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Issue Cover for Volume 5, Number 1—February 1999

Volume 5, Number 1—February 1999

[PDF - 12.04 MB - 191 pages]

Perspective

International Editors: Emerging Viral Diseases: An Australian Perspective [PDF - 84 KB - 8 pages]
J. S. MacKenzie
EID MacKenzie JS. International Editors: Emerging Viral Diseases: An Australian Perspective. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):1-8. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990101
AMA MacKenzie JS. International Editors: Emerging Viral Diseases: An Australian Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):1-8. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990101.
APA MacKenzie, J. S. (1999). International Editors: Emerging Viral Diseases: An Australian Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 1-8. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990101.

The Economic Impact of Staphylococcus aureus Infection in New York City Hospitals [PDF - 73 KB - 9 pages]
R. J. Rubin et al.

We modeled estimates of the incidence, deaths, and direct medical costs of Staphylococcus aureus infections in hospitalized patients in the New York City metropolitan area in 1995 by using hospital discharge data collected by the New York State Department of Health and standard sources for the costs of health care. We also examined the relative impact of methicillin-resistant versus -sensitive strains of S. aureus and of community-acquired versus nosocomial infections. S. aureus-associated hospitalizations resulted in approximately twice the length of stay, deaths, and medical costs of typical hospitalizations; methicillin-resistant and -sensitive infections had similar direct medical costs, but resistant infections caused more deaths (21% versus 8%). Community-acquired and nosocomial infections had similar death rates, but community-acquired infections appeared to have increased direct medical costs per patient ($35,300 versus $28,800). The results of our study indicate that reducing the incidence of methicillin-resistant and -sensitive nosocomial infections would reduce the societal costs of S. aureus infection.

EID Rubin RJ, Harrington CA, Poon A, Dietrich K, Greene JA, Moiduddin A. The Economic Impact of Staphylococcus aureus Infection in New York City Hospitals. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):9-17. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990102
AMA Rubin RJ, Harrington CA, Poon A, et al. The Economic Impact of Staphylococcus aureus Infection in New York City Hospitals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):9-17. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990102.
APA Rubin, R. J., Harrington, C. A., Poon, A., Dietrich, K., Greene, J. A., & Moiduddin, A. (1999). The Economic Impact of Staphylococcus aureus Infection in New York City Hospitals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 9-17. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990102.

Socioeconomic and Behavioral Factors Leading to Acquired Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics in Developing Countries [PDF - 81 KB - 10 pages]
I. N. Okeke et al.

In developing countries, acquired bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is common in isolates from healthy persons and from persons with community-acquired infections. Complex socioeconomic and behavioral factors associated with antibiotic resistance, particularly regarding diarrheal and respiratory pathogens, in developing tropical countries, include misuse of antibiotics by health professionals, unskilled practitioners, and laypersons; poor drug quality; unhygienic conditions accounting for spread of resistant bacteria; and inadequate surveillance.

EID Okeke IN, Lamikanra A, Edelman R. Socioeconomic and Behavioral Factors Leading to Acquired Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics in Developing Countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):18-27. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990103
AMA Okeke IN, Lamikanra A, Edelman R. Socioeconomic and Behavioral Factors Leading to Acquired Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics in Developing Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):18-27. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990103.
APA Okeke, I. N., Lamikanra, A., & Edelman, R. (1999). Socioeconomic and Behavioral Factors Leading to Acquired Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics in Developing Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 18-27. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990103.

Campylobacter jejuni—An Emerging Foodborne Pathogen [PDF - 144 KB - 8 pages]
S. F. Altekruse et al.

Campylobacter jejuni is the most commonly reported bacterial cause of foodborne infection in the United States. Adding to the human and economic costs are chronic sequelae associated with C. jejuni infection—Guillian-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis. In addition, an increasing proportion of human infections caused by C. jejuni are resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Mishandling of raw poultry and consumption of undercooked poultry are the major risk factors for human campylobacteriosis. Efforts to prevent human illness are needed throughout each link in the food chain.

EID Altekruse SF, Stern NJ, Fields PI, Swerdlow DL. Campylobacter jejuni—An Emerging Foodborne Pathogen. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):28-35. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990104
AMA Altekruse SF, Stern NJ, Fields PI, et al. Campylobacter jejuni—An Emerging Foodborne Pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):28-35. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990104.
APA Altekruse, S. F., Stern, N. J., Fields, P. I., & Swerdlow, D. L. (1999). Campylobacter jejuni—An Emerging Foodborne Pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 28-35. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990104.
Synopses

Comparative Genomics and Host Resistance against Infectious Diseases [PDF - 95 KB - 12 pages]
S. T. Qureshi et al.

The large size and complexity of the human genome have limited the identification and functional characterization of components of the innate immune system that play a critical role in front-line defense against invading microorganisms. However, advances in genome analysis (including the development of comprehensive sets of informative genetic markers, improved physical mapping methods, and novel techniques for transcript identification) have reduced the obstacles to discovery of novel host resistance genes. Study of the genomic organization and content of widely divergent vertebrate species has shown a remarkable degree of evolutionary conservation and enables meaningful cross-species comparison and analysis of newly discovered genes. Application of comparative genomics to host resistance will rapidly expand our understanding of human immune defense by facilitating the translation of knowledge acquired through the study of model organisms. We review the rationale and resources for comparative genomic analysis and describe three examples of host resistance genes successfully identified by this approach.

EID Qureshi ST, Skamene E, Malo D. Comparative Genomics and Host Resistance against Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):36-47. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990105
AMA Qureshi ST, Skamene E, Malo D. Comparative Genomics and Host Resistance against Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):36-47. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990105.
APA Qureshi, S. T., Skamene, E., & Malo, D. (1999). Comparative Genomics and Host Resistance against Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 36-47. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990105.

Cyclospora: An Enigma Worth Unraveling
C. R. Sterling and Y. R. Ortega

In part, Cyclospora cayetanensis owes its recognition as an emerging pathogen to the increased use of staining methods for detecting enteric parasites such as Cryptosporidium. First reported in patients in New Guinea in 1977 but thought to be a coccidian parasite of the genus Isospora, C. cayetanensis received little attention until it was again described in 1985 in New York and Peru. In the early 1990s, human infection associated with waterborne transmission of C. cayetanensis was suspected; foodborne transmission was likewise suggested in early studies. The parasite was associated with several disease outbreaks in the United States during 1996 and 1997. This article reviews current knowledge about C. cayetanensis (including its association with waterborne and foodborne transmission), unresolved issues, and research needs.

EID Sterling CR, Ortega YR. Cyclospora: An Enigma Worth Unraveling. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):48-53. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990106
AMA Sterling CR, Ortega YR. Cyclospora: An Enigma Worth Unraveling. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):48-53. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990106.
APA Sterling, C. R., & Ortega, Y. R. (1999). Cyclospora: An Enigma Worth Unraveling. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 48-53. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990106.

Using Monoclonal Antibodies to Prevent Mucosal Transmission of Epidemic Infectious Diseases [PDF - 162 KB - 11 pages]
L. Zeitlin et al.

Passive immunization with antibodies has been shown to prevent a wide variety of diseases. Recent advances in monoclonal antibody technology are enabling the development of new methods for passive immunization of mucosal surfaces. Human monoclonal antibodies, produced rapidly, inexpensively, and in large quantities, may help prevent respiratory, diarrheal, and sexually transmitted diseases on a public health scale.

EID Zeitlin L, Cone RA, Whaley KJ. Using Monoclonal Antibodies to Prevent Mucosal Transmission of Epidemic Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):54-64. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990107
AMA Zeitlin L, Cone RA, Whaley KJ. Using Monoclonal Antibodies to Prevent Mucosal Transmission of Epidemic Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):54-64. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990107.
APA Zeitlin, L., Cone, R. A., & Whaley, K. J. (1999). Using Monoclonal Antibodies to Prevent Mucosal Transmission of Epidemic Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 54-64. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990107.
Research

Dual and Recombinant Infections: An Integral Part of the HIV-1 Epidemic in Brazil [PDF - 173 KB - 10 pages]
A. Ramos et al.

We systematically evaluated multiple and recombinant infections in an HIV-infected population selected for vaccine trials. Seventy-nine HIV-1 infected persons in a clinical cohort study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were evaluated for 1 year. A combination of molecular screening assays and DNA sequencing showed 3 dual infections (3.8%), 6 recombinant infections (7.6%), and 70 (88.6%) infections involving single viral subtypes. In the three dual infections, we identified HIV-1 subtypes F and B, F and D, and B and D; in contrast, the single and recombinant infections involved only HIV-1 subtypes B and F. The recombinants had five distinct B/F mosaic patterns: Bgag-p17/Bgag -p24/Fpol/Benv , Fgag-p17/Bgag -p24/Fpol/Fenv , Bgag-p17/B-Fgag -p24/Fpol/Fenv , Bgag-p17/B-Fgag -p24/Fpol/Benv , and Fgag-p17/B-Fgag -p24/Fpol/Fenv . No association was found between dual or recombinant infections and demographic or clinical variables. These findings indicate that dual and recombinant infections are emerging as an integral part of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Brazil and emphasize the heterogenous character of epidemics emerging in countries where multiple viral subtypes coexist.

EID Ramos A, Tanuri A, Schechter M, Rayfield MA, Hu DJ, Cabral MC, et al. Dual and Recombinant Infections: An Integral Part of the HIV-1 Epidemic in Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):65-74. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990108
AMA Ramos A, Tanuri A, Schechter M, et al. Dual and Recombinant Infections: An Integral Part of the HIV-1 Epidemic in Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):65-74. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990108.
APA Ramos, A., Tanuri, A., Schechter, M., Rayfield, M. A., Hu, D. J., Cabral, M. C....Pieniazek, D. (1999). Dual and Recombinant Infections: An Integral Part of the HIV-1 Epidemic in Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 65-74. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990108.

Genetic Diversity and Distribution of Peromyscus-Borne Hantaviruses in North America [PDF - 1.96 MB - 12 pages]
M. C. Monroe et al.

The 1993 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the southwestern United States was associated with Sin Nombre virus, a rodent-borne hantavirus; The virus' primary reservoir is the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Hantavirus-infected rodents were identified in various regions of North America. An extensive nucleotide sequence database of an 139 bp fragment amplified from virus M genomic segments was generated. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that SNV-like hantaviruses are widely distributed in Peromyscus species rodents throughout North America. Classic SNV is the major cause of HPS in North America, but other Peromyscine-borne hantaviruses, e.g., New York and Monongahela viruses, are also associated with HPS cases. Although genetically diverse, SNV-like viruses have slowly coevolved with their rodent hosts. We show that the genetic relationships of hantaviruses in the Americas are complex, most likely as a result of the rapid radiation and speciation of New World sigmodontine rodents and occasional virus-host switching events.

EID Monroe MC, Morzunov SP, Johnson AM, Bowen MD, Artsob H, Yates T, et al. Genetic Diversity and Distribution of Peromyscus-Borne Hantaviruses in North America. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):75-86. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990109
AMA Monroe MC, Morzunov SP, Johnson AM, et al. Genetic Diversity and Distribution of Peromyscus-Borne Hantaviruses in North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):75-86. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990109.
APA Monroe, M. C., Morzunov, S. P., Johnson, A. M., Bowen, M. D., Artsob, H., Yates, T....Nichol, S. T. (1999). Genetic Diversity and Distribution of Peromyscus-Borne Hantaviruses in North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 75-86. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990109.

Climatic and Environmental Patterns Associated with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Four Corners Region, United States [PDF - 333 KB - 14 pages]
D. M. Engelthaler et al.

To investigate climatic, spatial, temporal, and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in the Four Corners region, we collected exposure site data for HPS cases that occurred in 1993 to 1995. Cases clustered seasonally and temporally by biome type and geographic location, and exposure sites were most often found in pinyon-juniper woodlands, grasslands, and Great Basin desert scrub lands, at elevations of 1,800 m to 2,500 m. Environmental factors (e.g., the dramatic increase in precipitation associated with the 1992 to 1993 El Niño) may indirectly increase the risk for Sin Nombre virus exposure and therefore may be of value in designing disease prevention campaigns.

EID Engelthaler DM, Mosley DG, Cheek JE, Levy CE, Komatsu KK, Ettestad P, et al. Climatic and Environmental Patterns Associated with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Four Corners Region, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):87-94. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990110
AMA Engelthaler DM, Mosley DG, Cheek JE, et al. Climatic and Environmental Patterns Associated with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Four Corners Region, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):87-94. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990110.
APA Engelthaler, D. M., Mosley, D. G., Cheek, J. E., Levy, C. E., Komatsu, K. K., Ettestad, P....Bryan, R. T. (1999). Climatic and Environmental Patterns Associated with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Four Corners Region, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 87-94. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990110.

Long-Term Studies of Hantavirus Reservoir Populations in the Southwestern United States: Rationale, Potential, and Methods [PDF - 259 KB - 7 pages]
J. N. Mills et al.

Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a thorough understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease.

EID Mills JN, Yates TL, Ksiazek TG, Peters C, Childs JE. Long-Term Studies of Hantavirus Reservoir Populations in the Southwestern United States: Rationale, Potential, and Methods. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):95-101. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990111
AMA Mills JN, Yates TL, Ksiazek TG, et al. Long-Term Studies of Hantavirus Reservoir Populations in the Southwestern United States: Rationale, Potential, and Methods. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):95-101. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990111.
APA Mills, J. N., Yates, T. L., Ksiazek, T. G., Peters, C., & Childs, J. E. (1999). Long-Term Studies of Hantavirus Reservoir Populations in the Southwestern United States: Rationale, Potential, and Methods. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 95-101. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990111.

Long-Term Hantavirus Persistence in Rodent Populations in Central Arizona [PDF - 133 KB - 11 pages]
K. D. Abbott et al.

For 35 months, we monitored hantavirus activity in rodent populations in central Arizona. The most frequently captured hantavirus antibody–positive rodents were Peromyscus boylii and P. truei. Antibody-positive P. boylii were more frequently male (84%), older, and heavier, and they survived longer on trapping web sites than antibody-negative mice. The number of antibody-positive P. boylii was greater during high population densities than during low densities, while antibody prevalence was greater during low population densities. Virus transmission and incidence rates, also related to population densities, varied by trapping site. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive P. boylii varied by population density and reflected the species preference for dense chaparral habitats. The focal ranges of antibody-positive P. boylii also demonstrated a patchy distribution of hantavirus.

EID Abbott KD, Ksiazek TG, Mills JN. Long-Term Hantavirus Persistence in Rodent Populations in Central Arizona. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):102-112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990112
AMA Abbott KD, Ksiazek TG, Mills JN. Long-Term Hantavirus Persistence in Rodent Populations in Central Arizona. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):102-112. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990112.
APA Abbott, K. D., Ksiazek, T. G., & Mills, J. N. (1999). Long-Term Hantavirus Persistence in Rodent Populations in Central Arizona. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 102-112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990112.

A Longitudinal Study of Sin Nombre Virus Prevalence in Rodents, Southeastern Arizona [PDF - 138 KB - 5 pages]
A. J. Kuenzi et al.

We determined the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus antibodies in small mammals in southeastern Arizona. Of 1,234 rodents (from 13 species) captured each month from May through December 1995, only mice in the genus Peromyscus were seropositive. Antibody prevalence was 14.3% in 21 white-footed mice (P. leucopus), 13.3% in 98 brush mice (P. boylii), 0.8% in 118 cactus mice (P. eremicus), and 0% in 2 deer mice (P. maniculatus). Most antibody-positive mice were adult male Peromyscus captured close to one another early in the study. Population dynamics of brush mice suggest a correlation between population size and hantavirus-antibody prevalence.

EID Kuenzi AJ, Morrison ML, Swann DE, Hardy PC, Downard GT. A Longitudinal Study of Sin Nombre Virus Prevalence in Rodents, Southeastern Arizona. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):113-117. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990113
AMA Kuenzi AJ, Morrison ML, Swann DE, et al. A Longitudinal Study of Sin Nombre Virus Prevalence in Rodents, Southeastern Arizona. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):113-117. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990113.
APA Kuenzi, A. J., Morrison, M. L., Swann, D. E., Hardy, P. C., & Downard, G. T. (1999). A Longitudinal Study of Sin Nombre Virus Prevalence in Rodents, Southeastern Arizona. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 113-117. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990113.

Statistical Sensitivity for Detection of Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Rodent Population Densities [PDF - 151 KB - 8 pages]
C. A. Parmenter et al.

A long-term monitoring program begun 1 year after the epidemic of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the U.S. Southwest tracked rodent density changes through time and among sites and related these changes to hanta–virus infection rates in various small-mammal reservoir species and human disease outbreaks. We assessed the statistical sensitivity of the program's field design and tested for potential biases in population estimates due to unintended deaths of rodents. Analyzing data from two sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998, we found that for many species of Peromyscus, Reithrodontomys, Neotoma, Dipodomys, and Perognathus, the monitoring program detected species-specific spatial and temporal differences in rodent densities; trap-related deaths did not significantly affect long-term population estimates. The program also detected a short-term increase in rodent densities in the winter of 1997-98, demonstrating its usefulness in identifying conditions conducive to increased risk for human disease.

EID Parmenter CA, Yates TL, Parmenter RR, Dunnum JL. Statistical Sensitivity for Detection of Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Rodent Population Densities. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):118-125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990114
AMA Parmenter CA, Yates TL, Parmenter RR, et al. Statistical Sensitivity for Detection of Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Rodent Population Densities. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):118-125. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990114.
APA Parmenter, C. A., Yates, T. L., Parmenter, R. R., & Dunnum, J. L. (1999). Statistical Sensitivity for Detection of Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Rodent Population Densities. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 118-125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990114.

Natural History of Sin Nombre Virus in Western Colorado [PDF - 177 KB - 9 pages]
C. H. Calisher et al.

A mark-recapture longitudinal study of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in rodent populations in western Colorado (1994—results summarized to October 1997) indicates the presence of SNV or a closely related hantavirus at two sites. Most rodents (principally deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, and pinyon mice, P. truei) did not persist on the trapping webs much beyond 1 month after first capture. Some persisted more than 1 year, which suggests that even a few infected deer mice could serve as transseasonal reservoirs and mechanisms for over-winter virus maintenance. A positive association between wounds and SNV antibody in adult animals at both sites suggests that when infected rodents in certain populations fight with uninfected rodents, virus amplification occurs. At both sites, male rodents comprised a larger percentage of seropositive mice than recaptured mice, which suggests that male mice contribute more to the SNV epizootic cycle than female mice. In deer mice, IgG antibody prevalence fluctuations were positively associated with population fluctuations. The rates of seroconversion, which in deer mice at both sites occurred mostly during late summer and midwinter, were higher than the seroprevalence, which suggests that the longer deer mice live, the greater the probability they will become infected with SNV.

EID Calisher CH, Sweeney W, Mills JN, Beaty BJ. Natural History of Sin Nombre Virus in Western Colorado. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):126-134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990115
AMA Calisher CH, Sweeney W, Mills JN, et al. Natural History of Sin Nombre Virus in Western Colorado. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):126-134. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990115.
APA Calisher, C. H., Sweeney, W., Mills, J. N., & Beaty, B. J. (1999). Natural History of Sin Nombre Virus in Western Colorado. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 126-134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990115.

Long-Term Studies of Hantavirus Reservoir Populations in the Southwestern United States: A Synthesis [PDF - 106 KB - 8 pages]
J. N. Mills et al.

A series of intensive, longitudinal, mark-recapture studies of hantavirus infection dynamics in reservoir populations in the southwestern United States indicates consistent patterns as well as important differences among sites and host-virus associations. All studies found a higher prevalence of infection in older (particularly male) mice; one study associated wounds with seropositivity. These findings are consistent with horizontal transmission and transmission through fighting between adult male rodents. Despite very low rodent densities at some sites, low-level hantavirus infection continued, perhaps because of persistent infection in a few long-lived rodents or periodic reintroduction of virus from neighboring populations. Prevalence of hantavirus antibody showed seasonal and multiyear patterns that suggested a delayed density-dependent relationship between prevalence and population density. Clear differences in population dynamics and patterns of infection among sites, sampling periods, and host species underscore the importance of replication and continuity of long-term reservoir studies. Nevertheless, the measurable associations between environmental variables, reservoir population density, rates of virus transmission, and prevalence of infection in host populations may improve our capacity to model processes influencing infection and predict increased risk for hantavirus transmission to humans.

EID Mills JN, Ksiazek TG, Peters C, Childs JE. Long-Term Studies of Hantavirus Reservoir Populations in the Southwestern United States: A Synthesis. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):135-142. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990116
AMA Mills JN, Ksiazek TG, Peters C, et al. Long-Term Studies of Hantavirus Reservoir Populations in the Southwestern United States: A Synthesis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):135-142. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990116.
APA Mills, J. N., Ksiazek, T. G., Peters, C., & Childs, J. E. (1999). Long-Term Studies of Hantavirus Reservoir Populations in the Southwestern United States: A Synthesis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 135-142. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990116.
Dispatches

Proficiency of Clinical Laboratories in and near Monterrey, Mexico, To Detect Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci [PDF - 52 KB - 4 pages]
L. C. McDonald et al.

Early detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci is important for preventing its spread among hospitalized patients. We surveyed the ability of eight hospital laboratories in and near Monterrey, Mexico, to detect vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus spp. and found that although laboratories can reliably detect high-level vancomycin resistance, many have difficulty detecting low-level resistance.

EID McDonald LC, Garza LR, Jarvis WR. Proficiency of Clinical Laboratories in and near Monterrey, Mexico, To Detect Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):143-146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990117
AMA McDonald LC, Garza LR, Jarvis WR. Proficiency of Clinical Laboratories in and near Monterrey, Mexico, To Detect Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):143-146. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990117.
APA McDonald, L. C., Garza, L. R., & Jarvis, W. R. (1999). Proficiency of Clinical Laboratories in and near Monterrey, Mexico, To Detect Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 143-146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990117.

Staphylococcus aureus with Reduced Susceptibility to Vancomycin Isolated from a Patient with Fatal Bacteremia [PDF - 151 KB - 3 pages]
S. S. Rotun et al.

A Staphylococcus aureus isolate with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin was obtained from a dialysis patient with a fatal case of bacteremia. Comparison of the isolate with two methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates obtained from the same patient 4 months earlier suggests that the S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin emerged from the MRSA strain with which the patient was infected. Atypical phenotypic characteristics, including weak or negative latex-agglutination test results, weak or negative-slide coagulase test results, heterogeneous morphologic features, slow rate of growth, and vancomycin susceptibility (by disk diffusion test) were observed.

EID Rotun SS, McMath V, Schoonmaker DJ, Maupin PS, Tenover FC, Hill BC, et al. Staphylococcus aureus with Reduced Susceptibility to Vancomycin Isolated from a Patient with Fatal Bacteremia. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):147-149. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990118
AMA Rotun SS, McMath V, Schoonmaker DJ, et al. Staphylococcus aureus with Reduced Susceptibility to Vancomycin Isolated from a Patient with Fatal Bacteremia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):147-149. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990118.
APA Rotun, S. S., McMath, V., Schoonmaker, D. J., Maupin, P. S., Tenover, F. C., Hill, B. C....Ackman, D. M. (1999). Staphylococcus aureus with Reduced Susceptibility to Vancomycin Isolated from a Patient with Fatal Bacteremia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 147-149. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990118.

Candida dubliniensis Candidemia in Patients with Chemotherapy-Induced Neutropenia and Bone Marrow Transplantation [PDF - 55 KB - 4 pages]
J. F. Meis et al.

The recently described species Candida dubliniensis has been recovered primarily from superficial oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients. No clinically documented invasive infections were reported until now in this patient group or in other immunocompromised patients. We report three cases of candidemia due to this newly emerging Candida species in HIV-negative patients with chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression and bone marrow transplantation.

EID Meis JF, Ruhnke M, De Pauw BE, Odds FC, Siegert W, Verweij PE. Candida dubliniensis Candidemia in Patients with Chemotherapy-Induced Neutropenia and Bone Marrow Transplantation. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):150-153. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990119
AMA Meis JF, Ruhnke M, De Pauw BE, et al. Candida dubliniensis Candidemia in Patients with Chemotherapy-Induced Neutropenia and Bone Marrow Transplantation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):150-153. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990119.
APA Meis, J. F., Ruhnke, M., De Pauw, B. E., Odds, F. C., Siegert, W., & Verweij, P. E. (1999). Candida dubliniensis Candidemia in Patients with Chemotherapy-Induced Neutropenia and Bone Marrow Transplantation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 150-153. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990119.

Household Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alberta, Canada [PDF - 59 KB - 5 pages]
J. D. Kellner et al.

Proven or presumptive multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia was diagnosed simultaneously in three married couples in Alberta, Canada. The pair of isolates from each couple had identical antibiotic resistance profiles, serotypes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. One or more of these cases could have been prevented by S. pneumoniae vaccine.

EID Kellner JD, Gibb AP, Zhang J, Rabin HR. Household Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alberta, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):154-158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990120
AMA Kellner JD, Gibb AP, Zhang J, et al. Household Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alberta, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):154-158. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990120.
APA Kellner, J. D., Gibb, A. P., Zhang, J., & Rabin, H. R. (1999). Household Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alberta, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 154-158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990120.

Preventing Zoonotic Diseases in Immunocompromised Persons: The Role of Physicians and Veterinarians [PDF - 58 KB - 5 pages]
S. Grant and C. W. Olsen

We surveyed physicians and veterinarians in Wisconsin about the risk for and prevention of zoonotic diseases in immunocompromised persons. We found that physicians and veterinarians hold significantly different views about the risks posed by certain infectious agents and species of animals and communicate very little about zoonotic issues; moreover, physicians believe that veterinarians should be involved in many aspects of zoonotic disease prevention, including patient education.

EID Grant S, Olsen CW. Preventing Zoonotic Diseases in Immunocompromised Persons: The Role of Physicians and Veterinarians. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):159-163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990121
AMA Grant S, Olsen CW. Preventing Zoonotic Diseases in Immunocompromised Persons: The Role of Physicians and Veterinarians. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):159-163. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990121.
APA Grant, S., & Olsen, C. W. (1999). Preventing Zoonotic Diseases in Immunocompromised Persons: The Role of Physicians and Veterinarians. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 159-163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990121.

Mycoplasma penetrans Bacteremia and Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome [PDF - 150 KB - 4 pages]
A. Yáñez et al.

Mycoplasma penetrans, a rare bacterium so far only found in HIV-infected persons, was isolated in the blood and throat of a non-HIV-infected patient with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (whose etiology and pathogenesis are unknown).

EID Yáñez A, Cedillo L, Neyrolles O, Alonso E, Prévost M, Rojas J, et al. Mycoplasma penetrans Bacteremia and Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):164-167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990122
AMA Yáñez A, Cedillo L, Neyrolles O, et al. Mycoplasma penetrans Bacteremia and Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):164-167. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990122.
APA Yáñez, A., Cedillo, L., Neyrolles, O., Alonso, E., Prévost, M., Rojas, J....Cassell, G. H. (1999). Mycoplasma penetrans Bacteremia and Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 164-167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990122.

Infectious Diarrhea in Tourists Staying in a Resort Hotel [PDF - 69 KB - 4 pages]
R. M. Hardie et al.

An outbreak of infectious diarrhea with 70 laboratory-confirmed cases (58 with Giardia lamblia) and 107 probable cases occurred in U.K. tourists who stayed in a hotel in Greece. After a cluster of six cases in persons who had stayed at the hotel was reported, the Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre began active case ascertainment. This outbreak illustrates the value of an approach to surveillance that integrates routine surveillance data with active case ascertainment.

EID Hardie RM, Wall PG, Gott P, Bardhan M, Bartlett CL. Infectious Diarrhea in Tourists Staying in a Resort Hotel. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):168-171. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990123
AMA Hardie RM, Wall PG, Gott P, et al. Infectious Diarrhea in Tourists Staying in a Resort Hotel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):168-171. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990123.
APA Hardie, R. M., Wall, P. G., Gott, P., Bardhan, M., & Bartlett, C. L. (1999). Infectious Diarrhea in Tourists Staying in a Resort Hotel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 168-171. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990123.
Commentaries

A Midcourse Assessment of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome [PDF - 41 KB - 3 pages]
R. E. Shope
EID Shope RE. A Midcourse Assessment of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):172-174. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990124
AMA Shope RE. A Midcourse Assessment of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):172-174. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990124.
APA Shope, R. E. (1999). A Midcourse Assessment of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 172-174. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990124.
Letters

Navigational Instinct: A Reason Not to Live Trap Deer Mice in Residences [PDF - 57 KB - 2 pages]
C. H. Calisher et al.
EID Calisher CH, Sweeney WP, Root J, Beaty BJ. Navigational Instinct: A Reason Not to Live Trap Deer Mice in Residences. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):175-176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990125
AMA Calisher CH, Sweeney WP, Root J, et al. Navigational Instinct: A Reason Not to Live Trap Deer Mice in Residences. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):175-176. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990125.
APA Calisher, C. H., Sweeney, W. P., Root, J., & Beaty, B. J. (1999). Navigational Instinct: A Reason Not to Live Trap Deer Mice in Residences. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 175-176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990125.

Bartonella quintana in Body Lice Collected from Homeless Persons in Russia [PDF - 64 KB - 3 pages]
E. B. Rydkina et al.
EID Rydkina EB, Roux V, Gagua EM, Predtechenski AB, Tarasevich IV, Raoult D. Bartonella quintana in Body Lice Collected from Homeless Persons in Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):176-178. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990126
AMA Rydkina EB, Roux V, Gagua EM, et al. Bartonella quintana in Body Lice Collected from Homeless Persons in Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):176-178. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990126.
APA Rydkina, E. B., Roux, V., Gagua, E. M., Predtechenski, A. B., Tarasevich, I. V., & Raoult, D. (1999). Bartonella quintana in Body Lice Collected from Homeless Persons in Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 176-178. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990126.

Tick-Transmitted Infections in Transvaal: Consider Rickettsia africae [PDF - 69 KB - 4 pages]
P. Fournier et al.
EID Fournier P, Beytout J, Raoult D. Tick-Transmitted Infections in Transvaal: Consider Rickettsia africae. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):178-181. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990127
AMA Fournier P, Beytout J, Raoult D. Tick-Transmitted Infections in Transvaal: Consider Rickettsia africae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):178-181. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990127.
APA Fournier, P., Beytout, J., & Raoult, D. (1999). Tick-Transmitted Infections in Transvaal: Consider Rickettsia africae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 178-181. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990127.

Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Salmonella Enteritidis in Trinidad and Tobago [PDF - 58 KB - 2 pages]
B. Cherian et al.
EID Cherian B, Singh N, Charles W, Prabhakar P. Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Salmonella Enteritidis in Trinidad and Tobago. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):181-182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990128
AMA Cherian B, Singh N, Charles W, et al. Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Salmonella Enteritidis in Trinidad and Tobago. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):181-182. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990128.
APA Cherian, B., Singh, N., Charles, W., & Prabhakar, P. (1999). Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Salmonella Enteritidis in Trinidad and Tobago. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 181-182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990128.

New emm (M Protein Gene) Sequences of Group A Streptococci Isolated from Malaysian Patients [PDF - 59 KB - 2 pages]
F. Jamal et al.
EID Jamal F, Pit S, Facklam R, Beall B. New emm (M Protein Gene) Sequences of Group A Streptococci Isolated from Malaysian Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):182-183. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990129
AMA Jamal F, Pit S, Facklam R, et al. New emm (M Protein Gene) Sequences of Group A Streptococci Isolated from Malaysian Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):182-183. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990129.
APA Jamal, F., Pit, S., Facklam, R., & Beall, B. (1999). New emm (M Protein Gene) Sequences of Group A Streptococci Isolated from Malaysian Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 182-183. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990129.

Mutant Chemokine Receptor (CCR-5) and Its Relevance to HIV Infection in Arabs [PDF - 60 KB - 3 pages]
I. H. Al-Sheikh et al.
EID Al-Sheikh IH, Rahi A, Al-Khalifa M. Mutant Chemokine Receptor (CCR-5) and Its Relevance to HIV Infection in Arabs. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):183-185. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990130
AMA Al-Sheikh IH, Rahi A, Al-Khalifa M. Mutant Chemokine Receptor (CCR-5) and Its Relevance to HIV Infection in Arabs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):183-185. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990130.
APA Al-Sheikh, I. H., Rahi, A., & Al-Khalifa, M. (1999). Mutant Chemokine Receptor (CCR-5) and Its Relevance to HIV Infection in Arabs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 183-185. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990130.
About the Cover

Two Worlds
Conference Summaries

Workshop on Risks Associated with Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) [PDF - 30 KB - 1 page]
EID Workshop on Risks Associated with Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs). Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):187. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990132
AMA Workshop on Risks Associated with Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):187. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990132.
APA (1999). Workshop on Risks Associated with Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 187. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990132.

Workshop on the Potential Role of Infectious Agents in Cardiovascular Disease and Atherosclerosis [PDF - 40 KB - 2 pages]
EID Workshop on the Potential Role of Infectious Agents in Cardiovascular Disease and Atherosclerosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(1):186-187. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990131
AMA Workshop on the Potential Role of Infectious Agents in Cardiovascular Disease and Atherosclerosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(1):186-187. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990131.
APA (1999). Workshop on the Potential Role of Infectious Agents in Cardiovascular Disease and Atherosclerosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 186-187. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990131.
Page created: January 23, 2012
Page updated: January 23, 2012
Page reviewed: January 23, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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