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Volume 15, Number 7—July 2009

Volume 15, Number 7—July 2009   PDF Version [PDF - 9.93 MB - 159 pages]

Research

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Cluster of Sylvatic Epidemic Typhus Cases Associated with Flying Squirrels, 2004–2006 PDF Version [PDF - 691 KB - 7 pages]
    A. S. Chapman et al.
        View Abstract

    In February 2006, a diagnosis of sylvatic epidemic typhus in a counselor at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania prompted a retrospective investigation. From January 2004 through January 2006, 3 more cases were identified. All had been counselors at the camp and had experienced febrile illness with myalgia, chills, and sweats; 2 had been hospitalized. All patients had slept in the same cabin and reported having seen and heard flying squirrels inside the wall adjacent to their bed. Serum from each patient had evidence of infection with Rickettsia prowazekii. Analysis of blood and tissue from 14 southern flying squirrels trapped in the woodlands around the cabin indicated that 71% were infected with R. prowazekii. Education and control measures to exclude flying squirrels from housing are essential to reduce the likelihood of sylvatic epidemic typhus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Chapman AS, Swerdlow DL, Dato VM, Anderson AD, Moodie CE, Marriott C, et al. Cluster of Sylvatic Epidemic Typhus Cases Associated with Flying Squirrels, 2004–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1005-1011. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081305
    AMA Chapman AS, Swerdlow DL, Dato VM, et al. Cluster of Sylvatic Epidemic Typhus Cases Associated with Flying Squirrels, 2004–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1005-1011. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081305.
    APA Chapman, A. S., Swerdlow, D. L., Dato, V. M., Anderson, A. D., Moodie, C. E., Marriott, C....Dasch, G. A. (2009). Cluster of Sylvatic Epidemic Typhus Cases Associated with Flying Squirrels, 2004–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1005-1011. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081305.
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  • Increased Host Species Diversity and Decreased Prevalence of Sin Nombre Virus PDF Version [PDF - 569 KB - 7 pages]
    L. J. Dizney and L. A. Ruedas
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    Emerging outbreaks of zoonotic diseases are affecting humans at an alarming rate. Until the ecological factors associated with zoonoses are better understood, disease emergence will continue. For Lyme disease, disease suppression has been demonstrated by a dilution effect, whereby increasing species diversity decreases disease prevalence in host populations. To test the dilution effect in another disease, we examined 17 ecological variables associated with prevalence of the directly transmitted Sin Nombre virus (genus Hantavirus, etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome) in its wildlife host, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Only species diversity was statistically linked to infection prevalence: as species diversity decreased, infection prevalence increased. The increase was moderate, but prevalence increased exponentially at low levels of diversity, a phenomenon described as zoonotic release. The results suggest that species diversity affects disease emergence.

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    EID Dizney LJ, Ruedas LA. Increased Host Species Diversity and Decreased Prevalence of Sin Nombre Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1012-1018. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081083
    AMA Dizney LJ, Ruedas LA. Increased Host Species Diversity and Decreased Prevalence of Sin Nombre Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1012-1018. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081083.
    APA Dizney, L. J., & Ruedas, L. A. (2009). Increased Host Species Diversity and Decreased Prevalence of Sin Nombre Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1012-1018. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081083.
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  • Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus in Wild Rodents, Northern Italy PDF Version [PDF - 680 KB - 7 pages]
    V. Tagliapietra et al.
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    We determined the prevalence of infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) among small mammals in northern Italy and analyzed long-term dynamics of LCMV in a rodent population in the province of Trento. LCMV is circulating among the most widespread and common wild rodent species in this area (Apodemus flavicollis, Myodes glareolus, and Microtus arvalis); overall prevalence is 6.8%. During 2000–2006, intensive monitoring of LCMV in a population of yellow-necked mice (A. flavicollis) showed a positive correlation between prevalence of infection and rodent density. At the individual level, weight and sex appeared to correlate with antibody prevalence, which suggests that horizontal transmission of LCMV occurs principally among heavier, older males and occurs during fighting. Isolation and genetic characterization of this virus will be the crucial next steps for a better understanding of its ecology.

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    EID Tagliapietra V, Rosà R, Hauffe HC, Laakkonen J, Voutilainen L, Vapalahti O, et al. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus in Wild Rodents, Northern Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1019-1025. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081524
    AMA Tagliapietra V, Rosà R, Hauffe HC, et al. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus in Wild Rodents, Northern Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1019-1025. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081524.
    APA Tagliapietra, V., Rosà, R., Hauffe, H. C., Laakkonen, J., Voutilainen, L., Vapalahti, O....Rizzoli, A. (2009). Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus in Wild Rodents, Northern Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1019-1025. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081524.
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  • Tick-borne Relapsing Fever and Borrelia hermsii, Los Angeles County, California, USA PDF Version [PDF - 529 KB - 6 pages]
    T. G. Schwan et al.
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    The primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America is Borrelia hermsii, a rodent-associated spirochete transmitted by the fast-feeding soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi. We describe a patient who had an illness consistent with relapsing fever after exposure in the mountains near Los Angeles, California, USA. The patient’s convalescent-phase serum was seropositive for B. hermsii but negative for several other vector-borne bacterial pathogens. Investigations at the exposure site showed the presence of O. hermsi ticks infected with B. hermsii and the presence of rodents that were seropositive for the spirochete. We determined that this tick-borne disease is endemic to the San Gabriel Mountains near the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area.

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    EID Schwan TG, Raffel SJ, Schrumpf ME, Webster LS, Marques AR, Spano R, et al. Tick-borne Relapsing Fever and Borrelia hermsii, Los Angeles County, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1026-1031. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090223
    AMA Schwan TG, Raffel SJ, Schrumpf ME, et al. Tick-borne Relapsing Fever and Borrelia hermsii, Los Angeles County, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1026-1031. doi:10.3201/eid1507.090223.
    APA Schwan, T. G., Raffel, S. J., Schrumpf, M. E., Webster, L. S., Marques, A. R., Spano, R....Hu, R. (2009). Tick-borne Relapsing Fever and Borrelia hermsii, Los Angeles County, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1026-1031. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090223.
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  • Risk Factors for Human Infection with Puumala Virus, Southwestern Germany PDF Version [PDF - 605 KB - 8 pages]
    A. C. Schwarz et al.
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    Puumala virus, which causes nephropathia epidemica (NE), is the most prevalent hantavirus in Germany; bank voles serve as the main reservoir. During 2001–2007, most NE cases reported from Germany occurred in the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg. We investigated the influence of bank vole habitats (beech forest, seed plants), vole food supply (beechnut mast), climate factors (winter and spring temperatures), and human population density on spatial and temporal occurrence of NE cases in Baden-Württemberg. Using Poisson-regression analyses, we found that all these factors influenced disease incidence. Furthermore, an independent trend of increasing incidence predicted that incidence will nearly double each year. The regression model explained 75% of the annual variation in NE incidence. The results suggest that environmental drivers lead to increasing incidence of NE infections in the southern part or even other parts of Germany.

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    EID Schwarz AC, Ranft U, Piechotowski I, Childs JE, Brockmann SO. Risk Factors for Human Infection with Puumala Virus, Southwestern Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1032-1039. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081413
    AMA Schwarz AC, Ranft U, Piechotowski I, et al. Risk Factors for Human Infection with Puumala Virus, Southwestern Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1032-1039. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081413.
    APA Schwarz, A. C., Ranft, U., Piechotowski, I., Childs, J. E., & Brockmann, S. O. (2009). Risk Factors for Human Infection with Puumala Virus, Southwestern Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1032-1039. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081413.
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  • Invasions by Eurasian Avian Influenza Virus H6 Genes and Replacement of Its North American Clade PDF Version [PDF - 548 KB - 6 pages]
    H. zu Dohna et al.
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    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV) (H5N1) underlines the potential for global AIV movement through birds. The phylogenies of AIV genes from avian hosts usually separate into Eurasian and North American clades, reflecting limited bird migration between the hemispheres. However, mounting evidence that some H6 sequences from North America cluster with Eurasian subtype H6 sequences calls the strict hemispheric divide into question. We conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the extent and timing of cross-hemisphere movements by the H6 gene. Results suggested that Eurasian H6 subtype has invaded North America several times, with the first invasions occurring 10 years before the first detection of invading isolates. The members of the North American clade decreased from 100% in the 1980s to 20% in the 2000s among H6 isolates from North America. Unraveling the reasons for this large-scale gene movement between hemispheres might identify drivers of global AIV circulation.

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    EID zu Dohna H, Li J, Cardona CJ, Miller J, Carpenter TE. Invasions by Eurasian Avian Influenza Virus H6 Genes and Replacement of Its North American Clade. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1040-1045. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090245
    AMA zu Dohna H, Li J, Cardona CJ, et al. Invasions by Eurasian Avian Influenza Virus H6 Genes and Replacement of Its North American Clade. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1040-1045. doi:10.3201/eid1507.090245.
    APA zu Dohna, H., Li, J., Cardona, C. J., Miller, J., & Carpenter, T. E. (2009). Invasions by Eurasian Avian Influenza Virus H6 Genes and Replacement of Its North American Clade. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1040-1045. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090245.
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  • Multiple Origins of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia 1 Outbreaks, 2003–2007 PDF Version [PDF - 597 KB - 6 pages]
    J. Valarcher et al.
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    We investigated the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia 1, which caused outbreaks of disease in Asia during 2003–2007. Since 2004, the region affected by outbreaks of this serotype has increased from disease-endemic countries in southern Asia (Afghanistan, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan) northward to encompass Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, several regions of the People’s Republic of China, Mongolia, Eastern Russia, and North Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus capsid protein 1 (VP1) gene sequences demonstrated that the FMDV isolates responsible for these outbreaks belonged to 6 groups within the Asia 1 serotype. Some contemporary strains were genetically closely related to isolates collected historically from the region as far back as 25 years ago. Our analyses also indicated that some viruses have spread large distances between countries in Asia within a short time.

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    EID Valarcher J, Knowles NJ, Zakharov V, Scherbakov A, Zhang Z, Shang Y, et al. Multiple Origins of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia 1 Outbreaks, 2003–2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1046-1051. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081621
    AMA Valarcher J, Knowles NJ, Zakharov V, et al. Multiple Origins of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia 1 Outbreaks, 2003–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1046-1051. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081621.
    APA Valarcher, J., Knowles, N. J., Zakharov, V., Scherbakov, A., Zhang, Z., Shang, Y....Paton, D. J. (2009). Multiple Origins of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia 1 Outbreaks, 2003–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1046-1051. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081621.
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  • Clusters of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cases, Europe PDF Version [PDF - 552 KB - 9 pages]
    I. Devaux et al.
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    Molecular surveillance of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) was implemented in Europe as case reporting in 2005. For all new MDR TB cases detected from January 2003 through June 2007, countries reported case-based epidemiologic data and DNA fingerprint patterns of MDR TB strains when available. International clusters were detected and analyzed. From 2003 through mid-2007 in Europe, 2,494 cases of MDR TB were reported from 24 European countries. Epidemiologic and molecular data were linked for 593 (39%) cases, and 672 insertion sequence 6110 DNA fingerprint patterns were reported from 19 countries. Of these patterns, 288 (43%) belonged to 18 European clusters; 7 clusters (242/288 cases, 84%) were characterized by strains of the Beijing genotype family, including the largest cluster (175/288 cases, 61%). Both clustering and the Beijing genotype were associated with strains originating in eastern European countries. Molecular cluster detection contributes to identification of transmission profile, risk factors, and control measures.

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    EID Devaux I, Kremer K, Heersma H, van Soolingen D. Clusters of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cases, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1052-1060. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.080994
    AMA Devaux I, Kremer K, Heersma H, et al. Clusters of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cases, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1052-1060. doi:10.3201/eid1507.080994.
    APA Devaux, I., Kremer, K., Heersma, H., & van Soolingen, D. (2009). Clusters of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cases, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1052-1060. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.080994.
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  • Relapse Associated with Active Disease Caused by Beijing Strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PDF Version [PDF - 556 KB - 7 pages]
    W. J. Burman et al.
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    The role of microbial factors in outcomes of tuberculosis treatment has not been well studied. We performed a case–control study to evaluate the association between a Beijing strain and tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Isolates from patients with culture-positive treatment failure (n = 8) or relapse (n = 54) were compared with isolates from randomly selected controls (n = 296) by using spoligotyping. Patients with Beijing strains had a higher risk for relapse (odds ratio [OR] 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–4.0, p = 0.04) but not for treatment failure. Adjustment for factors previously associated with relapse had little effect on the association between Beijing strains and relapse. Beijing strains were strongly associated with relapse among Asian–Pacific Islanders (OR 11, 95% CI 1.1–108, p = 0.04). Active disease caused by a Beijing strain was associated with increased risk for relapse, particularly among Asian–Pacific Islanders.

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    EID Burman WJ, Bliven EE, Cowan L, Bozeman L, Nahid P, Diem L, et al. Relapse Associated with Active Disease Caused by Beijing Strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1061-1067. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081253
    AMA Burman WJ, Bliven EE, Cowan L, et al. Relapse Associated with Active Disease Caused by Beijing Strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1061-1067. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081253.
    APA Burman, W. J., Bliven, E. E., Cowan, L., Bozeman, L., Nahid, P., Diem, L....Vernon, A. (2009). Relapse Associated with Active Disease Caused by Beijing Strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1061-1067. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081253.
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  • Frequency and Evolution of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus Associated with Treatment Failure PDF Version [PDF - 655 KB - 9 pages]
    S. J. Howard et al.
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    Azoles are the mainstay of oral therapy for aspergillosis. Azole resistance in Aspergillus has been reported infrequently. The first resistant isolate was detected in 1999 in Manchester, UK. In a clinical collection of 519 A. fumigatus isolates, the frequency of itraconazole resistance was 5%, a significant increase since 2004 (p<0.001). Of the 34 itraconazole-resistant isolates we studied, 65% (22) were cross-resistant to voriconazole and 74% (25) were cross-resistant to posaconazole. Thirteen of 14 evaluable patients in our study had prior azole exposure; 8 infections failed therapy (progressed), and 5 failed to improve (remained stable). Eighteen amino acid alterations were found in the target enzyme, Cyp51A, 4 of which were novel. A population genetic analysis of microsatellites showed the existence of resistant mutants that evolved from originally susceptible strains, different cyp51A mutations in the same strain, and microalterations in microsatellite repeat number. Azole resistance in A. fumigatus is an emerging problem and may develop during azole therapy.

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    EID Howard SJ, Cerar D, Anderson MJ, Albarrag A, Fisher MC, Pasqualotto AC, et al. Frequency and Evolution of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus Associated with Treatment Failure. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1068-1076. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090043
    AMA Howard SJ, Cerar D, Anderson MJ, et al. Frequency and Evolution of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus Associated with Treatment Failure. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1068-1076. doi:10.3201/eid1507.090043.
    APA Howard, S. J., Cerar, D., Anderson, M. J., Albarrag, A., Fisher, M. C., Pasqualotto, A. C....Denning, D. W. (2009). Frequency and Evolution of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus Associated with Treatment Failure. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1068-1076. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090043.
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Dispatches

  • Co-infections with Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus in Delhi, India PDF Version [PDF - 408 KB - 4 pages]
    H. S. Chahar et al.
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    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are common vectors for dengue virus and chikungunya virus. In areas where both viruses cocirculate, they can be transmitted together. During a dengue outbreak in Delhi in 2006, 17 of 69 serum samples were positive for chikungunya virus by reverse transcription–PCR; 6 samples were positive for both viruses.

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    EID Chahar HS, Bharaj P, Dar L, Guleria R, Kabra SK, Broor S, et al. Co-infections with Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus in Delhi, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1077-1080. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.080638
    AMA Chahar HS, Bharaj P, Dar L, et al. Co-infections with Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus in Delhi, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1077-1080. doi:10.3201/eid1507.080638.
    APA Chahar, H. S., Bharaj, P., Dar, L., Guleria, R., Kabra, S. K., & Broor, S. (2009). Co-infections with Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus in Delhi, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1077-1080. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.080638.
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  • Influenza Virus A (H1N1) in Giant Anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) PDF Version [PDF - 560 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Nofs et al.
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    In February 2007, an outbreak of respiratory disease occurred in a group of giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) at the Nashville Zoo. Isolates from 2 affected animals were identified in March 2007 as a type A influenza virus related to human influenza subtype H1N1.

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    EID Nofs S, Abd-Eldaim M, Thomas KV, Toplon D, Rouse D, Kennedy M, et al. Influenza Virus A (H1N1) in Giant Anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1081-1083. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081574
    AMA Nofs S, Abd-Eldaim M, Thomas KV, et al. Influenza Virus A (H1N1) in Giant Anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1081-1083. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081574.
    APA Nofs, S., Abd-Eldaim, M., Thomas, K. V., Toplon, D., Rouse, D., & Kennedy, M. (2009). Influenza Virus A (H1N1) in Giant Anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1081-1083. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081574.
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  • Intergenogroup Recombinant Sapovirus in Japan, 2007–2008 PDF Version [PDF - 590 KB - 4 pages]
    W. Chanit et al.
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    We investigated the incidence of sapovirus (SaV)–associated gastroenteritis in infants and children in Japan during 2007–2008 and characterized the diversity of SaV-positive strains. SaV was detected in 19 (4%) of 477 fecal specimens. The leading genogroup (79%, 15 cases) comprised intergenogroup recombinant SaVs (GII/GIV).

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    EID Chanit W, Thongprachum A, Khamrin P, Okitsu S, Mizuguchi M, Ushijima H, et al. Intergenogroup Recombinant Sapovirus in Japan, 2007–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1084-1087. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090153
    AMA Chanit W, Thongprachum A, Khamrin P, et al. Intergenogroup Recombinant Sapovirus in Japan, 2007–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1084-1087. doi:10.3201/eid1507.090153.
    APA Chanit, W., Thongprachum, A., Khamrin, P., Okitsu, S., Mizuguchi, M., & Ushijima, H. (2009). Intergenogroup Recombinant Sapovirus in Japan, 2007–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1084-1087. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090153.
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  • Lack of Macrolide Resistance in Chlamydia trachomatis after Mass Azithromycin Distributions for Trachoma PDF Version [PDF - 455 KB - 3 pages]
    K. C. Hong et al.
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    We investigated antimicrobial drug resistance in ocular Chlamydia trachomatis 18 months after 4 biannual communitywide distributions of antimicrobial drugs in a region of Ethiopia where ocular strains of C. trachomatis are highly endemic. We found no significant differences in susceptibilities to azithromycin and doxycycline in 6 posttreatment and 4 pretreatment samples.

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    EID Hong KC, Schachter J, Moncada J, Zhou Z, House J, Lietman TM, et al. Lack of Macrolide Resistance in Chlamydia trachomatis after Mass Azithromycin Distributions for Trachoma. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1088-1090. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081563
    AMA Hong KC, Schachter J, Moncada J, et al. Lack of Macrolide Resistance in Chlamydia trachomatis after Mass Azithromycin Distributions for Trachoma. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1088-1090. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081563.
    APA Hong, K. C., Schachter, J., Moncada, J., Zhou, Z., House, J., & Lietman, T. M. (2009). Lack of Macrolide Resistance in Chlamydia trachomatis after Mass Azithromycin Distributions for Trachoma. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1088-1090. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081563.
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  • Genetically Diverse Coronaviruses in Wild Bird Populations of Northern England PDF Version [PDF - 399 KB - 4 pages]
    L. A. Hughes et al.
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    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a costly respiratory viral disease of chickens. The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of IBV is poorly understood. We detected diverse coronaviruses by PCR in wildfowl and wading birds in England. Sequence analysis showed some viruses to be related to IBV.

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    EID Hughes LA, Savage C, Naylor C, Bennett M, Chantrey J, Jones R, et al. Genetically Diverse Coronaviruses in Wild Bird Populations of Northern England. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1091-1094. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090067
    AMA Hughes LA, Savage C, Naylor C, et al. Genetically Diverse Coronaviruses in Wild Bird Populations of Northern England. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1091-1094. doi:10.3201/eid1507.090067.
    APA Hughes, L. A., Savage, C., Naylor, C., Bennett, M., Chantrey, J., & Jones, R. (2009). Genetically Diverse Coronaviruses in Wild Bird Populations of Northern England. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1091-1094. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090067.
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  • WU Polyomavirus in Patients Infected with HIV or Hepatitis C Virus, Connecticut, USA, 2007 PDF Version [PDF - 435 KB - 3 pages]
    M. A. Miller et al.
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    WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) was detected in 10 (8.3%) of 121 HIV-positive plasma specimens, 0 (0%) of 120 HIV-negative serum specimens, and 2 (2.5%) of 79 hepatitis C virus (HCV)–positive serum specimens. KI polyomavirus was not detected in HIV-positive plasma or HCV-positive serum specimens. HIV-infected persons may be susceptible to systemic WUPyV infection.

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    EID Miller MA, Weibel C, Ferguson D, Landry ML, Kahn JS. WU Polyomavirus in Patients Infected with HIV or Hepatitis C Virus, Connecticut, USA, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1095-1097. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090150
    AMA Miller MA, Weibel C, Ferguson D, et al. WU Polyomavirus in Patients Infected with HIV or Hepatitis C Virus, Connecticut, USA, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1095-1097. doi:10.3201/eid1507.090150.
    APA Miller, M. A., Weibel, C., Ferguson, D., Landry, M. L., & Kahn, J. S. (2009). WU Polyomavirus in Patients Infected with HIV or Hepatitis C Virus, Connecticut, USA, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1095-1097. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090150.
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  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in Swine Farm Personnel, Belgium PDF Version [PDF - 499 KB - 4 pages]
    O. Denis et al.
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    We assessed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in persons on 49 swine farms in Belgium. Surveys showed that 48 (37.8%) persons carried MRSA ST398 and 1 (0.8%) had concurrent skin infection. Risk factors for carriage were MRSA carriage by pigs, regular contact with pigs and companion animals, and use of protective clothing.

        Cite This Article
    EID Denis O, Suetens C, Hallin M, Catry B, Ramboer I, Dispas M, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in Swine Farm Personnel, Belgium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1098-1101. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.080652
    AMA Denis O, Suetens C, Hallin M, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in Swine Farm Personnel, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1098-1101. doi:10.3201/eid1507.080652.
    APA Denis, O., Suetens, C., Hallin, M., Catry, B., Ramboer, I., Dispas, M....Struelens, M. J. (2009). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in Swine Farm Personnel, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1098-1101. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.080652.
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  • Eczema Herpeticum and Clinical Criteria for Investigating Smallpox PDF Version [PDF - 543 KB - 3 pages]
    D. A. Boyd et al.
        View Abstract

    Eczema herpeticum can clinically resemble smallpox. On the basis of the algorithm for rapid evaluation of patients with an acute generalized vesiculopustular rash illness, our patient met criteria for high risk for smallpox. The Tzanck preparation was critical for rapid diagnosis of herpetic infection and exclusion of smallpox.

        Cite This Article
    EID Boyd DA, Sperling LC, Norton SA. Eczema Herpeticum and Clinical Criteria for Investigating Smallpox. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1102-1104. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090093
    AMA Boyd DA, Sperling LC, Norton SA. Eczema Herpeticum and Clinical Criteria for Investigating Smallpox. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1102-1104. doi:10.3201/eid1507.090093.
    APA Boyd, D. A., Sperling, L. C., & Norton, S. A. (2009). Eczema Herpeticum and Clinical Criteria for Investigating Smallpox. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1102-1104. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090093.
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  • Rickettsia slovaca and R. raoultii in Tick-borne Rickettsioses PDF Version [PDF - 472 KB - 4 pages]
    P. Parola et al.
        View Abstract

    Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA), also called Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL), is defined as the association of a tick bite, an inoculation eschar on the scalp, and cervical adenopathies. We identified the etiologic agent for 65% of 86 patients with TIBOLA/DEBONEL as either Rickettsia slovaca (49/86, 57%) or R. raoultii (7/86, 8%).

        Cite This Article
    EID Parola P, Rovery C, Rolain J, Brouqui P, Davoust B, Raoult D, et al. Rickettsia slovaca and R. raoultii in Tick-borne Rickettsioses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1105-1108. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081449
    AMA Parola P, Rovery C, Rolain J, et al. Rickettsia slovaca and R. raoultii in Tick-borne Rickettsioses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1105-1108. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081449.
    APA Parola, P., Rovery, C., Rolain, J., Brouqui, P., Davoust, B., & Raoult, D. (2009). Rickettsia slovaca and R. raoultii in Tick-borne Rickettsioses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1105-1108. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081449.
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  • Latent Tuberculosis and Active Tuberculosis Disease Rates among the Homeless, New York, New York, USA, 1992–2006 PDF Version [PDF - 417 KB - 3 pages]
    J. M. McAdam et al.
        View Abstract

    We conducted a retrospective study to examine trends in latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and TB disease rates among homeless persons in shelters in New York, NY, 1992–2006. Although TB case rates fell from 1,502/100,000 population to 0, a 31% LTBI rate in 2006 shows the value of identifying and treating TB in the homeless.

        Cite This Article
    EID McAdam JM, Bucher SJ, Brickner PW, Vincent RL, Lascher S. Latent Tuberculosis and Active Tuberculosis Disease Rates among the Homeless, New York, New York, USA, 1992–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1109-1111. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.080410
    AMA McAdam JM, Bucher SJ, Brickner PW, et al. Latent Tuberculosis and Active Tuberculosis Disease Rates among the Homeless, New York, New York, USA, 1992–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1109-1111. doi:10.3201/eid1507.080410.
    APA McAdam, J. M., Bucher, S. J., Brickner, P. W., Vincent, R. L., & Lascher, S. (2009). Latent Tuberculosis and Active Tuberculosis Disease Rates among the Homeless, New York, New York, USA, 1992–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1109-1111. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.080410.
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  • Chinese-like Strain of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Thailand PDF Version [PDF - 494 KB - 4 pages]
    S. Puranaveja et al.
        View Abstract

    Since late 2007, several outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection have emerged in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis places all Thai PEDV isolates during the outbreaks in the same clade as the Chinese strain JS-2004-2. This new genotype PEDV is prevailing and currently causing sporadic outbreaks in Thailand.

        Cite This Article
    EID Puranaveja S, Poolperm P, Lertwatcharasarakul P, Kesdaengsakonwut S, Boonsoongnern A, Urairong K, et al. Chinese-like Strain of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1112-1115. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081256
    AMA Puranaveja S, Poolperm P, Lertwatcharasarakul P, et al. Chinese-like Strain of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1112-1115. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081256.
    APA Puranaveja, S., Poolperm, P., Lertwatcharasarakul, P., Kesdaengsakonwut, S., Boonsoongnern, A., Urairong, K....Thanawongnuwech, R. (2009). Chinese-like Strain of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1112-1115. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081256.
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  • Epidemiology of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection in Blood Donors, Israel PDF Version [PDF - 424 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Stienlauf et al.
        View Abstract

    The prevalence of infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) in blood donors from Israel is 1 infection/100,000 persons. In donors originating from Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Latin America, prevalences are 7.7, 14.6, and 20.4, respectively. HTLV-1 prevalence may be high outside areas where HTLV-1 previously was known to be endemic.

        Cite This Article
    EID Stienlauf S, Yahalom V, Schwartz E, Shinar E, Segal G, Sidi Y, et al. Epidemiology of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection in Blood Donors, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1116-1118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.080796
    AMA Stienlauf S, Yahalom V, Schwartz E, et al. Epidemiology of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection in Blood Donors, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1116-1118. doi:10.3201/eid1507.080796.
    APA Stienlauf, S., Yahalom, V., Schwartz, E., Shinar, E., Segal, G., & Sidi, Y. (2009). Epidemiology of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection in Blood Donors, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1116-1118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.080796.
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  • Recurrent Lymphocytic Meningitis Positive for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 PDF Version [PDF - 512 KB - 4 pages]
    K. Kallio-Laine et al.
        View Abstract

    We found the prevalence of recurrent lymphocytic meningitis associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was 2.2/100,000 population in Finland during 1996–2006, higher than previous estimates. PCR was most sensitive in detecting HSV-2 DNA from cerebrospinal fluid if the sample was taken 2–5 days after symptom onset.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kallio-Laine K, Seppänen M, Kautiainen H, Lokki M, Lappalainen M, Valtonen V, et al. Recurrent Lymphocytic Meningitis Positive for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1119-1122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.080716
    AMA Kallio-Laine K, Seppänen M, Kautiainen H, et al. Recurrent Lymphocytic Meningitis Positive for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1119-1122. doi:10.3201/eid1507.080716.
    APA Kallio-Laine, K., Seppänen, M., Kautiainen, H., Lokki, M., Lappalainen, M., Valtonen, V....Kalso, E. (2009). Recurrent Lymphocytic Meningitis Positive for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1119-1122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.080716.
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  • Possible Outbreak of Streptomycin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing in Benin PDF Version [PDF - 430 KB - 3 pages]
    D. Affolabi et al.
        View Abstract

    Using geographic information system and molecular tools, we characterized a possible outbreak of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strain in 17 patients in Cotonou, Benin, during July 2005–October 2006. Most patients lived or worked in the same area and frequented the same local drinking bar. The isolates were streptomycin resistant.

        Cite This Article
    EID Affolabi D, Faïhun F, Sanoussi N, Anyo G, Shamputa IC, Rigouts L, et al. Possible Outbreak of Streptomycin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing in Benin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1123-1125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.080697
    AMA Affolabi D, Faïhun F, Sanoussi N, et al. Possible Outbreak of Streptomycin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing in Benin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1123-1125. doi:10.3201/eid1507.080697.
    APA Affolabi, D., Faïhun, F., Sanoussi, N., Anyo, G., Shamputa, I. C., Rigouts, L....Portaels, F. (2009). Possible Outbreak of Streptomycin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing in Benin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1123-1125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.080697.
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Letters

  • Rickettsia felis Infection in Man, France PDF Version [PDF - 398 KB - 2 pages]
    A. Renvoisé et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Renvoisé A, Joliot A, Raoult D. Rickettsia felis Infection in Man, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1126-1127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090029
    AMA Renvoisé A, Joliot A, Raoult D. Rickettsia felis Infection in Man, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1126-1127. doi:10.3201/eid1507.090029.
    APA Renvoisé, A., Joliot, A., & Raoult, D. (2009). Rickettsia felis Infection in Man, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1126-1127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090029.
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  • Rapid Increase of Scrub Typhus, South Korea, 2001–2006 PDF Version [PDF - 435 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Kweon et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kweon S, Choi J, Lim H, Kim J, Kim K, Ryu S, et al. Rapid Increase of Scrub Typhus, South Korea, 2001–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1127-1129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.080399
    AMA Kweon S, Choi J, Lim H, et al. Rapid Increase of Scrub Typhus, South Korea, 2001–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1127-1129. doi:10.3201/eid1507.080399.
    APA Kweon, S., Choi, J., Lim, H., Kim, J., Kim, K., Ryu, S....Park, O. (2009). Rapid Increase of Scrub Typhus, South Korea, 2001–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1127-1129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.080399.
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  • Fatal Algaemia in Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia PDF Version [PDF - 389 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Lanotte et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Lanotte P, Baty G, Senecal D, Dartigeas C, Bailly E, Duong TH, et al. Fatal Algaemia in Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1129-1130. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090373
    AMA Lanotte P, Baty G, Senecal D, et al. Fatal Algaemia in Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1129-1130. doi:10.3201/eid1507.090373.
    APA Lanotte, P., Baty, G., Senecal, D., Dartigeas, C., Bailly, E., Duong, T. H....Goudeau, A. (2009). Fatal Algaemia in Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1129-1130. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090373.
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  • Arcanobacterium pyogenes Sepsis in Farmer, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 348 KB - 2 pages]
    C. E. Levy et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Levy CE, Pedro RJ, Von Nowakonski A, Holanda LM, Brocchi M, Ramos MC, et al. Arcanobacterium pyogenes Sepsis in Farmer, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1131-1132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081072
    AMA Levy CE, Pedro RJ, Von Nowakonski A, et al. Arcanobacterium pyogenes Sepsis in Farmer, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1131-1132. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081072.
    APA Levy, C. E., Pedro, R. J., Von Nowakonski, A., Holanda, L. M., Brocchi, M., & Ramos, M. C. (2009). Arcanobacterium pyogenes Sepsis in Farmer, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1131-1132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081072.
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  • Reactivation of Bovine Tuberculosis in Patient Treated with Infliximab, Switzerland PDF Version [PDF - 349 KB - 2 pages]
    M. Nager et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Nager M, Tarr PE, Haack HG, Martius F, Stoebe C, Frei R, et al. Reactivation of Bovine Tuberculosis in Patient Treated with Infliximab, Switzerland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1132-1133. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090024
    AMA Nager M, Tarr PE, Haack HG, et al. Reactivation of Bovine Tuberculosis in Patient Treated with Infliximab, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1132-1133. doi:10.3201/eid1507.090024.
    APA Nager, M., Tarr, P. E., Haack, H. G., Martius, F., Stoebe, C., Frei, R....Jehle, A. W. (2009). Reactivation of Bovine Tuberculosis in Patient Treated with Infliximab, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1132-1133. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090024.
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  • Chitinophaga terrae Bacteremia in Human PDF Version [PDF - 417 KB - 2 pages]
    L. Crémet et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Crémet L, Bemer P, Zambon O, Reynaud A, Caroff N, Corvec S, et al. Chitinophaga terrae Bacteremia in Human. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1134-1135. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090124
    AMA Crémet L, Bemer P, Zambon O, et al. Chitinophaga terrae Bacteremia in Human. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1134-1135. doi:10.3201/eid1507.090124.
    APA Crémet, L., Bemer, P., Zambon, O., Reynaud, A., Caroff, N., & Corvec, S. (2009). Chitinophaga terrae Bacteremia in Human. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1134-1135. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090124.
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  • Immunoglobulin G in Ebola Outbreak Survivors, Gabon PDF Version [PDF - 370 KB - 2 pages]
    N. Wauquier et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Wauquier N, Becquart P, Gasquet C, Leroy EM. Immunoglobulin G in Ebola Outbreak Survivors, Gabon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1136-1137. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090402
    AMA Wauquier N, Becquart P, Gasquet C, et al. Immunoglobulin G in Ebola Outbreak Survivors, Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1136-1137. doi:10.3201/eid1507.090402.
    APA Wauquier, N., Becquart, P., Gasquet, C., & Leroy, E. M. (2009). Immunoglobulin G in Ebola Outbreak Survivors, Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1136-1137. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090402.
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  • Varibaculum cambriense Infections in Hong Kong, China, 2006 PDF Version [PDF - 393 KB - 3 pages]
    Y. Chu et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Chu Y, Wong C, Chu M, Cheung CP, Cheung TK, Tse C, et al. Varibaculum cambriense Infections in Hong Kong, China, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1137-1139. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081291
    AMA Chu Y, Wong C, Chu M, et al. Varibaculum cambriense Infections in Hong Kong, China, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1137-1139. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081291.
    APA Chu, Y., Wong, C., Chu, M., Cheung, C. P., Cheung, T. K., Tse, C....Lo, J. (2009). Varibaculum cambriense Infections in Hong Kong, China, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1137-1139. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081291.
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  • Outbreaks of Hemotrophic Mycoplasma Infections in China PDF Version [PDF - 337 KB - 2 pages]
    Z. Hu et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Hu Z, Yin J, Shen K, Kang W, Chen Q. Outbreaks of Hemotrophic Mycoplasma Infections in China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1139-1140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090174
    AMA Hu Z, Yin J, Shen K, et al. Outbreaks of Hemotrophic Mycoplasma Infections in China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1139-1140. doi:10.3201/eid1507.090174.
    APA Hu, Z., Yin, J., Shen, K., Kang, W., & Chen, Q. (2009). Outbreaks of Hemotrophic Mycoplasma Infections in China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1139-1140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090174.
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  • Sensitivity of Andes Hantavirus to Antiviral Effect of Human Saliva PDF Version [PDF - 372 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Hardestam et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Hardestam J, Lundkvist Å, Klingström J. Sensitivity of Andes Hantavirus to Antiviral Effect of Human Saliva. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1140-1142. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090097
    AMA Hardestam J, Lundkvist Å, Klingström J. Sensitivity of Andes Hantavirus to Antiviral Effect of Human Saliva. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1140-1142. doi:10.3201/eid1507.090097.
    APA Hardestam, J., Lundkvist, Å., & Klingström, J. (2009). Sensitivity of Andes Hantavirus to Antiviral Effect of Human Saliva. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1140-1142. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090097.
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  • Spread of Cantagalo Virus to Northern Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 343 KB - 2 pages]
    M. L. Medaglia et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Medaglia ML, Pessoa LC, Sales ER, Freitas TR, Damaso CR. Spread of Cantagalo Virus to Northern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1142-1143. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081702
    AMA Medaglia ML, Pessoa LC, Sales ER, et al. Spread of Cantagalo Virus to Northern Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1142-1143. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081702.
    APA Medaglia, M. L., Pessoa, L. C., Sales, E. R., Freitas, T. R., & Damaso, C. R. (2009). Spread of Cantagalo Virus to Northern Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1142-1143. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081702.
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  • Acanthamoeba spp. in Urine of Critically Ill Patients PDF Version [PDF - 372 KB - 3 pages]
    L. C. Santos et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Santos LC, Oliveira MS, Lobo RD, Higashino HR, Costa SF, van der Heijden IM, et al. Acanthamoeba spp. in Urine of Critically Ill Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1144-1146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081415
    AMA Santos LC, Oliveira MS, Lobo RD, et al. Acanthamoeba spp. in Urine of Critically Ill Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1144-1146. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081415.
    APA Santos, L. C., Oliveira, M. S., Lobo, R. D., Higashino, H. R., Costa, S. F., van der Heijden, I. M....Levin, A. S. (2009). Acanthamoeba spp. in Urine of Critically Ill Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1144-1146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081415.
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  • Ranavirus Outbreak in North American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), Japan, 2008 PDF Version [PDF - 344 KB - 2 pages]
    Y. Une et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Une Y, Sakuma A, Matsueda H, Nakai K, Murakami M. Ranavirus Outbreak in North American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), Japan, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1146-1147. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081636
    AMA Une Y, Sakuma A, Matsueda H, et al. Ranavirus Outbreak in North American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), Japan, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1146-1147. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081636.
    APA Une, Y., Sakuma, A., Matsueda, H., Nakai, K., & Murakami, M. (2009). Ranavirus Outbreak in North American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), Japan, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1146-1147. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081636.
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  • Maternal Antibody Transfer in Yellow-legged Gulls PDF Version [PDF - 342 KB - 3 pages]
    J. M. Pearce-Duvet et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Pearce-Duvet JM, Gauthier-Clerc M, Jourdain E, Boulinier T. Maternal Antibody Transfer in Yellow-legged Gulls. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1147-1149. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090036
    AMA Pearce-Duvet JM, Gauthier-Clerc M, Jourdain E, et al. Maternal Antibody Transfer in Yellow-legged Gulls. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1147-1149. doi:10.3201/eid1507.090036.
    APA Pearce-Duvet, J. M., Gauthier-Clerc, M., Jourdain, E., & Boulinier, T. (2009). Maternal Antibody Transfer in Yellow-legged Gulls. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1147-1149. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090036.
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  • Bartonella rochalimae and Other Bartonella spp. in Fleas, Chile PDF Version [PDF - 432 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Pérez-Martínez et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Pérez-Martínez L, Venzal JM, González-Acuña D, Portillo A, Blanco JR, Oteo JA, et al. Bartonella rochalimae and Other Bartonella spp. in Fleas, Chile. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1150-1152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081570
    AMA Pérez-Martínez L, Venzal JM, González-Acuña D, et al. Bartonella rochalimae and Other Bartonella spp. in Fleas, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1150-1152. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081570.
    APA Pérez-Martínez, L., Venzal, J. M., González-Acuña, D., Portillo, A., Blanco, J. R., & Oteo, J. A. (2009). Bartonella rochalimae and Other Bartonella spp. in Fleas, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1150-1152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081570.
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  • Prevalence of Human Bocavirus in Human Tonsils and Adenoids PDF Version [PDF - 343 KB - 2 pages]
    N. Clément et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Clément N, Battaglioli G, Jensen RL, Schnepp BC, Johnson PR, St. George K, et al. Prevalence of Human Bocavirus in Human Tonsils and Adenoids. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1149-1150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090102
    AMA Clément N, Battaglioli G, Jensen RL, et al. Prevalence of Human Bocavirus in Human Tonsils and Adenoids. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1149-1150. doi:10.3201/eid1507.090102.
    APA Clément, N., Battaglioli, G., Jensen, R. L., Schnepp, B. C., Johnson, P. R., St. George, K....Linden, R. M. (2009). Prevalence of Human Bocavirus in Human Tonsils and Adenoids. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1149-1150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.090102.
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  • Awake, Arise, or Be for Ever Fall’n PDF Version [PDF - 306 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. Awake, Arise, or Be for Ever Fall’n. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1155-1156. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.AC1507
    AMA Potter P. Awake, Arise, or Be for Ever Fall’n. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1155-1156. doi:10.3201/eid1507.AC1507.
    APA Potter, P. (2009). Awake, Arise, or Be for Ever Fall’n. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1155-1156. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.AC1507.
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Etymologia

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  • Peer Reviewed Report Available Online Only
    Potential Impact of a 2-Person Security Rule on BioSafety Level 4 Laboratory Workers
    J. W. LeDuc et al.
    View Summary

    DOI: 10.3201/eid1507.081523

        View Abstract

    Directors of all major BioSafety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories in the United States met in 2008 to review the current status of biocontainment laboratory operations and to discuss the potential impact of a proposed 2-person security rule on maximum-containment laboratory operations. Special attention was paid to the value and risks that would result from a requirement that 2 persons be physically present in the laboratory at all times. A consensus emerged indicating that a video monitoring system represents a more efficient, economical standard; provides greater assurance that pathogens are properly manipulated; and offers an increased margin of employee safety and institutional security. The 2-person security rule (1 to work and 1 to observe) may decrease compliance with dual responsibilities of safety and security by placing undue pressure on the person being observed to quickly finish the work, and by placing the observer in the containment environment unnecessarily.

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