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Volume 14, Number 7—July 2008


Wide Distribution of a High-Virulence Borrelia burgdorferi Clone in Europe and North America

Wei-Gang Qiu*Comments to Author , John F. Bruno†, William D. McCaig*, Yun Xu†, Ian Livey‡, Martin E. Schriefer§, and Benjamin J. Luft†
Author affiliations: *Hunter College of the City University of New York, New York, New York, USA; †Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA; ‡Baxter Innovations GmBH, Orth/Donau, Austria; §Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA;

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Table 3

Analysis of molecular variance results*†

Locus Molecular variance, %
Nucleotide diversity, π
Fixation index (FST)‡
Between continents Within continents North America Europe
IGS 19.5 80.5 0.0253 0.0243 0.1952§
ospC 3.13 96.87 0.2066 0.1900 0.0313¶
dbpA 26.5 73.5 0.1480 0.0999 0.2650§
BBD14 2.54 97.46 0.0834 0.1333 0.0254 (NS)

*IGS, intergenic spacer; ospC, outer surface protein C; NS, not significant (p>0.05).
†Results were obtained by using Arlequin 3.1 (35). Samples were 66 IGS sequences divided into 2 continental populations: North America (36 sequences from New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Michigan) and Europe (30 sequences from Italy, Austria, France, Germany, Switzerland, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia, and Finland). Two outgroup sequences (SV1 and Ri5) were excluded from the European sample. Genetic distances between haplotypes were based on the Kimura 2-parameter model.
‡Levels of significance were obtained by 1,000 permutations.

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