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Issue Cover for Volume 14, Number 9—September 2008

Volume 14, Number 9—September 2008

[PDF - 14.39 MB - 171 pages]

Perspective

Underreported Threat of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Africa [PDF - 185 KB - 8 pages]
Y. Ben Amor et al.

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in Africa may be more prevalent than previously appreciated. Factors leading to development of drug resistance need to be understood to develop appropriate control strategies for national programs. We gathered estimates of MDR TB rates for 39 of 46 countries in Africa. The relationship between MDR TB rates and independent factors was analyzed by using correlation and linear regression models. Our findings indicate that drug resistance surveys in Africa are critically needed. MDR TB rates must be assessed in countries without these surveys. In countries that have conducted a drug resistance survey, a new survey will determine evolution of drug resistance rates. We found no correlation between high MDR rates and TB incidence, HIV/TB co-infection rates, or year of introduction of rifampin. Results show that the retreatment failure rate was the most predictive indicator for MDR TB. Current category II drug regimens may increase MDR TB.

EID Ben Amor Y, Nemser B, Singh A, Sankin A, Schluger N. Underreported Threat of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1345-1352. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.061524
AMA Ben Amor Y, Nemser B, Singh A, et al. Underreported Threat of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1345-1352. doi:10.3201/eid1409.061524.
APA Ben Amor, Y., Nemser, B., Singh, A., Sankin, A., & Schluger, N. (2008). Underreported Threat of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1345-1352. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.061524.

Preventing and Controlling Emerging and Reemerging Transmissible Diseases in the Homeless [PDF - 1.55 MB - 7 pages]
S. Badiaga et al.

Homelessness is an increasing public health problem. Because of poor living conditions and limited access to healthcare systems, homeless persons are exposed to many communicable infections. We summarize the intervention measures reported to be efficient for the control and the prevention of common transmissible infections among homeless populations. Evidence suggests that appropriate street- or shelter-based interventions for targeted populations are the most efficient methods. Depending on the populations targeted, these interventions may include education, free condom distribution, syringe and needle prescription programs, chest radiography screening for tuberculosis, directly observed therapy for tuberculosis treatment, improvement of personal clothing and bedding hygiene, and widespread use of ivermectin for scabies and body louse infestation. Systematic vaccination against hepatitis B virus, hepatitis A virus, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and diphtheria is strongly recommended. National public health programs specific to homeless populations are required.

EID Badiaga S, Raoult D, Brouqui P. Preventing and Controlling Emerging and Reemerging Transmissible Diseases in the Homeless. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1353-1359. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080204
AMA Badiaga S, Raoult D, Brouqui P. Preventing and Controlling Emerging and Reemerging Transmissible Diseases in the Homeless. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1353-1359. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080204.
APA Badiaga, S., Raoult, D., & Brouqui, P. (2008). Preventing and Controlling Emerging and Reemerging Transmissible Diseases in the Homeless. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1353-1359. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080204.
Synopses

Questions on Mediterranean Spotted Fever a Century after Its Discovery [PDF - 295 KB - 8 pages]
C. Rovery et al.

Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) was first described in 1910. Twenty years later, it was recognized as a rickettsial disease transmitted by the brown dog tick. In contrast to Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), MSF was thought to be a benign disease; however, the first severe case that resulted in death was reported in France in the 1980s. We have noted important changes in the epidemiology of MSF in the last 10 years, with emergence and reemergence of MSF in several countries. Advanced molecular tools have allowed Rickettsia conorii conorii to be classified as a subspecies of R. conorii. New clinical features, such as multiple eschars, have been recently reported. Moreover, MSF has become more severe than RMSF; the mortality rate was as high as 32% in Portugal in 1997. Whether Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the only vector and reservoir for R. conorii conorii is a question not yet answered.

EID Rovery C, Brouqui P, Raoult D. Questions on Mediterranean Spotted Fever a Century after Its Discovery. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1360-1367. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071133
AMA Rovery C, Brouqui P, Raoult D. Questions on Mediterranean Spotted Fever a Century after Its Discovery. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1360-1367. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071133.
APA Rovery, C., Brouqui, P., & Raoult, D. (2008). Questions on Mediterranean Spotted Fever a Century after Its Discovery. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1360-1367. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071133.

Regulatory Systems for Prevention and Control of Rabies, Japan [PDF - 111 KB - 7 pages]
H. Takahashi-Omoe et al.

Japan is one of the few rabies-free countries. Although 3 imported cases of human rabies were seen in 1970 and 2006, no other cases have been reported for ≈50 years. The elimination of rabies in Japan is attributed to not only its geographic isolation but also to effective prevention and control measures, such as registration and vaccination of domestic dogs, required quarantine of susceptible imported animals, and national plans of action based on scientific research. Countermeasures against rabies have been upgraded; an improved management system for domestic dogs under the amended Enforcement Regulations of the Rabies Prevention Law has been in effect since April 2007. The latest regulatory systems for preventing and controlling rabies provide an effective model for elimination of the disease worldwide.

EID Takahashi-Omoe H, Omoe K, Okabe N. Regulatory Systems for Prevention and Control of Rabies, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1368-1374. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070845
AMA Takahashi-Omoe H, Omoe K, Okabe N. Regulatory Systems for Prevention and Control of Rabies, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1368-1374. doi:10.3201/eid1409.070845.
APA Takahashi-Omoe, H., Omoe, K., & Okabe, N. (2008). Regulatory Systems for Prevention and Control of Rabies, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1368-1374. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070845.
Research

Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda [PDF - 197 KB - 8 pages]
T. L. Goldberg et al.

We conducted a prospective study of bacterial transmission among humans, nonhuman primates (primates hereafter), and livestock in western Uganda. Humans living near forest fragments harbored Escherichia coli bacteria that were ≈75% more similar to bacteria from primates in those fragments than to bacteria from primates in nearby undisturbed forests. Genetic similarity between human/livestock and primate bacteria increased ≈3-fold as anthropogenic disturbance within forest fragments increased from moderate to high. Bacteria harbored by humans and livestock were approximately twice as similar to those of red-tailed guenons, which habitually enter human settlements to raid crops, than to bacteria of other primate species. Tending livestock, experiencing gastrointestinal symptoms, and residing near a disturbed forest fragment increased genetic similarity between a participant’s bacteria and those of nearby primates. Forest fragmentation, anthropogenic disturbance within fragments, primate ecology, and human behavior all influence bidirectional, interspecific bacterial transmission. Targeted interventions on any of these levels should reduce disease transmission and emergence.

EID Goldberg TL, Gillespie TR, Rwego IB, Estoff EL, Chapman CA. Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1375-1382. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071196
AMA Goldberg TL, Gillespie TR, Rwego IB, et al. Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1375-1382. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071196.
APA Goldberg, T. L., Gillespie, T. R., Rwego, I. B., Estoff, E. L., & Chapman, C. A. (2008). Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1375-1382. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071196.

Pigs as Source of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Infections in Humans, Denmark [PDF - 282 KB - 7 pages]
H. C. Lewis et al.

An emerging subtype of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), clonal complex (CC) 398, is associated with animals, particularly pigs. We conducted a matched case–control and a case–case study comparing 21 CC398 case-patients with 2 controls randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registry and 2 case-patients infected with MRSA other than CC398. On farms of case-patients, animals were examined for MRSA. Thirteen case-patients reported pig exposure. Living or working on farms with animals was an independent risk factor for CC398 in the case–control (matched odds ratio [MOR] 35.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7–469.8) and the case–case study (MOR 14.5, 95%CI 2.7–76.7). History of hospitalization was associated with an increased risk only in the case–control study (MOR 11.4, 95% CI 1.4–94.8). A total of 23 of 50 pigs on 4 of 5 farms were positive for CC398. Our results, corroborated by microbiologic testing, demonstrate that pigs are a source of CC398 in Denmark.

EID Lewis HC, Mølbak K, Reese C, Aarestrup FM, Selchau M, Sørum M, et al. Pigs as Source of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Infections in Humans, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1383-1389. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071576
AMA Lewis HC, Mølbak K, Reese C, et al. Pigs as Source of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Infections in Humans, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1383-1389. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071576.
APA Lewis, H. C., Mølbak, K., Reese, C., Aarestrup, F. M., Selchau, M., Sørum, M....Skov, R. L. (2008). Pigs as Source of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Infections in Humans, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1383-1389. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071576.

Pediatric Parapneumonic Empyema, Spain [PDF - 137 KB - 8 pages]
I. Obando et al.

Pediatric parapneumonic empyema (PPE) has been increasing in several countries including Spain. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major PPE pathogen; however, antimicrobial pretreatment before pleural fluid (PF) sampling frequently results in negative diagnostic cultures, thus greatly underestimating the contribution of pneumococci, especially pneumococci susceptible to antimicrobial agents, to PPE. The study aim was to identify the serotypes and genotypes that cause PPE by using molecular diagnostics and relate these data to disease incidence and severity. A total of 208 children with PPE were prospectively enrolled; blood and PF samples were collected. Pneumococci were detected in 79% of culture-positive and 84% of culture-negative samples. All pneumococci were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing. Serotypes were determined for 111 PPE cases; 48% were serotype 1, of 3 major genotypes previously circulating in Spain. Variance in patient complication rates was statistically significant by serotype. The recent PPE increase is principally due to nonvaccine serotypes, especially the highly invasive serotype 1.

EID Obando I, Muñoz-Almagro C, Arroyo LA, Tarrago D, Sanchez-Tatay D, Moreno-Perez D, et al. Pediatric Parapneumonic Empyema, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1390-1397. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071094
AMA Obando I, Muñoz-Almagro C, Arroyo LA, et al. Pediatric Parapneumonic Empyema, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1390-1397. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071094.
APA Obando, I., Muñoz-Almagro, C., Arroyo, L. A., Tarrago, D., Sanchez-Tatay, D., Moreno-Perez, D....Brueggemann, A. B. (2008). Pediatric Parapneumonic Empyema, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1390-1397. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071094.

Circulation of 3 Lineages of a Novel Saffold Cardiovirus in Humans [PDF - 251 KB - 8 pages]
A. Bispo de Filippis et al.

Cardioviruses cause serious disease, mainly in rodents, including diabetes, myocarditis, encephalomyelitis, and multiple sclerosis–like disseminated encephalomyelitis. Recently, a human virus isolate obtained 25 years ago, termed Saffold virus, was sequenced and classified as a cardiovirus. We conducted systematic molecular screening for Saffold-like viruses in 844 fecal samples from patients with gastroenteritis from Germany and Brazil, across all age groups. Six cardioviruses were identified in patients <6 years of age. Viral loads were 283,305–5,044,412,175 copies/g of stool. Co-infections occurred in 4 of 6 children. No evidence for outbreak-like epidemic patterns was found. Phylogenetic analysis identified 3 distinct genetic lineages. Viral protein 1 amino acids were 67.9%–77.7% identical and had a distance of at least 39.4% from known cardioviruses. Because closely related strains were found on 2 continents, global distribution in humans is suspected. Saffold-like viruses may be the first human cardiovirus species to be identified.

EID Bispo de Filippis A, Luna LK, Stöcker A, Almeida PS, Ribeiro TC, Petersen N, et al. Circulation of 3 Lineages of a Novel Saffold Cardiovirus in Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1398-1405. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080570
AMA Bispo de Filippis A, Luna LK, Stöcker A, et al. Circulation of 3 Lineages of a Novel Saffold Cardiovirus in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1398-1405. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080570.
APA Bispo de Filippis, A., Luna, L. K., Stöcker, A., Almeida, P. S., Ribeiro, T. C., Petersen, N....Park, S. (2008). Circulation of 3 Lineages of a Novel Saffold Cardiovirus in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1398-1405. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080570.

Excretion of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Urine [PDF - 319 KB - 7 pages]
L. Gregori et al.

The route of transmission of most naturally acquired transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infections remains speculative. To investigate urine as a potential source of TSE exposure, we used a sensitive method for detection and quantitation of TSE infectivity. Pooled urine collected from 22 hamsters showing clinical signs of 263K scrapie contained 3.8 ± 0.9 infectious doses/mL of infectivity. Titration of homogenates of kidneys and urinary bladders from the same animals gave concentrations 20,000-fold greater. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of these same tissues showed no indications of inflammatory or other pathologic changes except for occasional deposits of disease-associated prion protein in kidneys. Although the source of TSE infectivity in urine remains unresolved, these results establish that TSE infectivity is excreted in urine and may thereby play a role in the horizontal transmission of natural TSEs. The results also indicate potential risk for TSE transmission from human urine–derived hormones and other medicines.

EID Gregori L, Kovacs GG, Alexeeva I, Budka H, Rohwer RG. Excretion of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Urine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1406-1412. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080259
AMA Gregori L, Kovacs GG, Alexeeva I, et al. Excretion of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Urine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1406-1412. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080259.
APA Gregori, L., Kovacs, G. G., Alexeeva, I., Budka, H., & Rohwer, R. G. (2008). Excretion of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Urine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1406-1412. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080259.

Spatial Analysis of Tuberculosis Cases in Migrants and Permanent Residents, Beijing, 2000–2006 [PDF - 419 KB - 7 pages]
Z. Jia et al.

To determine the role of the migrant population in the transmission of tuberculosis (TB), we investigated the distribution and magnitude of TB in permanent residents and migrant populations of Beijing, People’s Republic of China, from 2000 through 2006. An exploratory spatial data analysis was applied to detect the “hot spots” of TB among the 2 populations. Results, using the data obtained from 2004–2006, showed that people who migrated from the western, middle, and eastern zones of China had a significantly higher risk of having TB than did permanent residents. These findings indicate that population fluctuations have affected the rate of TB prevalence in Beijing, and interventions to control TB should include the migrant population.

EID Jia Z, Jia X, Liu Y, Dye C, Chen F, Chen C, et al. Spatial Analysis of Tuberculosis Cases in Migrants and Permanent Residents, Beijing, 2000–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1413-1419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071543
AMA Jia Z, Jia X, Liu Y, et al. Spatial Analysis of Tuberculosis Cases in Migrants and Permanent Residents, Beijing, 2000–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1413-1419. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071543.
APA Jia, Z., Jia, X., Liu, Y., Dye, C., Chen, F., Chen, C....Liu, H. (2008). Spatial Analysis of Tuberculosis Cases in Migrants and Permanent Residents, Beijing, 2000–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1413-1419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071543.
Dispatches

Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8 Reemergence in Germany, 2007 and 2008 [PDF - 293 KB - 3 pages]
B. Hoffmann et al.

Reemerging bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in Germany was detected first in May 2007 in a sentinel cow and in February 2008 in an export heifer. Reemergence was confirmed by retesting the samples, experimental inoculation, fingerprinting analysis, and virus isolation. Overwintering of BTV-8 and continuous low-level infections are assumed.

EID Hoffmann B, Saßerath M, Thalheim S, Bunzenthal C, Strebelow G, Beer M. Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8 Reemergence in Germany, 2007 and 2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1421-1423. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080417
AMA Hoffmann B, Saßerath M, Thalheim S, et al. Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8 Reemergence in Germany, 2007 and 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1421-1423. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080417.
APA Hoffmann, B., Saßerath, M., Thalheim, S., Bunzenthal, C., Strebelow, G., & Beer, M. (2008). Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8 Reemergence in Germany, 2007 and 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1421-1423. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080417.

Ecoepidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Outbreak, Israel [PDF - 385 KB - 3 pages]
S. R. Singer et al.

A total of 161 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica occurred in the Jerusalem district during 2004–2005; 127 (79%) cases were in a town just outside Jerusalem. Environmental models suggest that in the context of global warming, this outbreak has the potential to extend into Jerusalem.

EID Singer SR, Abramson N, Shoob H, Zaken O, Zentner G, Stein-Zamir C. Ecoepidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Outbreak, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1424-1426. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071100
AMA Singer SR, Abramson N, Shoob H, et al. Ecoepidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Outbreak, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1424-1426. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071100.
APA Singer, S. R., Abramson, N., Shoob, H., Zaken, O., Zentner, G., & Stein-Zamir, C. (2008). Ecoepidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Outbreak, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1424-1426. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071100.

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Isolated from Whooper Swans, Japan [PDF - 271 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Uchida et al.

On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree.

EID Uchida Y, Mase M, Yoneda K, Kimura A, Obara T, Kumagai S, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Isolated from Whooper Swans, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1427-1429. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080655
AMA Uchida Y, Mase M, Yoneda K, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Isolated from Whooper Swans, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1427-1429. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080655.
APA Uchida, Y., Mase, M., Yoneda, K., Kimura, A., Obara, T., Kumagai, S....Yamaguchi, S. (2008). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Isolated from Whooper Swans, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1427-1429. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080655.

Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica [PDF - 329 KB - 4 pages]
G. Hernández-Mora et al.

Ten striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Costa Rican Pacific coast, had meningoencephalitis and antibodies against Brucella spp. Brucella ceti was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of 6 dolphins and 1 fetus. S. coeruleoalba constitutes a highly susceptible host and a potential reservoir for B. ceti transmission.

EID Hernández-Mora G, González-Barrientos R, Morales J, Chaves-Olarte E, Guzmán-Verri C, Baquero-Calvo E, et al. Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1430-1433. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071056
AMA Hernández-Mora G, González-Barrientos R, Morales J, et al. Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1430-1433. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071056.
APA Hernández-Mora, G., González-Barrientos, R., Morales, J., Chaves-Olarte, E., Guzmán-Verri, C., Baquero-Calvo, E....Moreno, E. (2008). Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1430-1433. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071056.

Monkey Malaria in a European Traveler Returning from Malaysia [PDF - 216 KB - 3 pages]
A. Kantele et al.

In 2007, a Finnish traveler was infected in Peninsular Malaysia with Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite that usually causes malaria in monkeys. P. knowlesi has established itself as the fifth Plasmodium species that can cause human malaria. The disease is potentially life-threatening in humans; clinicians and laboratory personnel should become more aware of this pathogen in travelers.

EID Kantele A, Marti H, Felger I, Müller D, Jokiranta TS. Monkey Malaria in a European Traveler Returning from Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1434-1436. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080170
AMA Kantele A, Marti H, Felger I, et al. Monkey Malaria in a European Traveler Returning from Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1434-1436. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080170.
APA Kantele, A., Marti, H., Felger, I., Müller, D., & Jokiranta, T. S. (2008). Monkey Malaria in a European Traveler Returning from Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1434-1436. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080170.

Mycobacterium haemophilum and Lymphadenitis in Immunocompetent Children, Israel [PDF - 153 KB - 3 pages]
Y. H. Cohen et al.

The database of a major microbiology laboratory in Israel was searched to determine the prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis in immunocompetent children. We observed a 4-fold increase in nontuberculous mycobacteria isolates during 1985–2006, which was attributable mainly to increased detection of Mycobacterium haemophilum starting in 1996.

EID Cohen YH, Amir J, Ashkenazi S, Eidlitz-Markus T, Samra Z, Kaufmann L, et al. Mycobacterium haemophilum and Lymphadenitis in Immunocompetent Children, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1437-1439. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070917
AMA Cohen YH, Amir J, Ashkenazi S, et al. Mycobacterium haemophilum and Lymphadenitis in Immunocompetent Children, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1437-1439. doi:10.3201/eid1409.070917.
APA Cohen, Y. H., Amir, J., Ashkenazi, S., Eidlitz-Markus, T., Samra, Z., Kaufmann, L....Zeharia, A. (2008). Mycobacterium haemophilum and Lymphadenitis in Immunocompetent Children, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1437-1439. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070917.

Obligations to Report Outbreaks of Foodborne Disease under the International Health Regulations (2005) [PDF - 153 KB - 3 pages]
M. Kirk et al.

Every year, Australia identifies 2–3 outbreaks associated with imported foods. To examine national authorities’ obligations under the International Health Regulations (2005), we reviewed outbreaks in 2001–2007 that implicated internationally distributed foods. Under these regulations, 6 (43%) of 14 outbreaks would have required notification to the World Health Organization.

EID Kirk M, Musto J, Gregory J, Fullerton K. Obligations to Report Outbreaks of Foodborne Disease under the International Health Regulations (2005). Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1440-1442. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080468
AMA Kirk M, Musto J, Gregory J, et al. Obligations to Report Outbreaks of Foodborne Disease under the International Health Regulations (2005). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1440-1442. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080468.
APA Kirk, M., Musto, J., Gregory, J., & Fullerton, K. (2008). Obligations to Report Outbreaks of Foodborne Disease under the International Health Regulations (2005). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1440-1442. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080468.

Occurrence and Clinical Relevance of Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov., Germany [PDF - 334 KB - 4 pages]
B. Schweickert et al.

Retrospective molecular genetic analysis of 166 Mycobacterium intracellulare isolates showed that 143 (86%) strains could be assigned to Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov. Of 97 patients from whom M. chimaera sp. nov. was isolated, only 3.3% exhibited mycobacterial lung disease, whereas all M. intracellulare isolates caused severe pulmonary infections.

EID Schweickert B, Goldenberg O, Richter E, Göbel UB, Petrich A, Buchholz P, et al. Occurrence and Clinical Relevance of Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov., Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1443-1446. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071032
AMA Schweickert B, Goldenberg O, Richter E, et al. Occurrence and Clinical Relevance of Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov., Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1443-1446. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071032.
APA Schweickert, B., Goldenberg, O., Richter, E., Göbel, U. B., Petrich, A., Buchholz, P....Moter, A. (2008). Occurrence and Clinical Relevance of Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov., Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1443-1446. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071032.

Juquitiba-like Hantavirus from 2 Nonrelated Rodent Species, Uruguay [PDF - 390 KB - 5 pages]
A. Delfraro et al.

Serologic and genetic analyses indicate that a Juquitiba-like hantavirus circulates in Maldonado, Uruguay. This virus is carried by 2 rodent species, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Oxymycterus nasutus. The same hantavirus in 2 nonrelated species can be explained by a spillover infection or a host-switching event.

EID Delfraro A, Tomé L, D’Elía G, Clara M, Achával F, Russi JC, et al. Juquitiba-like Hantavirus from 2 Nonrelated Rodent Species, Uruguay. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1447-1451. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080455
AMA Delfraro A, Tomé L, D’Elía G, et al. Juquitiba-like Hantavirus from 2 Nonrelated Rodent Species, Uruguay. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1447-1451. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080455.
APA Delfraro, A., Tomé, L., D’Elía, G., Clara, M., Achával, F., Russi, J. C....Arbiza, J. (2008). Juquitiba-like Hantavirus from 2 Nonrelated Rodent Species, Uruguay. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1447-1451. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080455.

Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, Marseille, France, 1994–2005 [PDF - 128 KB - 3 pages]
P. Gautret et al.

The administration of human rabies postexposure prophylaxis near Marseille (southern France) has changed since the eradication of terrestrial mammal rabies in 2001. Most injuries were associated with indigenous dogs; rabies vaccine was overprescribed. We suggest that the World Health Organization guidelines be adapted for countries free of terrestrial mammal rabies.

EID Gautret P, Soula G, Adamou H, Soavi M, Delmont J, Rotivel Y, et al. Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, Marseille, France, 1994–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1452-1454. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071322
AMA Gautret P, Soula G, Adamou H, et al. Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, Marseille, France, 1994–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1452-1454. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071322.
APA Gautret, P., Soula, G., Adamou, H., Soavi, M., Delmont, J., Rotivel, Y....Brouqui, P. (2008). Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, Marseille, France, 1994–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1452-1454. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071322.

Host Range and Genetic Diversity of Arenaviruses in Rodents, United Kingdom [PDF - 171 KB - 4 pages]
K. R. Blasdell et al.

During a study to extend our knowledge of the host range and genetic diversity of arenaviruses in Great Britain, 66 of 1,147 rodent blood samples tested for antibody, and 127 of 482 tested by PCR, were found positive. All sequences most closely resembled those of previously identified lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.

EID Blasdell KR, Becker SD, Hurst J, Begon M, Bennett M. Host Range and Genetic Diversity of Arenaviruses in Rodents, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1455-1458. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080209
AMA Blasdell KR, Becker SD, Hurst J, et al. Host Range and Genetic Diversity of Arenaviruses in Rodents, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1455-1458. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080209.
APA Blasdell, K. R., Becker, S. D., Hurst, J., Begon, M., & Bennett, M. (2008). Host Range and Genetic Diversity of Arenaviruses in Rodents, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1455-1458. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080209.

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Avian Influenza (H5N1), Afghanistan [PDF - 220 KB - 3 pages]
T. Leslie et al.

From February through April 2007, avian influenza (H5N1) was confirmed in poultry in 4 of 34 Afghan provinces. A survey conducted in 2 affected and 3 unaffected provinces found that greater knowledge about reducing exposure was associated with higher socioeconomic status, residence in affected provinces, and not owning backyard poultry.

EID Leslie T, Billaud J, Mofleh J, Mustafa L, Yingst S. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Avian Influenza (H5N1), Afghanistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1459-1461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071382
AMA Leslie T, Billaud J, Mofleh J, et al. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Avian Influenza (H5N1), Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1459-1461. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071382.
APA Leslie, T., Billaud, J., Mofleh, J., Mustafa, L., & Yingst, S. (2008). Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Avian Influenza (H5N1), Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1459-1461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071382.

Emergence and Spread of Chlamydia trachomatis Variant, Sweden [PDF - 288 KB - 4 pages]
B. Herrmann et al.

A variant of Chlamydia trachomatis that had escaped detection by commonly used systems was discovered in Sweden in 2006. In a nationwide study, we found that it is now prevalent across Sweden, irrespective of the detection system used. Genetic analysis by multilocus sequence typing identified a predominant variant, suggesting recent emergence.

EID Herrmann B, Törner A, Low N, Klint M, Nilsson A, Velicko I, et al. Emergence and Spread of Chlamydia trachomatis Variant, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1462-1465. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080153
AMA Herrmann B, Törner A, Low N, et al. Emergence and Spread of Chlamydia trachomatis Variant, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1462-1465. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080153.
APA Herrmann, B., Törner, A., Low, N., Klint, M., Nilsson, A., Velicko, I....Blaxhult, A. (2008). Emergence and Spread of Chlamydia trachomatis Variant, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1462-1465. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080153.

Crack Cocaine and Infectious Tuberculosis [PDF - 346 KB - 4 pages]
A. Story et al.

We hypothesize that crack cocaine is independently associated with smear-positive tuberculosis (TB). In a case–control study of TB in London, 19 (86%) of 22 crack cocaine users with pulmonary TB were smear positive compared with 302 (36%) of 833 non–drug users. Respiratory damage caused by crack cocaine may predispose drug users to infectivity.

EID Story A, Bothamley G, Hayward A. Crack Cocaine and Infectious Tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1466-1469. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070654
AMA Story A, Bothamley G, Hayward A. Crack Cocaine and Infectious Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1466-1469. doi:10.3201/eid1409.070654.
APA Story, A., Bothamley, G., & Hayward, A. (2008). Crack Cocaine and Infectious Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1466-1469. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070654.

Human Case of Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Triple Reassortant Virus Infection, Wisconsin [PDF - 193 KB - 3 pages]
A. P. Newman et al.

Zoonotic infections with swine influenza A viruses are reported sporadically. Triple reassortant swine influenza viruses have been isolated from pigs in the United States since 1998. We report a human case of upper respiratory illness associated with swine influenza A (H1N1) triple reassortant virus infection that occurred during 2005 following exposure to freshly killed pigs.

EID Newman AP, Reisdorf E, Beinemann J, Uyeki TM, Balish A, Shu B, et al. Human Case of Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Triple Reassortant Virus Infection, Wisconsin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1470-1472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080305
AMA Newman AP, Reisdorf E, Beinemann J, et al. Human Case of Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Triple Reassortant Virus Infection, Wisconsin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1470-1472. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080305.
APA Newman, A. P., Reisdorf, E., Beinemann, J., Uyeki, T. M., Balish, A., Shu, B....Davis, J. P. (2008). Human Case of Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Triple Reassortant Virus Infection, Wisconsin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1470-1472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080305.

Diagnostic Challenges of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis [PDF - 158 KB - 3 pages]
L. J. Christie et al.

Central nervous system tuberculosis (TB) was identified in 20 cases of unexplained encephalitis referred to the California Encephalitis Project. Atypical features (encephalitic symptoms, rapid onset, age) and diagnostic challenges (insensitive cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] TB PCR result, elevated CSF glucose levels in patients with diabetes, negative result for tuberculin skin test) complicated diagnosis.

EID Christie LJ, Loeffler AM, Honarmand S, Flood JM, Baxter R, Jacobson S, et al. Diagnostic Challenges of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1473-1475. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070264
AMA Christie LJ, Loeffler AM, Honarmand S, et al. Diagnostic Challenges of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1473-1475. doi:10.3201/eid1409.070264.
APA Christie, L. J., Loeffler, A. M., Honarmand, S., Flood, J. M., Baxter, R., Jacobson, S....Glaser, C. A. (2008). Diagnostic Challenges of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1473-1475. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070264.
Commentaries

In Memoriam: Michael B. Gregg (1930–2008) [PDF - 149 KB - 3 pages]
D. M. Morens
EID Morens DM. In Memoriam: Michael B. Gregg (1930–2008). Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1476-1478. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080952
AMA Morens DM. In Memoriam: Michael B. Gregg (1930–2008). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1476-1478. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080952.
APA Morens, D. M. (2008). In Memoriam: Michael B. Gregg (1930–2008). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1476-1478. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080952.
Photo Quizzes

Photo Quiz [PDF - 750 KB - 2 pages]
M. G. Schultz
EID Schultz MG. Photo Quiz. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1479-1481. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.086672
AMA Schultz MG. Photo Quiz. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1479-1481. doi:10.3201/eid1409.086672.
APA Schultz, M. G. (2008). Photo Quiz. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1479-1481. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.086672.
Letters

Tularemia in a Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [PDF - 140 KB - 2 pages]
J. R. Sinclair et al.
EID Sinclair JR, Newton A, Hinshaw K, Fraser G, Ross P, Chernak E, et al. Tularemia in a Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1482-1483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071690
AMA Sinclair JR, Newton A, Hinshaw K, et al. Tularemia in a Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1482-1483. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071690.
APA Sinclair, J. R., Newton, A., Hinshaw, K., Fraser, G., Ross, P., Chernak, E....Warren, N. (2008). Tularemia in a Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1482-1483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071690.

Genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi from Humans with Scrub Typhus, Laos [PDF - 142 KB - 3 pages]
P. Parola et al.
EID Parola P, Blacksell SD, Phetsouvanh R, Phongmany S, Rolain J, Day N, et al. Genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi from Humans with Scrub Typhus, Laos. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1483-1485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071259
AMA Parola P, Blacksell SD, Phetsouvanh R, et al. Genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi from Humans with Scrub Typhus, Laos. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1483-1485. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071259.
APA Parola, P., Blacksell, S. D., Phetsouvanh, R., Phongmany, S., Rolain, J., Day, N....Raoult, D. (2008). Genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi from Humans with Scrub Typhus, Laos. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1483-1485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071259.

Clindamycin-Resistant Clone of Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 027, Europe [PDF - 179 KB - 3 pages]
D. Drudy et al.
EID Drudy D, Goorhuis B, Bakker D, Kyne L, van den Berg R, Fenelon L, et al. Clindamycin-Resistant Clone of Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 027, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1485-1487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071346
AMA Drudy D, Goorhuis B, Bakker D, et al. Clindamycin-Resistant Clone of Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 027, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1485-1487. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071346.
APA Drudy, D., Goorhuis, B., Bakker, D., Kyne, L., van den Berg, R., Fenelon, L....Kuijper, E. J. (2008). Clindamycin-Resistant Clone of Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 027, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1485-1487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071346.

Increasing Incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated Disease, Singapore [PDF - 154 KB - 3 pages]
P. Lim et al.
EID Lim P, Barkham TM, Ling LM, Dimatatac F, Alfred T, Ang B. Increasing Incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated Disease, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1487-1489. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070043
AMA Lim P, Barkham TM, Ling LM, et al. Increasing Incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated Disease, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1487-1489. doi:10.3201/eid1409.070043.
APA Lim, P., Barkham, T. M., Ling, L. M., Dimatatac, F., Alfred, T., & Ang, B. (2008). Increasing Incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated Disease, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1487-1489. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070043.

West Nile Virus in Golden Eagles, Spain, 2007 [PDF - 160 KB - 3 pages]
M. A. Jiménez-Clavero et al.
EID Jiménez-Clavero MA, Sotelo E, Fernandez-Pinero J, Llorente F, Blanco JM, Rodriguez-Ramos J, et al. West Nile Virus in Golden Eagles, Spain, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1489-1491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080190
AMA Jiménez-Clavero MA, Sotelo E, Fernandez-Pinero J, et al. West Nile Virus in Golden Eagles, Spain, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1489-1491. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080190.
APA Jiménez-Clavero, M. A., Sotelo, E., Fernandez-Pinero, J., Llorente, F., Blanco, J. M., Rodriguez-Ramos, J....Höfle, U. (2008). West Nile Virus in Golden Eagles, Spain, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1489-1491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080190.

Merkel Cell Polyomavirus and Merkel Cell Carcinoma, France [PDF - 160 KB - 3 pages]
V. Foulongne et al.
EID Foulongne V, Kluger N, Dereure O, Brieu N, Guillot B, Segondy M. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus and Merkel Cell Carcinoma, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1491-1493. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080651
AMA Foulongne V, Kluger N, Dereure O, et al. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus and Merkel Cell Carcinoma, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1491-1493. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080651.
APA Foulongne, V., Kluger, N., Dereure, O., Brieu, N., Guillot, B., & Segondy, M. (2008). Merkel Cell Polyomavirus and Merkel Cell Carcinoma, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1491-1493. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080651.

Worldwide Prevalence of Head Lice [PDF - 155 KB - 2 pages]
M. E. Falagas et al.
EID Falagas ME, Matthaiou DK, Rafailidis PI, Panos G, Pappas G. Worldwide Prevalence of Head Lice. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1493-1494. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080368
AMA Falagas ME, Matthaiou DK, Rafailidis PI, et al. Worldwide Prevalence of Head Lice. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1493-1494. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080368.
APA Falagas, M. E., Matthaiou, D. K., Rafailidis, P. I., Panos, G., & Pappas, G. (2008). Worldwide Prevalence of Head Lice. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1493-1494. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080368.

Texas Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis Ames [PDF - 196 KB - 3 pages]
L. J. Kenefic et al.
EID Kenefic LJ, Pearson T, Okinaka RT, Chung W, Max T, Van Ert MN, et al. Texas Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis Ames. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1494-1496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080076
AMA Kenefic LJ, Pearson T, Okinaka RT, et al. Texas Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis Ames. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1494-1496. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080076.
APA Kenefic, L. J., Pearson, T., Okinaka, R. T., Chung, W., Max, T., Van Ert, M. N....Keim, P. (2008). Texas Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis Ames. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1494-1496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080076.

Bluetongue in Eurasian Lynx [PDF - 152 KB - 3 pages]
T. P. Jauniaux et al.
EID Jauniaux TP, De Clercq KE, Cassart DE, Kennedy S, Vandenbussche FE, Vandemeulebroucke EL, et al. Bluetongue in Eurasian Lynx. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1496-1498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080434
AMA Jauniaux TP, De Clercq KE, Cassart DE, et al. Bluetongue in Eurasian Lynx. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1496-1498. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080434.
APA Jauniaux, T. P., De Clercq, K. E., Cassart, D. E., Kennedy, S., Vandenbussche, F. E., Vandemeulebroucke, E. L....Coignoul, F. L. (2008). Bluetongue in Eurasian Lynx. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1496-1498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080434.

Indigenous Dengue Fever, Buenos Aires, Argentina [PDF - 136 KB - 2 pages]
M. Natiello et al.
EID Natiello M, Ritacco V, Morales MA, Deodato B, Picollo M, Dinerstein E, et al. Indigenous Dengue Fever, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1498-1499. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080143
AMA Natiello M, Ritacco V, Morales MA, et al. Indigenous Dengue Fever, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1498-1499. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080143.
APA Natiello, M., Ritacco, V., Morales, M. A., Deodato, B., Picollo, M., Dinerstein, E....Enria, D. (2008). Indigenous Dengue Fever, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1498-1499. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080143.

Naegleria fowleri in Well Water [PDF - 153 KB - 3 pages]
B. Blair et al.
EID Blair B, Sarkar P, Bright KR, Marciano-Cabral F, Gerba CP. Naegleria fowleri in Well Water. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1499-1501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071076
AMA Blair B, Sarkar P, Bright KR, et al. Naegleria fowleri in Well Water. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1499-1501. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071076.
APA Blair, B., Sarkar, P., Bright, K. R., Marciano-Cabral, F., & Gerba, C. P. (2008). Naegleria fowleri in Well Water. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1499-1501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071076.

Popular and Scientific Attitudes Regarding Pandemic Influenza [PDF - 146 KB - 2 pages]
P. Doshi
EID Doshi P. Popular and Scientific Attitudes Regarding Pandemic Influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1501-1502. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080647
AMA Doshi P. Popular and Scientific Attitudes Regarding Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1501-1502. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080647.
APA Doshi, P. (2008). Popular and Scientific Attitudes Regarding Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1501-1502. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080647.
Another Dimension

We are Legend [PDF - 164 KB - 1 page]
J. W. Tang
EID Tang JW. We are Legend. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1420. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080682
AMA Tang JW. We are Legend. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1420. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080682.
APA Tang, J. W. (2008). We are Legend. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1420. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080682.
Books and Media

Food-Borne Parasitic Zoonoses: Fish and Plant-Borne Parasites (World Class Parasites)
F. J. Sorvillo
EID Sorvillo FJ. Food-Borne Parasitic Zoonoses: Fish and Plant-Borne Parasites (World Class Parasites). Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080495
AMA Sorvillo FJ. Food-Borne Parasitic Zoonoses: Fish and Plant-Borne Parasites (World Class Parasites). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1503. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080495.
APA Sorvillo, F. J. (2008). Food-Borne Parasitic Zoonoses: Fish and Plant-Borne Parasites (World Class Parasites). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080495.

Epidemiologic Principles and Food Safety [PDF - 407 KB - 2 pages]
T. F. Jones
EID Jones TF. Epidemiologic Principles and Food Safety. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1503-1504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080585
AMA Jones TF. Epidemiologic Principles and Food Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1503-1504. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080585.
APA Jones, T. F. (2008). Epidemiologic Principles and Food Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1503-1504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080585.
About the Cover

“How Comes It, Rocinante, You’re so Lean?” “I’m Underfed, with Overwork I’m Worn” [PDF - 151 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. “How Comes It, Rocinante, You’re so Lean?” “I’m Underfed, with Overwork I’m Worn”. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1505-1506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.ac1409
AMA Potter P. “How Comes It, Rocinante, You’re so Lean?” “I’m Underfed, with Overwork I’m Worn”. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1505-1506. doi:10.3201/eid1409.ac1409.
APA Potter, P. (2008). “How Comes It, Rocinante, You’re so Lean?” “I’m Underfed, with Overwork I’m Worn”. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1505-1506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.ac1409.
Etymologia

Merkel Cells [PDF - 139 KB - 1 page]
EID Merkel Cells. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1502. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.e11409
AMA Merkel Cells. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1502. doi:10.3201/eid1409.e11409.
APA (2008). Merkel Cells. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1502. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.e11409.
Page created: October 02, 2012
Page updated: August 11, 2017
Page reviewed: August 11, 2017
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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