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Volume 14, Number 9—September 2008


Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda

Tony L. Goldberg1Comments to Author , Thomas R. Gillespie, Innocent B. Rwego, Elizabeth L. Estoff, and Colin A. Chapman
Author affiliations: University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA (T.L. Goldberg, T.R. Gillespie, E.L. Estoff); Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda (T.L. Goldberg, I.B. Rwego, C.A. Chapman); McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (C.A. Chapman); Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, USA (C.A. Chapman);

Main Article

Table 2

Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance for Escherichia coli isolates collected from humans, nonhuman primates, and livestock associated with 3 forest fragments near Kibale National Park, western Uganda*

Variance component Observed partition
φ statistic p value†
Variance % Total
Among species 0.672 7.76 φCT = 0.078 <0.001
Among locations within species 0.592 6.84 φSC = 0.074 <0.001
Within locations 7.395 85.41 φST = 0.146 <0.001

*Bacterial isolates were collected from 5 species in 3 locations. Locations were defined as Bugembe, Kiko 1, and Rurama fragments, and species were defined as humans, livestock (cattle and goats), black-and-white colobus, red colobus, and red-tailed guenons. Data consisted of bacterial genotypes represented as series of binary loci scored for the presence/absence of bands at each of 97 electrophoretic positions, by using the “bandmatch” procedure of the computer program BioNumerics, version 4.0 (Applied Maths, Inc., Austin, TX, USA) and optimized analytical parameters (30). Analysis of molecular variance was performed with the computer program Arlequin, version 3.0 (31).
†Probability of having a more extreme variance component and φ statistic than the observed value by chance alone; probabilities were calculated from 16,000 random permutations of the data by using Arlequin, version 3.0 (31).

Main Article

1Current affiliation: University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.