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Volume 14, Number 9—September 2008


Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda

Tony L. Goldberg1Comments to Author , Thomas R. Gillespie, Innocent B. Rwego, Elizabeth L. Estoff, and Colin A. Chapman
Author affiliations: University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA (T.L. Goldberg, T.R. Gillespie, E.L. Estoff); Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda (T.L. Goldberg, I.B. Rwego, C.A. Chapman); McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (C.A. Chapman); Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, USA (C.A. Chapman);

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Table 3

Matrix of pairwise interpopulation FST values for Escherichia coli from humans, livestock, and nonhuman primates in Kibale National Park, western Uganda, and 3 nearby forest fragments

Bacterial population FST (SEM)*
Livestock Nonhuman primates in forest fragments Nonhuman primates in undisturbed forest
Livestock 0.030 (0.007)1
Nonhuman primates in forest fragments 0.102 (0.024)2 0.090 (0.021)2
Nonhuman primates in undisturbed forest 0.180 (0.052)3 0.151 (0.051)3 0.046 (0.013)1

*FST values (which can vary between 0 and 1) represent short-term genetic distances between bacterial populations and were calculated from Rep-PCR data by using optimal analytical parameters (30). Standard errors were estimated from bootstrap analyses with 1,000 replicates. Each of the 6 FST values shown is statistically significantly different from the null expectation of no genetic difference between populations, based on the bootstrap analysis (all p<0.01). Different superscript numbers indicate significantly different FST values (exact probabilities <0.05).

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1Current affiliation: University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.