrence of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Determinants in Environmental Aeromonas spp.. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):231-237. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070677
AMA Cattoir V, Poirel L, Aubert C, et al. Unexpected Occurrence of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Determinants in Environmental Aeromonas spp.. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):231-237. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070677.
APA Cattoir, V., Poirel, L., Aubert, C., Soussy, C., & Nordmann, P. (2008). Unexpected Occurrence of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Determinants in Environmental Aeromonas spp.. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 231-237. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070677.

Emergence of New Norovirus Variants on Spring Cruise Ships and Prediction of Winter Epidemics [PDF - 241 KB - 6 pages]
L. Verhoef et al.

In June 2006, reported outbreaks of norovirus on cruise ships suddenly increased; 43 outbreaks occurred on 13 vessels. All outbreaks investigated manifested person-to-person transmission. Detection of a point source was impossible because of limited investigation of initial outbreaks and data sharing. The most probable explanation for these outbreaks is increased norovirus activity in the community, which coincided with the emergence of 2 new GGII.4 variant strains in Europe and the Pacific. As in 2002, a new GGII.4 variant detected in the spring and summer corresponded with high norovirus activity in the subsequent winter. Because outbreaks on cruise ships are likely to occur when new variants circulate, an active reporting system could function as an early warning system. Internationally accepted guidelines are needed for reporting, investigating, and controlling norovirus illness on cruise ships in Europe.

EID Verhoef L, Depoortere E, Boxman I, Duizer E, van Duynhoven Y, Harris JP, et al. Emergence of New Norovirus Variants on Spring Cruise Ships and Prediction of Winter Epidemics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):238-243. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.061567
AMA Verhoef L, Depoortere E, Boxman I, et al. Emergence of New Norovirus Variants on Spring Cruise Ships and Prediction of Winter Epidemics. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):238-243. doi:10.3201/eid1402.061567.
APA Verhoef, L., Depoortere, E., Boxman, I., Duizer, E., van Duynhoven, Y., Harris, J. P....Koopmans, M. (2008). Emergence of New Norovirus Variants on Spring Cruise Ships and Prediction of Winter Epidemics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 238-243. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.061567.

Cost-effectiveness of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in the United States [PDF - 365 KB - 8 pages]
H. W. Chesson et al.

We describe a simplified model, based on the current economic and health effects of human papillomavirus (HPV), to estimate the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination of 12-year-old girls in the United States. Under base-case parameter values, the estimated cost per quality-adjusted life year gained by vaccination in the context of current cervical cancer screening practices in the United States ranged from $3,906 to $14,723 (2005 US dollars), depending on factors such as whether herd immunity effects were assumed; the types of HPV targeted by the vaccine; and whether the benefits of preventing anal, vaginal, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers were included. The results of our simplified model were consistent with published studies based on more complex models when key assumptions were similar. This consistency is reassuring because models of varying complexity will be essential tools for policy makers in the development of optimal HPV vaccination strategies.

EID Chesson HW, Ekwueme DU, Saraiya M, Markowitz LE. Cost-effectiveness of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):244-251. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070499
AMA Chesson HW, Ekwueme DU, Saraiya M, et al. Cost-effectiveness of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):244-251. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070499.
APA Chesson, H. W., Ekwueme, D. U., Saraiya, M., & Markowitz, L. E. (2008). Cost-effectiveness of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 244-251. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070499.

Genetic Characterization of Feline Leukemia Virus from Florida Panthers [PDF - 437 KB - 8 pages]
M. A. Brown et al.

From 2002 through 2005, an outbreak of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) occurred in Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi). Clinical signs included lymphadenopathy, anemia, septicemia, and weight loss; 5 panthers died. Not associated with FeLV outcome were the genetic heritage of the panthers (pure Florida vs. Texas/Florida crosses) and co-infection with feline immunodeficiency virus. Genetic analysis of panther FeLV, designated FeLV-Pco, determined that the outbreak likely came from 1 cross-species transmission from a domestic cat. The FeLV-Pco virus was closely related to the domestic cat exogenous FeLV-A subgroup in lacking recombinant segments derived from endogenous FeLV. FeLV-Pco sequences were most similar to the well-characterized FeLV-945 strain, which is highly virulent and strongly pathogenic in domestic cats because of unique long terminal repeat and envelope sequences. These unique features may also account for the severity of the outbreak after cross-species transmission to the panther.

EID Brown MA, Cunningham MW, Roca AL, Troyer JL, Johnson WE, O’Brien SJ. Genetic Characterization of Feline Leukemia Virus from Florida Panthers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):252-259. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070981
AMA Brown MA, Cunningham MW, Roca AL, et al. Genetic Characterization of Feline Leukemia Virus from Florida Panthers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):252-259. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070981.
APA Brown, M. A., Cunningham, M. W., Roca, A. L., Troyer, J. L., Johnson, W. E., & O’Brien, S. J. (2008). Genetic Characterization of Feline Leukemia Virus from Florida Panthers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 252-259. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070981.

Diagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis, Central Peruvian Highlands [PDF - 271 KB - 7 pages]
C. M. Gavidia et al.

We evaluated prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in a central Peruvian Highland district by using 4 diagnostic methods: ultrasonography for 949 persons, radiography for 829, and 2 serologic tests for 929 (2 immunoblot formats using bovine hydatid cyst fluid [IBCF] and recombinant EpC1 glutathione S-transferase [rEpC1-GST] antigens). For the IBCF and rEpC1-GST testing, prevalence of liver and pulmonary CE was 4.7% and 1.1% and seropositivity was 8.9% and 19.7%, respectively. Frequency of seropositive results for IBCF and rEpC1-GST testing was 35.7% and 16.7% (all hepatic cysts), 47.1% and 29.4% (hepatic calcifications excluded), and 22.2% and 33.3% (lung cysts), respectively. Weak immune response against lung cysts, calcified cysts, small cysts, and cysts in sites other than lung and liver might explain the poor performance of the serodiagnostic tests. We confirm that CE is highly endemic to Peru and emphasize the limited performance of available serologic assays in the field.

EID Gavidia CM, Gonzalez AE, Zhang W, McManus DP, Lopera L, Ninaquispe B, et al. Diagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis, Central Peruvian Highlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):260-266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.061101
AMA Gavidia CM, Gonzalez AE, Zhang W, et al. Diagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis, Central Peruvian Highlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):260-266. doi:10.3201/eid1402.061101.
APA Gavidia, C. M., Gonzalez, A. E., Zhang, W., McManus, D. P., Lopera, L., Ninaquispe, B....Gilman, R. H. (2008). Diagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis, Central Peruvian Highlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 260-266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.061101.

Cost-effectiveness of Antiviral Stockpiling and Near-Patient Testing for Potential Influenza Pandemic [PDF - 424 KB - 8 pages]
M. R. Siddiqui and W. Edmunds

A decision analytical model was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of stockpiling antiviral (AV) drugs for a potential influenza pandemic in the United Kingdom and the possible role of near-patient testing in conserving AV drug stocks. Under base-case assumptions (including a fixed stockpile that was smaller than the clinical attack rate), the treat-only option (treating all symptomatic patients with AV drugs) would be considered cost-effective (£1,900–£13,700 per quality-adjusted life year [QALY] gained, depending on the fatality scenario), compared with no intervention (nonintervention but management of cases as they arise). The test-treat option (testing all symptomatic patients but treating those with positive tests results only) would result in moderate gains in QALYs over the treat-only option but at relatively large additional costs. Stockpiling sufficient AV drugs (but not near-patient tests) to treat all patients with clinical cases would be cost-effective, provided AV drugs are effective at preventing deaths from pandemic influenza.

EID Siddiqui MR, Edmunds W. Cost-effectiveness of Antiviral Stockpiling and Near-Patient Testing for Potential Influenza Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):267-274. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070478
AMA Siddiqui MR, Edmunds W. Cost-effectiveness of Antiviral Stockpiling and Near-Patient Testing for Potential Influenza Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):267-274. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070478.
APA Siddiqui, M. R., & Edmunds, W. (2008). Cost-effectiveness of Antiviral Stockpiling and Near-Patient Testing for Potential Influenza Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 267-274. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070478.

Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19A in Children, South Korea [PDF - 366 KB - 7 pages]
E. H. Choi et al.

Despite the concern of replacement disease, notably by serotype 19A after 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7) use, serotype 19A was increasingly recognized in Korean children before the introduction of PCV7. To understand the dynamics of serogroup 19 prevalence from 1991–2006, we serotyped 538 pediatric pneumococcal isolates. Serogroup 19 isolates (n = 126) were characterized by antimicrobial drug susceptibility, presence of mefA/ermB, and multilocus sequence typing. Overall, the proportion of serotype 19A isolates increased but serotype 19F decreased. Among children <5 years of age, the proportion of serotype 19A isolates in invasive pneumococcal disease increased from 0% in 1991–1994 to 8%–10% in 1995–2000, reached 26% in 2001–2003, and remained at 20% in 2004–2006 when vaccine coverage did not exceed 25% (p = 0.005 for trend). This study demonstrates that the expansion of multidrug-resistant ST320 was responsible for the increase in serotype 19A before PCV7 use.

EID Choi EH, Kim SH, Eun BW, Kim SJ, Kim NH, Lee HJ, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19A in Children, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):275-281. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070807
AMA Choi EH, Kim SH, Eun BW, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19A in Children, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):275-281. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070807.
APA Choi, E. H., Kim, S. H., Eun, B. W., Kim, S. J., Kim, N. H., Lee, H. J....Lee, J. (2008). Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19A in Children, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 275-281. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070807.

Molecular Typing of Australian Scedosporium Isolates Showing Genetic Variability and Numerous S. aurantiacum [PDF - 372 KB - 9 pages]
L. Delhaes et al.

One hundred clinical isolates from a prospective nationwide study of scedosporiosis in Australia (2003–2005) and 46 additional isolates were genotyped by internal transcribed spacer–restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) analysis, ITS sequencing, and M13 PCR fingerprinting. ITS-RFLP and PCR fingerprinting identified 3 distinct genetic groups. The first group corresponded to Scedosporium prolificans (n = 83), and the other 2 comprised isolates previously identified as S. apiospermum: one of these corresponded to S. apiospermum (n = 33) and the other to the newly described species S. aurantiacum (n = 30). Intraspecies variation was highest for S. apiospermum (58%), followed by S. prolificans (45%) and S. aurantiacum (28%) as determined by PCR fingerprinting. ITS sequence variation of 2.2% was observed among S. apiospermum isolates. No correlation was found between genotype of strains and their geographic origin, body site from which they were cultured, or colonization versus invasive disease. Twelve S. prolificans isolates from 2 suspected case clusters were examined by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. No specific clusters were confirmed.

EID Delhaes L, Harun A, Chen SC, Nguyen Q, Slavin M, Heath CH, et al. Molecular Typing of Australian Scedosporium Isolates Showing Genetic Variability and Numerous S. aurantiacum. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):282-290. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070920
AMA Delhaes L, Harun A, Chen SC, et al. Molecular Typing of Australian Scedosporium Isolates Showing Genetic Variability and Numerous S. aurantiacum. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):282-290. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070920.
APA Delhaes, L., Harun, A., Chen, S. C., Nguyen, Q., Slavin, M., Heath, C. H....Meyer, W. (2008). Molecular Typing of Australian Scedosporium Isolates Showing Genetic Variability and Numerous S. aurantiacum. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 282-290. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070920.
Historical Review

Emergence of Polycystic Neotropical Echinococcosis [PDF - 404 KB - 6 pages]
D. Tappe et al.

Echinococcosis is a parasitic zoonosis of increasing concern. In 1903, the first cases of human polycystic echinococcosis, a disease resembling alveolar echinococcosis, emerged in Argentina. One of the parasites responsible, Echinococcus oligarthrus, had been discovered in its adult strobilar stage before 1850. However, >100 years passed from the first description of the adult parasite to the recognition that this species is responsible for some cases of human neotropical polycystic echinococcosis and the elucidation of the parasite’s life cycle. A second South American species, E. vogeli, was described in 1972. Obtaining recognition of the 2 species and establishing their connection to human disease were complicated because the life cycle of tapeworms is complex and comprises different developmental stages in diverse host species. To date, at least 106 human cases have been reported from 12 South and Central American countries.

EID Tappe D, Stich A, Frosch M. Emergence of Polycystic Neotropical Echinococcosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):292-297. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070742
AMA Tappe D, Stich A, Frosch M. Emergence of Polycystic Neotropical Echinococcosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):292-297. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070742.
APA Tappe, D., Stich, A., & Frosch, M. (2008). Emergence of Polycystic Neotropical Echinococcosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 292-297. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070742.
Dispatches

Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathies, France, 2001–2007 [PDF - 166 KB - 3 pages]
A. Biacabe et al.

In France, through exhaustive active surveillance, ≈17.1 million adult cattle were tested for bovine spongiform encephalopathy from July 2001 through July 2007; ≈3.6 million were >8 years of age. Our retrospective Western blot study of all 645 confirmed cases found that 7 were H-type and 6 were L-type.

EID Biacabe A, Morignat E, Vulin J, Calavas D, Baron T. Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathies, France, 2001–2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):298-300. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071141
AMA Biacabe A, Morignat E, Vulin J, et al. Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathies, France, 2001–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):298-300. doi:10.3201/eid1402.071141.
APA Biacabe, A., Morignat, E., Vulin, J., Calavas, D., & Baron, T. (2008). Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathies, France, 2001–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 298-300. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071141.

Burkholderia pseudomallei Antibodies in Children, Cambodia [PDF - 222 KB - 3 pages]
V. Wuthiekanun et al.

Antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei were detected in 16% of children in Siem Reap, Cambodia. This organism was isolated from 30% of rice paddies in the surrounding vicinity. Despite the lack of reported indigenous cases, melioidosis is likely to occur in Cambodia.

EID Wuthiekanun V, Pheaktra N, Putchhat H, Sin L, Sen B, Kumar V, et al. Burkholderia pseudomallei Antibodies in Children, Cambodia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):301-303. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070811
AMA Wuthiekanun V, Pheaktra N, Putchhat H, et al. Burkholderia pseudomallei Antibodies in Children, Cambodia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):301-303. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070811.
APA Wuthiekanun, V., Pheaktra, N., Putchhat, H., Sin, L., Sen, B., Kumar, V....Day, N. P. (2008). Burkholderia pseudomallei Antibodies in Children, Cambodia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 301-303. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070811.

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993–2005 [PDF - 171 KB - 4 pages]
P. Francois et al.

Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains different from those of an endemic healthcare-associated clone was conducted over 13 years in Geneva, Switzerland. We demonstrated strain diversity, including clones rarely found in Europe. Local epidemiology of community-associated MRSA is diverse and is evolving by importation and transmission of new strains.

EID Francois P, Harbarth S, Huyghe A, Renzi G, Bento M, Gervaix A, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):304-307. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070229
AMA Francois P, Harbarth S, Huyghe A, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):304-307. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070229.
APA Francois, P., Harbarth, S., Huyghe, A., Renzi, G., Bento, M., Gervaix, A....Schrenzel, J. (2008). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 304-307. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070229.

Experimental Infection and Natural Contact Exposure of Dogs with Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) [PDF - 203 KB - 3 pages]
M. Giese et al.

Experiments that exposed influenza virus (H5N1)–infected cats to susceptible dogs did not result in intraspecies or interspecies transmission. Infected dogs showed increased body temperatures, viral RNA in pharyngeal swabs, and seroconversion but not fatal disease.

EID Giese M, Harder TC, Teifke JP, Klopfleisch R, Breithaupt A, Mettenleiter TC, et al. Experimental Infection and Natural Contact Exposure of Dogs with Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):308-310. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070864
AMA Giese M, Harder TC, Teifke JP, et al. Experimental Infection and Natural Contact Exposure of Dogs with Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):308-310. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070864.
APA Giese, M., Harder, T. C., Teifke, J. P., Klopfleisch, R., Breithaupt, A., Mettenleiter, T. C....Vahlenkamp, T. W. (2008). Experimental Infection and Natural Contact Exposure of Dogs with Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 308-310. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070864.

Timeliness of Enteric Disease Surveillance in 6 US States [PDF - 158 KB - 3 pages]
C. W. Hedberg et al.

We reviewed timeline information for a sample of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Escherichia coli O157:H7 cases and all confirmed foodborne outbreaks reported in 6 states during 2002. Increasing the timeliness of case follow-up, molecular subtyping, and linkage of results are critical to reducing delays in the investigation of foodborne outbreaks.

EID Hedberg CW, Greenblatt JF, Matyas BT, Lemmings J, Sharp DJ, Skibicki RT, et al. Timeliness of Enteric Disease Surveillance in 6 US States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):311-313. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070666
AMA Hedberg CW, Greenblatt JF, Matyas BT, et al. Timeliness of Enteric Disease Surveillance in 6 US States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):311-313. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070666.
APA Hedberg, C. W., Greenblatt, J. F., Matyas, B. T., Lemmings, J., Sharp, D. J., Skibicki, R. T....Liang, A. P. (2008). Timeliness of Enteric Disease Surveillance in 6 US States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 311-313. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070666.

Dengue Virus 3 Genotype 1 Associated with Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Brazil [PDF - 189 KB - 3 pages]
L. B. Figueiredo et al.

Dengue serotype 3 viruses were isolated from patients in Brazil from 2002 through 2004. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, these isolates were assigned genotype 1. This genotype had never been reported in South America before. Its appearance indicates a major risk factor for dengue epidemics and severe disease.

EID Figueiredo LB, Cecílio AB, Ferreira GP, Drumond BP, Germano de Oliveira J, Bonjardim C, et al. Dengue Virus 3 Genotype 1 Associated with Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):314-316. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070278
AMA Figueiredo LB, Cecílio AB, Ferreira GP, et al. Dengue Virus 3 Genotype 1 Associated with Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):314-316. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070278.
APA Figueiredo, L. B., Cecílio, A. B., Ferreira, G. P., Drumond, B. P., Germano de Oliveira, J., Bonjardim, C....Lima, M. (2008). Dengue Virus 3 Genotype 1 Associated with Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 314-316. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070278.

Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Outbreak, Germany, and Calculation of Outbreak Start [PDF - 313 KB - 3 pages]
U. Sagel et al.

On the basis of a large outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a German university hospital, we estimated costs (≈1 million Euros) that could have been avoided by early detection of the imminent outbreak. For this purpose, we demonstrate an easy-to-use statistical method.

EID Sagel U, Schulte B, Heeg P, Borgmann S. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Outbreak, Germany, and Calculation of Outbreak Start. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):317-319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070752
AMA Sagel U, Schulte B, Heeg P, et al. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Outbreak, Germany, and Calculation of Outbreak Start. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):317-319. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070752.
APA Sagel, U., Schulte, B., Heeg, P., & Borgmann, S. (2008). Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Outbreak, Germany, and Calculation of Outbreak Start. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 317-319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070752.

Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and Atovaquone-Proguanil Treatment Failure [PDF - 270 KB - 3 pages]
R. Durand et al.

We noticed overrepresentation of atovaquone-proguanil therapeutic failures among Plasmodium falciparum–infected travelers weighing >100 kg. We report here 1 of these cases, which was not due to resistant parasites or impaired drug bioavailability. The follow-up of such patients should be strengthened.

EID Durand R, Prendki V, Cailhol J, Hubert V, Ralaimazava P, Massias L, et al. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and Atovaquone-Proguanil Treatment Failure. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):320-322. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070945
AMA Durand R, Prendki V, Cailhol J, et al. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and Atovaquone-Proguanil Treatment Failure. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):320-322. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070945.
APA Durand, R., Prendki, V., Cailhol, J., Hubert, V., Ralaimazava, P., Massias, L....Le Bras, J. (2008). Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and Atovaquone-Proguanil Treatment Failure. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 320-322. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070945.

Prolonged Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Immigrants, Paris [PDF - 254 KB - 4 pages]
E. D’Ortenzio et al.

Few immigrant travelers have Plasmodium falciparum infections >2 months after leaving malaria-endemic areas. We conducted a case–control study to identify factors associated with prolonged P. falciparum infection in immigrant travelers. Results suggest that P. falciparum infection should be systematically suspected, even months after travel, especially in pregnant women and first-arrival immigrants.

EID D’Ortenzio E, Godineau N, Fontanet A, Houze S, Bouchaud O, Matheron S, et al. Prolonged Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Immigrants, Paris. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):323-326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.061475
AMA D’Ortenzio E, Godineau N, Fontanet A, et al. Prolonged Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Immigrants, Paris. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):323-326. doi:10.3201/eid1402.061475.
APA D’Ortenzio, E., Godineau, N., Fontanet, A., Houze, S., Bouchaud, O., Matheron, S....Le Bras, J. (2008). Prolonged Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Immigrants, Paris. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 323-326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.061475.

Candida dubliniensis Meningitis as Delayed Sequela of Treated C. dubliniensis Fungemia [PDF - 261 KB - 3 pages]
S. J. van Hal et al.

We present a case of Candida dubliniensis meningitis that developed 2 months after apparently successful treatment of an episode of C. dubliniensis candidemia in a heart-lung transplant recipient in Australia. This case highlights the importance of follow-up in patients with candidemia or disseminated infection, especially in immunosuppressed patients.

EID van Hal SJ, Stark D, Harkness J, Marriott D. Candida dubliniensis Meningitis as Delayed Sequela of Treated C. dubliniensis Fungemia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):327-329. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070985
AMA van Hal SJ, Stark D, Harkness J, et al. Candida dubliniensis Meningitis as Delayed Sequela of Treated C. dubliniensis Fungemia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):327-329. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070985.
APA van Hal, S. J., Stark, D., Harkness, J., & Marriott, D. (2008). Candida dubliniensis Meningitis as Delayed Sequela of Treated C. dubliniensis Fungemia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 327-329. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070985.

Greek Goat Encephalitis Virus Strain Isolated from Ixodes ricinus, Greece [PDF - 211 KB - 3 pages]
A. Papa et al.

A strain of Greek goat encephaltitis virus was isolated from engorged Ixodes ricinus ticks that had fed on goats in northern Greece. The strain was almost identical to the prototype strain isolated 35 years ago.

EID Papa A, Pavlidou V, Antoniadis A. Greek Goat Encephalitis Virus Strain Isolated from Ixodes ricinus, Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):330-332. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070889
AMA Papa A, Pavlidou V, Antoniadis A. Greek Goat Encephalitis Virus Strain Isolated from Ixodes ricinus, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):330-332. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070889.
APA Papa, A., Pavlidou, V., & Antoniadis, A. (2008). Greek Goat Encephalitis Virus Strain Isolated from Ixodes ricinus, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 330-332. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070889.

Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus during Computed Tomography Scanning with Contrast [PDF - 283 KB - 4 pages]
H. Pañella et al.

Six cases of acute hepatitis C related to computed tomography scanning with contrast were identified in 3 hospitals. A patient with chronic hepatitis C had been subjected to the same procedure immediately before each patient who developed acute infection. Viral molecular analysis showed identity between isolates from cases with acute and chronic hepatitis C.

EID Pañella H, Rius C, Caylà JA. Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus during Computed Tomography Scanning with Contrast. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):333-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.060763
AMA Pañella H, Rius C, Caylà JA. Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus during Computed Tomography Scanning with Contrast. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):333-336. doi:10.3201/eid1402.060763.
APA Pañella, H., Rius, C., & Caylà, J. A. (2008). Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus during Computed Tomography Scanning with Contrast. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 333-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.060763.
Letters

Chikungunya Fever, Mauritius, 2006 [PDF - 123 KB - 2 pages]
S. Beesoon et al.
EID Beesoon S, Funkhouser E, Kotea N, Spielman A, Robich RM. Chikungunya Fever, Mauritius, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):337-338. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071024
AMA Beesoon S, Funkhouser E, Kotea N, et al. Chikungunya Fever, Mauritius, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):337-338. doi:10.3201/eid1402.071024.
APA Beesoon, S., Funkhouser, E., Kotea, N., Spielman, A., & Robich, R. M. (2008). Chikungunya Fever, Mauritius, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 337-338. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071024.

Increasing Resistance in Commensal Escherichia coli, Bolivia and Peru [PDF - 113 KB - 3 pages]
A. Bartoloni et al.
EID Bartoloni A, Pallecchi L, Fiorelli C, Di Maggio T, Fernandez C, Villagran AL, et al. Increasing Resistance in Commensal Escherichia coli, Bolivia and Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):338-340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070138
AMA Bartoloni A, Pallecchi L, Fiorelli C, et al. Increasing Resistance in Commensal Escherichia coli, Bolivia and Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):338-340. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070138.
APA Bartoloni, A., Pallecchi, L., Fiorelli, C., Di Maggio, T., Fernandez, C., Villagran, A. L....Rossolini, G. (2008). Increasing Resistance in Commensal Escherichia coli, Bolivia and Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 338-340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070138.

Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance in Salmonella enterica, United Kingdom [PDF - 113 KB - 3 pages]
K. L. Hopkins et al.
EID Hopkins KL, Day M, Threlfall EJ. Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance in Salmonella enterica, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):340-342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070573
AMA Hopkins KL, Day M, Threlfall EJ. Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance in Salmonella enterica, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):340-342. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070573.
APA Hopkins, K. L., Day, M., & Threlfall, E. J. (2008). Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance in Salmonella enterica, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 340-342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070573.

Saksenaea vasiformis Infection, French Guiana [PDF - 142 KB - 3 pages]
D. Blanchet et al.
EID Blanchet D, Dannaoui E, Fior A, Huber F, Couppié P, Salhab N, et al. Saksenaea vasiformis Infection, French Guiana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):342-344. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071079
AMA Blanchet D, Dannaoui E, Fior A, et al. Saksenaea vasiformis Infection, French Guiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):342-344. doi:10.3201/eid1402.071079.
APA Blanchet, D., Dannaoui, E., Fior, A., Huber, F., Couppié, P., Salhab, N....Aznar, C. (2008). Saksenaea vasiformis Infection, French Guiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 342-344. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071079.

Q Fever in Young Children, Ghana [PDF - 155 KB - 3 pages]
R. Kobbe et al.
EID Kobbe R, Kramme S, Kreuels B, Adjei S, Kreuzberg C, Panning M, et al. Q Fever in Young Children, Ghana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):344-346. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070971
AMA Kobbe R, Kramme S, Kreuels B, et al. Q Fever in Young Children, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):344-346. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070971.
APA Kobbe, R., Kramme, S., Kreuels, B., Adjei, S., Kreuzberg, C., Panning, M....May, J. (2008). Q Fever in Young Children, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 344-346. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070971.

Early Diagnosis of Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense Infection [PDF - 116 KB - 2 pages]
V. de Lastours et al.
EID de Lastours V, Guillemain R, Mainardi J, Aubert A, Chevalier P, Lefort A, et al. Early Diagnosis of Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):346-347. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070901
AMA de Lastours V, Guillemain R, Mainardi J, et al. Early Diagnosis of Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):346-347. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070901.
APA de Lastours, V., Guillemain, R., Mainardi, J., Aubert, A., Chevalier, P., Lefort, A....Podglajen, I. (2008). Early Diagnosis of Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 346-347. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070901.

Isolation of Novel Adenovirus from Fruit Bat (Pteropus dasymallus yayeyamae) [PDF - 138 KB - 3 pages]
K. Maeda et al.
EID Maeda K, Hondo E, Terakawa J, Kiso Y, Nakaichi N, Endoh D, et al. Isolation of Novel Adenovirus from Fruit Bat (Pteropus dasymallus yayeyamae). Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):347-349. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070932
AMA Maeda K, Hondo E, Terakawa J, et al. Isolation of Novel Adenovirus from Fruit Bat (Pteropus dasymallus yayeyamae). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):347-349. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070932.
APA Maeda, K., Hondo, E., Terakawa, J., Kiso, Y., Nakaichi, N., Endoh, D....Mizutani, T. (2008). Isolation of Novel Adenovirus from Fruit Bat (Pteropus dasymallus yayeyamae). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 347-349. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070932.

Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Group B Streptococci in Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis [PDF - 92 KB - 2 pages]
A. Tazi et al.
EID Tazi A, Gueudet T, Varon E, Gilly L, Trieu-Cuot P, Poyart C. Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Group B Streptococci in Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):349-350. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071006
AMA Tazi A, Gueudet T, Varon E, et al. Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Group B Streptococci in Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):349-350. doi:10.3201/eid1402.071006.
APA Tazi, A., Gueudet, T., Varon, E., Gilly, L., Trieu-Cuot, P., & Poyart, C. (2008). Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Group B Streptococci in Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 349-350. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071006.

Dengue and Relative Bradycardia [PDF - 90 KB - 2 pages]
S. N. Senanayake
EID Senanayake SN. Dengue and Relative Bradycardia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):350-351. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070401
AMA Senanayake SN. Dengue and Relative Bradycardia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):350-351. doi:10.3201/eid1402.070401.
APA Senanayake, S. N. (2008). Dengue and Relative Bradycardia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 350-351. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070401.

Importation of Poliomyelitis by Travelers [PDF - 87 KB - 2 pages]
A. Wilder-Smith et al.
EID Wilder-Smith A, Hull HF, Leder K, Tambyah PA. Importation of Poliomyelitis by Travelers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):351-352. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071245
AMA Wilder-Smith A, Hull HF, Leder K, et al. Importation of Poliomyelitis by Travelers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):351-352. doi:10.3201/eid1402.071245.
APA Wilder-Smith, A., Hull, H. F., Leder, K., & Tambyah, P. A. (2008). Importation of Poliomyelitis by Travelers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 351-352. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071245.
Another Dimension

A Rondelay (Without Cadenza) By The Virion Of Influenza [PDF - 79 KB - 1 page]
E. D. Kilbourne
EID Kilbourne ED. A Rondelay (Without Cadenza) By The Virion Of Influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):359. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.ad1402
AMA Kilbourne ED. A Rondelay (Without Cadenza) By The Virion Of Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):359. doi:10.3201/eid1402.ad1402.
APA Kilbourne, E. D. (2008). A Rondelay (Without Cadenza) By The Virion Of Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 359. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.ad1402.
Books and Media

Bioviolence: Preventing Biological Terror and Crime [PDF - 86 KB - 2 pages]
R. A. Goodman
EID Goodman RA. Bioviolence: Preventing Biological Terror and Crime. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):355-356. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071381
AMA Goodman RA. Bioviolence: Preventing Biological Terror and Crime. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):355-356. doi:10.3201/eid1402.071381.
APA Goodman, R. A. (2008). Bioviolence: Preventing Biological Terror and Crime. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 355-356. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071381.

Encyclopedia of Infectious Diseases: Modern Methodologies [PDF - 72 KB - 1 page]
S. M. Ostroff
EID Ostroff SM. Encyclopedia of Infectious Diseases: Modern Methodologies. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):356. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071411
AMA Ostroff SM. Encyclopedia of Infectious Diseases: Modern Methodologies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):356. doi:10.3201/eid1402.071411.
APA Ostroff, S. M. (2008). Encyclopedia of Infectious Diseases: Modern Methodologies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 356. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071411.

Emerging Infectious Diseases: Trends and Issues, 2nd Edition [PDF - 83 KB - 1 page]
L. D. Kramer and E. Kauffman
EID Kramer LD, Kauffman E. Emerging Infectious Diseases: Trends and Issues, 2nd Edition. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071424
AMA Kramer LD, Kauffman E. Emerging Infectious Diseases: Trends and Issues, 2nd Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):357. doi:10.3201/eid1402.071424.
APA Kramer, L. D., & Kauffman, E. (2008). Emerging Infectious Diseases: Trends and Issues, 2nd Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071424.

This Time of Dying [PDF - 80 KB - 1 page]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. This Time of Dying. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):358. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071511
AMA Potter P. This Time of Dying. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):358. doi:10.3201/eid1402.071511.
APA Potter, P. (2008). This Time of Dying. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 358. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071511.

Handbook of Zoonoses: Identification and Prevention [PDF - 82 KB - 1 page]
M. K. Glynn
EID Glynn MK. Handbook of Zoonoses: Identification and Prevention. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):354. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071283
AMA Glynn MK. Handbook of Zoonoses: Identification and Prevention. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):354. doi:10.3201/eid1402.071283.
APA Glynn, M. K. (2008). Handbook of Zoonoses: Identification and Prevention. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 354. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071283.

The Microbiology Bench Companion
C. A. Petti
EID Petti CA. The Microbiology Bench Companion. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):354-355. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071349
AMA Petti CA. The Microbiology Bench Companion. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):354-355. doi:10.3201/eid1402.071349.
APA Petti, C. A. (2008). The Microbiology Bench Companion. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 354-355. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.071349.
About the Cover

Artistic Light and Capturing the Immeasurable [PDF - 115 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Artistic Light and Capturing the Immeasurable. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):360-361. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.ac1402
AMA Potter P. Artistic Light and Capturing the Immeasurable. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):360-361. doi:10.3201/eid1402.ac1402.
APA Potter, P. (2008). Artistic Light and Capturing the Immeasurable. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 360-361. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.ac1402.
Etymologia

Candida [PDF - 734 KB - 1 page]
EID Candida. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(2):326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.e11402
AMA Candida. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(2):326. doi:10.3201/eid1402.e11402.
APA (2008). Candida. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.e11402.
Conference Summaries

Christophe Mérieux Conference, Trends in Virology
G. Vernet and F. Zoulim
Page created: November 06, 2012
Page updated: November 06, 2012
Page reviewed: November 06, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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