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Issue Cover for Volume 6, Number 1—February 2000

Volume 6, Number 1—February 2000

[PDF - 3.33 MB - 100 pages]

Perspective

From Shakespeare to Defoe: Malaria in England in the Little Ice Age [PDF - 783 KB - 11 pages]
P. Reiter

Present global temperatures are in a warming phase that began 200 to 300 years ago. Some climate models suggest that human activities may have exacerbated this phase by raising the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Discussions of the potential effects of the weather include predictions that malaria will emerge from the tropics and become established in Europe and North America. The complex ecology and transmission dynamics of the disease, as well as accounts of its early history, refute such predictions. Until the second half of the 20th century, malaria was endemic and widespread in many temperate regions, with major epidemics as far north as the Arctic Circle. From 1564 to the 1730s—the coldest period of the Little Ice Age—malaria was an important cause of illness and death in several parts of England. Transmission began to decline only in the 19th century, when the present warming trend was well under way. The history of the disease in England underscores the role of factors other than temperature in malaria transmission.

EID Reiter P. From Shakespeare to Defoe: Malaria in England in the Little Ice Age. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):1-11. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000101
AMA Reiter P. From Shakespeare to Defoe: Malaria in England in the Little Ice Age. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):1-11. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000101.
APA Reiter, P. (2000). From Shakespeare to Defoe: Malaria in England in the Little Ice Age. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 1-11. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000101.

Could a Tuberculosis Epidemic Occur in London as It Did in New York? [PDF - 67 KB - 5 pages]
A. C. Hayward and R. J. Coker

In early 1999, more than 160 senior physicians, public health officials, and nurses met to discuss London's tuberculosis (TB) control program. The program was examined against the public health response of New York City's Bureau of Tuberculosis Control during a 1988-1992 epidemic. This article outlines TB epidemiology and control in New York City 10 years ago and in London today to assess whether the kind of epidemic that occurred in New York could occur in London.

EID Hayward AC, Coker RJ. Could a Tuberculosis Epidemic Occur in London as It Did in New York?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):12-16. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000102
AMA Hayward AC, Coker RJ. Could a Tuberculosis Epidemic Occur in London as It Did in New York?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):12-16. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000102.
APA Hayward, A. C., & Coker, R. J. (2000). Could a Tuberculosis Epidemic Occur in London as It Did in New York?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 12-16. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000102.

Japanese Encephalitis Immunization in South Korea: Past, Present, and Future [PDF - 529 KB - 8 pages]
Y. M. Sohn

Japanese encephalitis (JE), once a major public health problem in South Korea, has declined since the 1980s, as a result of improved living conditions, a mosquito eradication program, and a national JE vaccination program, which includes annual booster vaccine for all children < 15 years of age. Increased immunity has greatly reduced illness and death; however, vaccine adverse effects are increasing, and a National Compensation Program for Vaccine Injury was begun in 1995. This article reviews past successes, current problems, and future direction of the JE vaccination program in South Korea.

EID Sohn YM. Japanese Encephalitis Immunization in South Korea: Past, Present, and Future. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):17-24. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000103
AMA Sohn YM. Japanese Encephalitis Immunization in South Korea: Past, Present, and Future. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):17-24. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000103.
APA Sohn, Y. M. (2000). Japanese Encephalitis Immunization in South Korea: Past, Present, and Future. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 17-24. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000103.
Synopses

Coccidioidomycosis in New York State [PDF - 145 KB - 5 pages]
V. Chaturvedi et al.

Coccidioidomycosis, a systemic fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis, is endemic in the southwestern United States and in parts of Mexico and Central and South America. Only sporadic cases have been reported in areas (including New York) where the disease is not endemic. We used hospital discharge records and state mycology laboratory data to investigate the characteristics of C. immitis infections among New York State residents. From 1992 to 1997, 161 persons had hospital discharge diagnoses of coccidioidomycosis (ICD9 Code 114.0 - 114.5, 114.9). From 1989 to 1997, 49 cultures from patients were confirmed as C. immitis; 26 of these patients had traveled to disease-endemic areas. Fourteen of 16 isolates had multilocus genotypes similar to those of Arizona isolates, which corroborates the travel-related acquisition of the disease. Our results indicate that coccidioidomycosis may be more common in New York residents than previously recognized. Increased awareness among health-care providers should improve timely diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis and prevention of associated illnesses and deaths among patients in nondisease-endemic areas.

EID Chaturvedi V, Ramani R, Gromadzki S, Rodeghier B, Chang H, Morse DL. Coccidioidomycosis in New York State. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):25-29. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000104
AMA Chaturvedi V, Ramani R, Gromadzki S, et al. Coccidioidomycosis in New York State. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):25-29. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000104.
APA Chaturvedi, V., Ramani, R., Gromadzki, S., Rodeghier, B., Chang, H., & Morse, D. L. (2000). Coccidioidomycosis in New York State. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 25-29. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000104.

Dengue Surveillance in Florida, 1997-98 [PDF - 86 KB - 6 pages]
J. Gill et al.

Recent dengue outbreaks in the Caribbean and Central and South America and the presence of competent mosquito vectors increase the likelihood of future autochthonous transmission in Florida. During April 1997 to March 1998, a laboratory-based active surveillance program detected 18 cases of dengue involving all four dengue serotypes. All patients reported recent travel to countries with indigenous dengue transmission. These results demonstrate that dengue infections are imported into Florida at a much higher rate than reflected by previous passive surveillance; therefore, the risk for local dengue transmission may be increasing.

EID Gill J, Stark LM, Clark GG. Dengue Surveillance in Florida, 1997-98. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):30-35. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000105
AMA Gill J, Stark LM, Clark GG. Dengue Surveillance in Florida, 1997-98. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):30-35. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000105.
APA Gill, J., Stark, L. M., & Clark, G. G. (2000). Dengue Surveillance in Florida, 1997-98. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 30-35. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000105.
Research

Norwalk-Like Calicivirus Genes in Farm Animals [PDF - 210 KB - 6 pages]
W. H. van der Poel et al.

Viruses closely related to Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) were recently found in stored stool samples from two calves (United Kingdom and Germany) and four pigs (Japan), sparking discussions about the potential for zoonotic transmission. To investigate if NLVs are commonly present in farm animals, pooled stool samples from 100 pig farms, 48 chicken farms, 43 dairy cow herds, and 75 veal calf farms from the Netherlands were assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification, using primers specific for the detection of NLVs from humans. NLV RNA was detected in 33 (44%) of the specimens from veal calf farms and two (2%) specimens from pig farms. Our data show that NLV infections—until recently thought to be restricted to humans—occur often in calves and sometimes in pigs. While zoonotic transmission has not been proven, these findings suggest that calves and pigs may be reservoir hosts of NLVs.

EID van der Poel WH, Vinjé J, van der Heide R, Herrera M, Vivo A, Koopmans M. Norwalk-Like Calicivirus Genes in Farm Animals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):36-41. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000106
AMA van der Poel WH, Vinjé J, van der Heide R, et al. Norwalk-Like Calicivirus Genes in Farm Animals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):36-41. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000106.
APA van der Poel, W. H., Vinjé, J., van der Heide, R., Herrera, M., Vivo, A., & Koopmans, M. (2000). Norwalk-Like Calicivirus Genes in Farm Animals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 36-41. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000106.
Dispatches

Molecular Genetic Evidence of a Novel Morbillivirus in a Long-Finned Pilot Whale (Globicephalus melas) [PDF - 143 KB - 4 pages]
J. K. Taubenberger et al.

A long-finned pilot whale with morbilliviral disease was stranded in New Jersey. An immunohistochemical stain demonstrated morbilliviral antigen. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for morbillivirus P and N genes was positive. Novel sequences most closely related to, but distinct from, those of dolphin and porpoise morbilliviruses suggest that this virus may represent a third member of the cetacean morbillivirus group.

EID Taubenberger JK, Tsai MM, Atkin TJ, Fanning TG, Krafft AE, Moeller R, et al. Molecular Genetic Evidence of a Novel Morbillivirus in a Long-Finned Pilot Whale (Globicephalus melas). Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):42-45. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000107
AMA Taubenberger JK, Tsai MM, Atkin TJ, et al. Molecular Genetic Evidence of a Novel Morbillivirus in a Long-Finned Pilot Whale (Globicephalus melas). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):42-45. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000107.
APA Taubenberger, J. K., Tsai, M. M., Atkin, T. J., Fanning, T. G., Krafft, A. E., Moeller, R....Lipscomb, T. P. (2000). Molecular Genetic Evidence of a Novel Morbillivirus in a Long-Finned Pilot Whale (Globicephalus melas). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 42-45. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000107.

Candida dubliniensis Fungemia: the First Four Cases in North America [PDF - 67 KB - 4 pages]
M. E. Brandt et al.

We report the first four North American cases of Candida dubliniensis fungemia, including the first isolation of this organism from the bloodstream of an HIV-infected person. All isolates were susceptible in vitro to commonly used antifungal drugs. This report demonstrates that C. dubliniensis can cause bloodstream infection; however, the incidence of disease is not known.

EID Brandt ME, Harrison LH, Pass M, Sofair AN, Huie S, Li R, et al. Candida dubliniensis Fungemia: the First Four Cases in North America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):46-49. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000108
AMA Brandt ME, Harrison LH, Pass M, et al. Candida dubliniensis Fungemia: the First Four Cases in North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):46-49. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000108.
APA Brandt, M. E., Harrison, L. H., Pass, M., Sofair, A. N., Huie, S., Li, R....Hajjeh, R. A. (2000). Candida dubliniensis Fungemia: the First Four Cases in North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 46-49. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000108.

Integronlike Structures in Campylobacter spp. of Human and Animal Origin [PDF - 118 KB - 6 pages]
B. Lucey et al.

Resistance to antimicrobial agents used to treat severe Campylobacter spp. gastroenteritis is increasing worldwide. We assessed the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolates of human and animal origin. More than half (n = 32) were resistant to sulphonamide, a feature known to be associated with the presence of integrons. Analysis of these integrons will further our understanding of Campylobacter spp. epidemiology.

EID Lucey B, Crowley D, Moloney P, Cryan B, Daly M, O'Halloran F, et al. Integronlike Structures in Campylobacter spp. of Human and Animal Origin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):50-55. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000109
AMA Lucey B, Crowley D, Moloney P, et al. Integronlike Structures in Campylobacter spp. of Human and Animal Origin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):50-55. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000109.
APA Lucey, B., Crowley, D., Moloney, P., Cryan, B., Daly, M., O'Halloran, F....Fanning, S. (2000). Integronlike Structures in Campylobacter spp. of Human and Animal Origin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 50-55. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000109.

Burkholderia pseudomallei Traced to Water Treatment Plant in Australia [PDF - 128 KB - 4 pages]
T. Inglis et al.

Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated from environmental specimens 1 year after an outbreak of acute melioidosis in a remote coastal community in northwestern Australia. B. pseudomallei was isolated from a water storage tank and from spray formed in a pH-raising aerator unit. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed the aerator and storage tank isolates were identical to the outbreak strain, WKo97.

EID Inglis T, Garrow SC, Henderson M, Clair A, Sampson J, O'Reilly L, et al. Burkholderia pseudomallei Traced to Water Treatment Plant in Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):56-59. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000110
AMA Inglis T, Garrow SC, Henderson M, et al. Burkholderia pseudomallei Traced to Water Treatment Plant in Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):56-59. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000110.
APA Inglis, T., Garrow, S. C., Henderson, M., Clair, A., Sampson, J., O'Reilly, L....Cameron, B. (2000). Burkholderia pseudomallei Traced to Water Treatment Plant in Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 56-59. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000110.

Molecular Typing of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Blockley Outbreak Isolates from Greece [PDF - 153 KB - 5 pages]
P. T. Tassios et al.

During 1998, a marked increase (35 cases) in human gastroenteritis due to Salmonella Blockley, a serotype rarely isolated from humans in the Western Hemisphere, was noted in Greece. The two dominant multidrug-resistance phenotypes (23 of the 29 isolates studied) were associated with two distinct DNA fingerprints, obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA.

EID Tassios PT, Chadjichristodoulou C, Lambiri M, Kansouzidou-Kanakoudi A, Sarandopoulou Z, Kourea-Kremastinou J, et al. Molecular Typing of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Blockley Outbreak Isolates from Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):60-64. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000111
AMA Tassios PT, Chadjichristodoulou C, Lambiri M, et al. Molecular Typing of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Blockley Outbreak Isolates from Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):60-64. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000111.
APA Tassios, P. T., Chadjichristodoulou, C., Lambiri, M., Kansouzidou-Kanakoudi, A., Sarandopoulou, Z., Kourea-Kremastinou, J....Legakis, N. J. (2000). Molecular Typing of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Blockley Outbreak Isolates from Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 60-64. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000111.

Risk Factors for Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis during an Outbreak in Wales [PDF - 72 KB - 5 pages]
P. E. Fitzpatrick et al.

In a school outbreak of meningococcal disease in Wales, we compared risk factors for the carriage of Neisseria meningitidis B15 P1.16 with carriage of any meningococci. Students had throat swabs and completed a questionnaire. Sixty (7.9%) carried meningococci; risk for carriage was higher in those >14 years of age.

EID Fitzpatrick PE, Salmon RL, Hunter PR, Roberts R, Palmer SR. Risk Factors for Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis during an Outbreak in Wales. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):65-69. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000112
AMA Fitzpatrick PE, Salmon RL, Hunter PR, et al. Risk Factors for Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis during an Outbreak in Wales. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):65-69. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000112.
APA Fitzpatrick, P. E., Salmon, R. L., Hunter, P. R., Roberts, R., & Palmer, S. R. (2000). Risk Factors for Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis during an Outbreak in Wales. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 65-69. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000112.

Salmonellosis in the Republic of Georgia: Using Molecular Typing to Identify the Outbreak-Causing Strain
A. Sulakvelidze et al.

In May 1998, three large outbreaks of salmonellosis, affecting 91 persons, were identified in the Republic of Georgia. Eighteen Salmonella Typhimurium strains were characterized by arbitrary primed polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; the results suggested that all cases were part of a single outbreak caused by a distinct clonal strain.

EID Sulakvelidze A, Kekelidze M, Turabelidze D, Tsanava S, Tevsadze L, Devdariani L, et al. Salmonellosis in the Republic of Georgia: Using Molecular Typing to Identify the Outbreak-Causing Strain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):70-73. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000113
AMA Sulakvelidze A, Kekelidze M, Turabelidze D, et al. Salmonellosis in the Republic of Georgia: Using Molecular Typing to Identify the Outbreak-Causing Strain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):70-73. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000113.
APA Sulakvelidze, A., Kekelidze, M., Turabelidze, D., Tsanava, S., Tevsadze, L., Devdariani, L....Imnadze, P. (2000). Salmonellosis in the Republic of Georgia: Using Molecular Typing to Identify the Outbreak-Causing Strain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 70-73. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000113.

First Report of Q Fever in Oman [PDF - 206 KB - 6 pages]
E. M. Scrimgeour et al.

Although serologic evidence suggests the presence of Q fever in humans and animals in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, acute Q fever has not been reported on the Arabian Peninsula. We report the first two cases of acute Q fever in Oman.

EID Scrimgeour EM, Johnston WJ, Al Dhahry SH, El-Khatim HS, John V, Musa M. First Report of Q Fever in Oman. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):74-79. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000114
AMA Scrimgeour EM, Johnston WJ, Al Dhahry SH, et al. First Report of Q Fever in Oman. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):74-79. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000114.
APA Scrimgeour, E. M., Johnston, W. J., Al Dhahry, S. H., El-Khatim, H. S., John, V., & Musa, M. (2000). First Report of Q Fever in Oman. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 74-79. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000114.
Letters

Isolation of a Dengue Type 1 Virus from a Soldier in West Africa (Côte d'Ivoire) [PDF - 57 KB - 2 pages]
J. Durand et al.
EID Durand J, Vallée L, de Pina J, Tolou H. Isolation of a Dengue Type 1 Virus from a Soldier in West Africa (Côte d'Ivoire). Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):83-84. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000116
AMA Durand J, Vallée L, de Pina J, et al. Isolation of a Dengue Type 1 Virus from a Soldier in West Africa (Côte d'Ivoire). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):83-84. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000116.
APA Durand, J., Vallée, L., de Pina, J., & Tolou, H. (2000). Isolation of a Dengue Type 1 Virus from a Soldier in West Africa (Côte d'Ivoire). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 83-84. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000116.

Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Metallo-ß-Lactamase from a Nosocomial Isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in France [PDF - 59 KB - 2 pages]
L. Poirel et al.
EID Poirel L, Collet L, Nordmann P. Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Metallo-ß-Lactamase from a Nosocomial Isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):84-85. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000117
AMA Poirel L, Collet L, Nordmann P. Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Metallo-ß-Lactamase from a Nosocomial Isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):84-85. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000117.
APA Poirel, L., Collet, L., & Nordmann, P. (2000). Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Metallo-ß-Lactamase from a Nosocomial Isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 84-85. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000117.

Population-Based Study of Invasive Kingella kingae Infections [PDF - 59 KB - 3 pages]
P. Yagupsky and R. Dagan
EID Yagupsky P, Dagan R. Population-Based Study of Invasive Kingella kingae Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):85-87. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000118
AMA Yagupsky P, Dagan R. Population-Based Study of Invasive Kingella kingae Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):85-87. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000118.
APA Yagupsky, P., & Dagan, R. (2000). Population-Based Study of Invasive Kingella kingae Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 85-87. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000118.

Involving Ornithologists in the Surveillance of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci [PDF - 58 KB - 2 pages]
M. Sellin et al.
EID Sellin M, Palmgren H, Broman T, Bergström S, Olsen B. Involving Ornithologists in the Surveillance of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):87-88. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000119
AMA Sellin M, Palmgren H, Broman T, et al. Involving Ornithologists in the Surveillance of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):87-88. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000119.
APA Sellin, M., Palmgren, H., Broman, T., Bergström, S., & Olsen, B. (2000). Involving Ornithologists in the Surveillance of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 87-88. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000119.
Another Dimension

The Philosophic Origins of Science and the Evolution of the Two Cultures [PDF - 56 KB - 6 pages]
N. C. Myrianthopoulos
EID Myrianthopoulos NC. The Philosophic Origins of Science and the Evolution of the Two Cultures. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):77-82. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000115
AMA Myrianthopoulos NC. The Philosophic Origins of Science and the Evolution of the Two Cultures. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):77-82. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000115.
APA Myrianthopoulos, N. C. (2000). The Philosophic Origins of Science and the Evolution of the Two Cultures. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 77-82. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000115.
About the Cover

Jäeger im Schnee (Hunters in the Snow) (1563)
Conference Summaries

2nd International Conference on AIDS in India, December 1999 [PDF - 48 KB - 1 page]
N. Samuel
EID Samuel N. 2nd International Conference on AIDS in India, December 1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):89. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000120
AMA Samuel N. 2nd International Conference on AIDS in India, December 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):89. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000120.
APA Samuel, N. (2000). 2nd International Conference on AIDS in India, December 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 89. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000120.

Workshop on Micronutrients and Infectious Diseases: Cellular and Molecular Immunomodulatory Mechanisms [PDF - 51 KB - 2 pages]
EID Workshop on Micronutrients and Infectious Diseases: Cellular and Molecular Immunomodulatory Mechanisms. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(1):89-90. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000121
AMA Workshop on Micronutrients and Infectious Diseases: Cellular and Molecular Immunomodulatory Mechanisms. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(1):89-90. doi:10.3201/eid0601.000121.
APA (2000). Workshop on Micronutrients and Infectious Diseases: Cellular and Molecular Immunomodulatory Mechanisms. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(1), 89-90. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0601.000121.
Page created: January 23, 2012
Page updated: January 23, 2012
Page reviewed: January 23, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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