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Volume 14, Number 7—July 2008


Wide Distribution of a High-Virulence Borrelia burgdorferi Clone in Europe and North America

Wei-Gang Qiu*Comments to Author , John F. Bruno†, William D. McCaig*, Yun Xu†, Ian Livey‡, Martin E. Schriefer§, and Benjamin J. Luft†
Author affiliations: *Hunter College of the City University of New York, New York, New York, USA; †Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA; ‡Baxter Innovations GmBH, Orth/Donau, Austria; §Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA;

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Table 1

Borrelia burgdorferi isolates*

Isolates studied† ospC type‡ Biologic origin US frequency§ EU frequency
B31, CS1, CS2, CS3, 132a, 132b, IP1, IP2, IP3, Ho, HB1, Lenz, L65, PKa2, HII A Ixodes scapularis, human 6 (New York) 13 (France, Austria, Germany, Italy, Russia)
N40, 88a, 167bjm, SD91, NP14 E I. scapularis, human 3 (New York) 6 (Hungary)
136b, 163b, 297, CS6, CS9, OEA11 K I. scapularis, human 6 (New England) 1 (Hungary)
109a, 160b, 64b, CS7, MI415¶ B1 I. scapularis, human, Peromyscus leucopus 5 (New York, Michigan) 0
JD1 C I. scapularis 1 (Massachusetts) 0
121a D Human 1 (New York) 0
MI407 F P. leucopus 1 (Michigan) 0
72a G Human 1 (New York) 0
156a, 156b, MI403, MI411 H Human, Tamias striatus 4 (New York, Michigan) 0
86b, 97b, MI409¶ I Human, T. striatus 3 (New York, Michigan) 0
118a J Human 1 (New York) 0
CS8, 80a, MI418¶ N I. scapularis, human, P. leucopus 3 (New York, Michigan) 0
94a, CS5 U Human, I. scapularis 2 (New York) 0
Bol12, VS219,¶ Lx36, ZS7 B2 I. ricinus, human 0 17 (Finland, Denmark, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, Slovakia, Germany)
Y1, Y10, 217–5, Bol6, Z6 L I. ricinus 0 10 (Finland, Poland, Italy, Austria)
Fr-93/1, Bol15, Bol25, Bol27 Q I. ricinus, human 0 4 (Poland, Italy)
Bol26,¶ Z9, PO7 S I. ricinus, human 0 3 (Italy, Austria)
Bol29, Bol30 V Human 0 15 (Italy, Switzerland, Slovenia, Germany)
SV1 X I. ricinus 0 1 (Finland)
Ri5 W I. ricinus 0 1 (Finland)

*ospC, outer surface protein C; US, United States; EU, European Union.
†Isolates subjected to multilocus sequence typing analysis.
‡Type names follow (13), except that B was split to B1 and B2, and 3 new types (V, X, W) were assigned to European isolates.
§Number and geographic origins of an ospC type in our collection.
¶Isolates showing evidence for plasmid-chromosome recombination.

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