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Issue Cover for Volume 6, Number 2—April 2000

Volume 6, Number 2—April 2000

[PDF - 2.55 MB - 125 pages]

Perspective

Rumors of Disease in the Global Village: Outbreak Verification [PDF - 280 KB - 6 pages]
T. W. Grein et al.

Emerging infectious diseases and the growth of information technology have produced new demands and possibilities for disease surveillance and response. Increasing numbers of outbreak reports must be assessed rapidly so that control efforts can be initiated and unsubstantiated reports can be identified to protect countries from unnecessary economic damage. The World Health Organization has set up a process for timely outbreak verification to convert large amounts of data into accurate information for suitable action. We describe the context and processes of outbreak verification and information dissemination.

EID Grein TW, Kamara KO, Rodier G, Plant AJ, Bovier P, Ryan MJ, et al. Rumors of Disease in the Global Village: Outbreak Verification. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):97-102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000201
AMA Grein TW, Kamara KO, Rodier G, et al. Rumors of Disease in the Global Village: Outbreak Verification. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):97-102. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000201.
APA Grein, T. W., Kamara, K. O., Rodier, G., Plant, A. J., Bovier, P., Ryan, M. J....Heymann, D. L. (2000). Rumors of Disease in the Global Village: Outbreak Verification. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 97-102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000201.

Malaria on the Move: Human Population Movement and Malaria Transmission [PDF - 227 KB - 7 pages]
P. Martens and L. Hall

Reports of malaria are increasing in many countries and in areas thought free of the disease. One of the factors contributing to the reemergence of malaria is human migration. People move for a number of reasons, including environmental deterioration, economic necessity, conflicts, and natural disasters. These factors are most likely to affect the poor, many of whom live in or near malarious areas. Identifying and understanding the influence of these population movements can improve prevention measures and malaria control programs.

EID Martens P, Hall L. Malaria on the Move: Human Population Movement and Malaria Transmission. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):103-109. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000202
AMA Martens P, Hall L. Malaria on the Move: Human Population Movement and Malaria Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):103-109. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000202.
APA Martens, P., & Hall, L. (2000). Malaria on the Move: Human Population Movement and Malaria Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 103-109. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000202.
Synopses

The bdr Gene Families of the Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes: Potential Influence on Biology, Pathogenesis, and Evolution [PDF - 880 KB - 14 pages]
D. M. Roberts et al.

Species of the genus Borrelia cause human and animal infections, including Lyme disease, relapsing fever, and epizootic bovine abortion. The borrelial genome is unique among bacterial genomes in that it is composed of a linear chromosome and a series of linear and circular plasmids. The plasmids exhibit significant genetic redundancy and carry 175 paralogous gene families, most of of unknown function. Homologous alleles on different plasmids could influence the organization and evolution of the Borrelia genome by serving as foci for interplasmid homologous recombination. The plasmid-carried Borrelia direct repeat (bdr) gene family encodes polymorphic, acidic proteins with putative phosphorylation sites and transmembrane domains. These proteins may play regulatory roles in Borrelia. We describe recent progress in the characterization of the Borrelia bdr genes and discuss the possible influence of this gene family on the biology, pathogenesis, and evolution of the Borrelia genome.

EID Roberts DM, Carlyon J, Theisen M, Marconi RT. The bdr Gene Families of the Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes: Potential Influence on Biology, Pathogenesis, and Evolution. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):110-122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000203
AMA Roberts DM, Carlyon J, Theisen M, et al. The bdr Gene Families of the Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes: Potential Influence on Biology, Pathogenesis, and Evolution. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):110-122. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000203.
APA Roberts, D. M., Carlyon, J., Theisen, M., & Marconi, R. T. (2000). The bdr Gene Families of the Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes: Potential Influence on Biology, Pathogenesis, and Evolution. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 110-122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000203.

Vaccines for Mucosal Immunity to Combat Emerging Infectious Diseases [PDF - 223 KB - 10 pages]
F. W. van Ginkel et al.

The mucosal immune system consists of molecules, cells, and organized lymphoid structures intended to provide immunity to pathogens that impinge upon mucosal surfaces. Mucosal infection by intracellular pathogens results in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, as manifested by CD4-positive (CD4+) T helper-type 1 cells, as well as CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. These responses are normally accompanied by the synthesis of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) antibodies, which provide an important first line of defense against invasion of deeper tissues by these pathogens. New-generation live, attenuated viral vaccines, such as the cold-adapted, recombinant nasal influenza and oral rotavirus vaccines, optimize this form of mucosal immune protection. Despite these advances, new and reemerging infectious diseases are tipping the balance in favor of the parasite; continued mucosal vaccine development will be needed to effectively combat these new threats.

EID van Ginkel FW, Nguyen HH, McGhee JR. Vaccines for Mucosal Immunity to Combat Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):123-132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000204
AMA van Ginkel FW, Nguyen HH, McGhee JR. Vaccines for Mucosal Immunity to Combat Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):123-132. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000204.
APA van Ginkel, F. W., Nguyen, H. H., & McGhee, J. R. (2000). Vaccines for Mucosal Immunity to Combat Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 123-132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000204.
Research

Competence of American Robins as Reservoir Hosts for Lyme Disease Spirochetes [PDF - 244 KB - 6 pages]
D. Richter et al.

To explore the competence of American robins as a reservoir for Lyme disease spirochetes, we determined the susceptibility of these birds to tickborne spirochetes and their subsequent infectivity for larval vector ticks. Robins acquired infection and became infectious to almost all xenodiagnostic ticks soon after exposure to infected nymphal ticks. Although infectivity waned after 2 months, the robins remained susceptible to reinfection, became infectious again, and permitted repeated feeding by vector ticks. In addition, spirochetes passaged through birds retained infectivity for mammalian hosts. American robins become as infectious for vector ticks as do reservoir mice, but infectivity in robins wanes more rapidly.

EID Richter D, Spielman A, Komar N, Matuschka F. Competence of American Robins as Reservoir Hosts for Lyme Disease Spirochetes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):133-138. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000205
AMA Richter D, Spielman A, Komar N, et al. Competence of American Robins as Reservoir Hosts for Lyme Disease Spirochetes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):133-138. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000205.
APA Richter, D., Spielman, A., Komar, N., & Matuschka, F. (2000). Competence of American Robins as Reservoir Hosts for Lyme Disease Spirochetes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 133-138. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000205.

Vibrio cholerae O139 in Calcutta, 1992-1998: Incidence, Antibiograms, and Genotypes [PDF - 367 KB - 9 pages]
A. Basu et al.

We report results of surveillance for cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O139 from September 1992, when it was first identified, to December 1998. V. cholerae O139 dominated as the causative agent of cholera in Calcutta during 1992-93 and 1996-97, while the O1 strains dominated during the rest of the period. Dramatic shifts in patterns of resistance to cotrimoxazole, neomycin, and streptomycin were observed. Molecular epidemiologic studies showed clonal diversity among the O139 strains and continuous emergence of new epidemic clones, reflected by changes in the structure, organization, and location of the CTX prophages in the V. cholerae O139 chromosome.

EID Basu A, Garg P, Datta S, Chakraborty S, Bhattacharya T, Khan A, et al. Vibrio cholerae O139 in Calcutta, 1992-1998: Incidence, Antibiograms, and Genotypes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):139-147. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000206
AMA Basu A, Garg P, Datta S, et al. Vibrio cholerae O139 in Calcutta, 1992-1998: Incidence, Antibiograms, and Genotypes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):139-147. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000206.
APA Basu, A., Garg, P., Datta, S., Chakraborty, S., Bhattacharya, T., Khan, A....Nair, G. B. (2000). Vibrio cholerae O139 in Calcutta, 1992-1998: Incidence, Antibiograms, and Genotypes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 139-147. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000206.

Multivariate Markovian Modeling of Tuberculosis: Forecast for the United States [PDF - 286 KB - 10 pages]
S. M. Debanne et al.

We have developed a computer-implemented, multivariate Markov chain model to project tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the United States from 1980 to 2010 in disaggregated demographic groups. Uncertainty in model parameters and in the projections is represented by fuzzy numbers. Projections are made under the assumption that current TB control measures will remain unchanged for the projection period. The projections of the model demonstrate an intermediate increase in national TB incidence (similar to that which actually occurred) followed by continuing decline. The rate of decline depends strongly on geographic, racial, and ethnic characteristics. The model predicts that the rate of decline in the number of cases among Hispanics will be slower than among white non-Hispanics and black non-Hispanics--a prediction supported by the most recent data.

EID Debanne SM, Bielefeld RA, Cauthen GM, Daniel TM, Rowland DY. Multivariate Markovian Modeling of Tuberculosis: Forecast for the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):148-157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000207
AMA Debanne SM, Bielefeld RA, Cauthen GM, et al. Multivariate Markovian Modeling of Tuberculosis: Forecast for the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):148-157. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000207.
APA Debanne, S. M., Bielefeld, R. A., Cauthen, G. M., Daniel, T. M., & Rowland, D. Y. (2000). Multivariate Markovian Modeling of Tuberculosis: Forecast for the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 148-157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000207.

Serologic Response to Culture Filtrate Antigens of Mycobacterium ulcerans during Buruli Ulcer Disease [PDF - 286 KB - 7 pages]
K. M. Dobos et al.

Buruli ulcer (BU) is an emerging necrotic skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. To assess the potential for a serodiagnostic test, we measured the humoral immune response of BU patients to M. ulcerans antigens and compared this response with delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to both Burulin and PPD. The delayed-type hypersensitivity response generally supported the diagnosis of BU, with overall reactivity to Burulin in 28 (71.8%) of 39 patients tested, compared with 3 (14%) of 21 healthy controls. However, this positive skin test response was observed primarily in patients with healed or active disease, and rarely in patients with early disease (p=0.009). When tested for a serologic response to M. ulcerans culture filtrate, 43 (70.5%) of 61 BU patients had antibodies to these antigens, compared with 10 (37.0%) of 27 controls and 4 (30.8%) of 13 tuberculosis patients. There was no correlation between disease stage and the onset of this serum antibody response. Our findings suggest that serologic testing may be useful in the diagnosis and surveillance of BU.

EID Dobos KM, Spotts EA, Marston BJ, Horsburgh CR, King CH. Serologic Response to Culture Filtrate Antigens of Mycobacterium ulcerans during Buruli Ulcer Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):158-164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000208
AMA Dobos KM, Spotts EA, Marston BJ, et al. Serologic Response to Culture Filtrate Antigens of Mycobacterium ulcerans during Buruli Ulcer Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):158-164. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000208.
APA Dobos, K. M., Spotts, E. A., Marston, B. J., Horsburgh, C. R., & King, C. H. (2000). Serologic Response to Culture Filtrate Antigens of Mycobacterium ulcerans during Buruli Ulcer Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 158-164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000208.

Haemophilus influenzae Type B and Streptococcus pneumoniae as Causes of Pneumonia among Children in Beijing, China [PDF - 211 KB - 6 pages]
O. S. Levine et al.

To determine if Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and S. pneumoniae could be identified more often from the nasopharynx of patients with pneumonia than from control patients, we obtained nasopharyngeal swab specimens from 96 patients with chest x-ray-confirmed pneumonia and 214 age-matched control patients with diarrhea or dermatitis from the outpatient department at Beijing Children's Hospital. Pneumonia patients were more likely to be colonized with Hib and S. pneumoniae than control patients, even after the data were adjusted for possible confounding factors such as day-care attendance, the presence of other children in the household, and recent antibiotic use. In China, where blood cultures from pneumonia patients are rarely positive, the results of these nasopharyngeal cultures provide supporting evidence for the role of Hib and S. pneumoniae as causes of childhood pneumonia.

EID Levine OS, Liu G, Garman RL, Dowell SF, Yu S, Yang Y. Haemophilus influenzae Type B and Streptococcus pneumoniae as Causes of Pneumonia among Children in Beijing, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):165-170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000209
AMA Levine OS, Liu G, Garman RL, et al. Haemophilus influenzae Type B and Streptococcus pneumoniae as Causes of Pneumonia among Children in Beijing, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):165-170. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000209.
APA Levine, O. S., Liu, G., Garman, R. L., Dowell, S. F., Yu, S., & Yang, Y. (2000). Haemophilus influenzae Type B and Streptococcus pneumoniae as Causes of Pneumonia among Children in Beijing, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 165-170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000209.
Dispatches

Bacteroides fragilis Enterotoxin Gene Sequences in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease [PDF - 203 KB - 4 pages]
T. P. Prindiville et al.

We identified enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in stool specimens of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and other gastrointestinal disorders. The organism was detected in 11 (13.2%) of 83 patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Of 57 patients with active disease, 19.3% were toxin positive; none of those with inactive disease had specimens positive for enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis gene sequences.

EID Prindiville TP, Sheikh RA, Cohen SH, Tang YJ, Cantrell MC, Silva J. Bacteroides fragilis Enterotoxin Gene Sequences in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):171-174. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000210
AMA Prindiville TP, Sheikh RA, Cohen SH, et al. Bacteroides fragilis Enterotoxin Gene Sequences in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):171-174. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000210.
APA Prindiville, T. P., Sheikh, R. A., Cohen, S. H., Tang, Y. J., Cantrell, M. C., & Silva, J. (2000). Bacteroides fragilis Enterotoxin Gene Sequences in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 171-174. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000210.

Outbreak among Drug Users Caused by a Clonal Strain of Group A Streptococcus [PDF - 200 KB - 5 pages]
L. M. Böhlen et al.

We describe an outbreak among drug users of severe soft-tissue infections caused by a clonal strain of group A streptococcus of M-type 25. Cases (n = 19) in drug users were defined as infections (mainly needle abscesses) due to the outbreak strain. Comparison with controls showed that infected drug users bought drugs more often at a specific place. Drug purchase and use habits may have contributed to this outbreak.

EID Böhlen LM, Mühlemann K, Dubuis O, Aebi C, Täuber MG. Outbreak among Drug Users Caused by a Clonal Strain of Group A Streptococcus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):175-179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000211
AMA Böhlen LM, Mühlemann K, Dubuis O, et al. Outbreak among Drug Users Caused by a Clonal Strain of Group A Streptococcus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):175-179. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000211.
APA Böhlen, L. M., Mühlemann, K., Dubuis, O., Aebi, C., & Täuber, M. G. (2000). Outbreak among Drug Users Caused by a Clonal Strain of Group A Streptococcus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 175-179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000211.

Erythromycin Resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes in Italy [PDF - 202 KB - 4 pages]
M. Bassetti et al.

In a prospective study of acute pharyngitis in Italian children, 69 (38.3%) of 180 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes were resistant to macrolides. S. pyogenes was eradicated in 12 (63.1%) of 19 patients with erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes treated with clarithromycin and in 22 (88%) of 25 patients with erythromycin-susceptible strains. The constitutive-resistant phenotype was correlated with failure of macrolide treatment.

EID Bassetti M, Manno G, Collidà A, Ferrando A, Gatti G, Ugolotti E, et al. Erythromycin Resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes in Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):180-183. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000212
AMA Bassetti M, Manno G, Collidà A, et al. Erythromycin Resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes in Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):180-183. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000212.
APA Bassetti, M., Manno, G., Collidà, A., Ferrando, A., Gatti, G., Ugolotti, E....Bassetti, D. (2000). Erythromycin Resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes in Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 180-183. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000212.

Sin Nombre Virus (SNV) Ig Isotype Antibody Response during Acute and Convalescent Phases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome [PDF - 176 KB - 5 pages]
P. Bostik et al.

Serum samples from 22 hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) patients were tested for Sin Nombre virus (SNV)-reactive antibodies. In the acute phase of HPS, 100% and 67% of the samples tested positive for SNV-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgA, respectively. Among the virus-specific IgG antibodies, the most prevalent were IgG3 (in 97% of samples), followed by IgG1 (70%), IgG2 (30%), and IgG4 (3%).

EID Bostik P, Winter J, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Villinger F, Zaki SR, et al. Sin Nombre Virus (SNV) Ig Isotype Antibody Response during Acute and Convalescent Phases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):184-188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000213
AMA Bostik P, Winter J, Ksiazek TG, et al. Sin Nombre Virus (SNV) Ig Isotype Antibody Response during Acute and Convalescent Phases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):184-188. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000213.
APA Bostik, P., Winter, J., Ksiazek, T. G., Rollin, P. E., Villinger, F., Zaki, S. R....Ansari, A. A. (2000). Sin Nombre Virus (SNV) Ig Isotype Antibody Response during Acute and Convalescent Phases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 184-188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000213.

Bovine Tuberculosis and the Endangered Iberian Lynx [PDF - 182 KB - 3 pages]
V. Briones et al.

We report the first case of bovine tuberculosis in a free-living Iberian lynx (Lynx pardina), an extremely endangered feline, from Doñana National Park in Spain. The isolate (Mycobacterium bovis) correlates by molecular characterization with other isolates from wild ungulates in the park, strongly suggesting an epidemiologic link.

EID Briones V, de Juan L, Sánchez C, Vela A, Galka M, Montero N, et al. Bovine Tuberculosis and the Endangered Iberian Lynx. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):189-191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000214
AMA Briones V, de Juan L, Sánchez C, et al. Bovine Tuberculosis and the Endangered Iberian Lynx. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):189-191. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000214.
APA Briones, V., de Juan, L., Sánchez, C., Vela, A., Galka, M., Montero, N....Domínguez, L. (2000). Bovine Tuberculosis and the Endangered Iberian Lynx. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 189-191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000214.

Haff Disease: From the Baltic Sea to the U.S. Shore [PDF - 173 KB - 4 pages]
U. Buchholz et al.

Haff disease, identified in Europe in 1924, is unexplained rhabdomyolysis in a person who ate fish in the 24 hours before onset of illness. We describe a series of six U.S. patients from 1997 and report new epidemiologic and etiologic aspects. Although Haff disease is traditionally an epidemic foodborne illness, these six cases occurred in two clusters and as one sporadic case.

EID Buchholz U, Mouzin E, Dickey R, Moolenaar R, Sass N, Mascola L. Haff Disease: From the Baltic Sea to the U.S. Shore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):192-195. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000215
AMA Buchholz U, Mouzin E, Dickey R, et al. Haff Disease: From the Baltic Sea to the U.S. Shore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):192-195. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000215.
APA Buchholz, U., Mouzin, E., Dickey, R., Moolenaar, R., Sass, N., & Mascola, L. (2000). Haff Disease: From the Baltic Sea to the U.S. Shore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 192-195. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000215.

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in a Breeding Colony of African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus tropicalis) [PDF - 244 KB - 4 pages]
K. D. Reed et al.

More than 90% of a breeding colony of clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis) imported to the United States from western Africa died in an epizootic of chlamydiosis. Chlamydial inclusions were observed by light and electron microscopy in the liver of an infected frog. Chlamydia pneumoniae was isolated in cell cultures from four frogs. A cutaneous infection by a chytridiomycete fungus observed in two frogs could have been a cofactor in the die-off.

EID Reed KD, Ruth GR, Meyer JA, Shukla SK. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in a Breeding Colony of African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus tropicalis). Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):196-199. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000216
AMA Reed KD, Ruth GR, Meyer JA, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in a Breeding Colony of African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus tropicalis). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):196-199. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000216.
APA Reed, K. D., Ruth, G. R., Meyer, J. A., & Shukla, S. K. (2000). Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in a Breeding Colony of African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus tropicalis). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 196-199. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000216.

The Impact of Health Communication and Enhanced Laboratory-Based Surveillance on Detection of Cyclosporiasis Outbreaks in California [PDF - 185 KB - 4 pages]
J. C. Mohle-Boetani et al.

We investigated the timing of diagnosis, influence of media information on testing for Cyclospora, and the method used to identify cases during eight cyclosporiasis outbreaks in California in spring of 1997. We found that Internet information, media reports, and enhanced laboratory surveillance improved detection of these outbreaks.

EID Mohle-Boetani JC, Werner SB, Waterman SH, Vugia DJ. The Impact of Health Communication and Enhanced Laboratory-Based Surveillance on Detection of Cyclosporiasis Outbreaks in California. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):200-203. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000217
AMA Mohle-Boetani JC, Werner SB, Waterman SH, et al. The Impact of Health Communication and Enhanced Laboratory-Based Surveillance on Detection of Cyclosporiasis Outbreaks in California. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):200-203. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000217.
APA Mohle-Boetani, J. C., Werner, S. B., Waterman, S. H., & Vugia, D. J. (2000). The Impact of Health Communication and Enhanced Laboratory-Based Surveillance on Detection of Cyclosporiasis Outbreaks in California. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 200-203. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000217.

Norwalk-Like Viral Gastroenteritis Outbreak in U.S. Army Trainees [PDF - 176 KB - 4 pages]
M. K. Arness et al.

An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis hospitalized 99 (12%) of 835 U.S. Army trainees at Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas, rom August 27 to September 1, 1998. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests for Norwalk-like virus were positive for genogroup 2. Gastroenteritis was associated with one post dining facility and with soft drinks.

EID Arness MK, Feighner BH, Canham ML, Taylor DN, Monroe SS, Cieslak TJ, et al. Norwalk-Like Viral Gastroenteritis Outbreak in U.S. Army Trainees. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):204-207. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.009918
AMA Arness MK, Feighner BH, Canham ML, et al. Norwalk-Like Viral Gastroenteritis Outbreak in U.S. Army Trainees. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):204-207. doi:10.3201/eid0602.009918.
APA Arness, M. K., Feighner, B. H., Canham, M. L., Taylor, D. N., Monroe, S. S., Cieslak, T. J....Skillman, D. R. (2000). Norwalk-Like Viral Gastroenteritis Outbreak in U.S. Army Trainees. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 204-207. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.009918.
Letters

Preventing Zoonotic Diseases in Immunocompromised Persons: The Role of Physicians and Veterinarians [PDF - 143 KB - 1 page]
N. Nowotny and A. Deutz
EID Nowotny N, Deutz A. Preventing Zoonotic Diseases in Immunocompromised Persons: The Role of Physicians and Veterinarians. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000219
AMA Nowotny N, Deutz A. Preventing Zoonotic Diseases in Immunocompromised Persons: The Role of Physicians and Veterinarians. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):208. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000219.
APA Nowotny, N., & Deutz, A. (2000). Preventing Zoonotic Diseases in Immunocompromised Persons: The Role of Physicians and Veterinarians. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000219.

Reply to Drs. Nowotny and Deutz [PDF - 138 KB - 1 page]
C. W. Olsen and L. L. Barton
EID Olsen CW, Barton LL. Reply to Drs. Nowotny and Deutz. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):209. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000220
AMA Olsen CW, Barton LL. Reply to Drs. Nowotny and Deutz. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):209. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000220.
APA Olsen, C. W., & Barton, L. L. (2000). Reply to Drs. Nowotny and Deutz. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 209. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000220.
Books and Media

International Law and Infectious Diseases [PDF - 161 KB - 1 page]
D. Patterson
EID Patterson D. International Law and Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):210. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000221
AMA Patterson D. International Law and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):210. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000221.
APA Patterson, D. (2000). International Law and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 210. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000221.

Oxford Handbook of Tropical Medicine [PDF - 164 KB - 2 pages]
R. Beharry and J. S. Keystone
EID Beharry R, Keystone JS. Oxford Handbook of Tropical Medicine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):211-212. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000222
AMA Beharry R, Keystone JS. Oxford Handbook of Tropical Medicine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):211-212. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000222.
APA Beharry, R., & Keystone, J. S. (2000). Oxford Handbook of Tropical Medicine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 211-212. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000222.
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Conference Summaries

Institute of Medicine's Forum on Emerging Infections: Workshop on Managed-Care Systems and Emerging Infections [PDF - 144 KB - 2 pages]
J. R. Davis and J. Lederberg
EID Davis JR, Lederberg J. Institute of Medicine's Forum on Emerging Infections: Workshop on Managed-Care Systems and Emerging Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):213-214. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000223
AMA Davis JR, Lederberg J. Institute of Medicine's Forum on Emerging Infections: Workshop on Managed-Care Systems and Emerging Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):213-214. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000223.
APA Davis, J. R., & Lederberg, J. (2000). Institute of Medicine's Forum on Emerging Infections: Workshop on Managed-Care Systems and Emerging Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 213-214. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000223.
Page created: January 23, 2012
Page updated: January 23, 2012
Page reviewed: January 23, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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