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Volume 14, Number 9—September 2008

Volume 14, Number 9—September 2008   PDF Version [PDF - 14.39 MB - 171 pages]

Perspective

  • Underreported Threat of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Africa PDF Version [PDF - 185 KB - 8 pages]
    Y. Ben Amor et al.
        View Abstract

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in Africa may be more prevalent than previously appreciated. Factors leading to development of drug resistance need to be understood to develop appropriate control strategies for national programs. We gathered estimates of MDR TB rates for 39 of 46 countries in Africa. The relationship between MDR TB rates and independent factors was analyzed by using correlation and linear regression models. Our findings indicate that drug resistance surveys in Africa are critically needed. MDR TB rates must be assessed in countries without these surveys. In countries that have conducted a drug resistance survey, a new survey will determine evolution of drug resistance rates. We found no correlation between high MDR rates and TB incidence, HIV/TB co-infection rates, or year of introduction of rifampin. Results show that the retreatment failure rate was the most predictive indicator for MDR TB. Current category II drug regimens may increase MDR TB.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ben Amor Y, Nemser B, Singh A, Sankin A, Schluger N. Underreported Threat of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1345-1352. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.061524
    AMA Ben Amor Y, Nemser B, Singh A, et al. Underreported Threat of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1345-1352. doi:10.3201/eid1409.061524.
    APA Ben Amor, Y., Nemser, B., Singh, A., Sankin, A., & Schluger, N. (2008). Underreported Threat of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1345-1352. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.061524.
  • Preventing and Controlling Emerging and Reemerging Transmissible Diseases in the Homeless PDF Version [PDF - 1.55 MB - 7 pages]
    S. Badiaga et al.
    View Summary

    Appropriate street- or shelter-based interventions for targeted populations are most effective.

        View Abstract

    Homelessness is an increasing public health problem. Because of poor living conditions and limited access to healthcare systems, homeless persons are exposed to many communicable infections. We summarize the intervention measures reported to be efficient for the control and the prevention of common transmissible infections among homeless populations. Evidence suggests that appropriate street- or shelter-based interventions for targeted populations are the most efficient methods. Depending on the populations targeted, these interventions may include education, free condom distribution, syringe and needle prescription programs, chest radiography screening for tuberculosis, directly observed therapy for tuberculosis treatment, improvement of personal clothing and bedding hygiene, and widespread use of ivermectin for scabies and body louse infestation. Systematic vaccination against hepatitis B virus, hepatitis A virus, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and diphtheria is strongly recommended. National public health programs specific to homeless populations are required.

        Cite This Article
    EID Badiaga S, Raoult D, Brouqui P. Preventing and Controlling Emerging and Reemerging Transmissible Diseases in the Homeless. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1353-1359. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080204
    AMA Badiaga S, Raoult D, Brouqui P. Preventing and Controlling Emerging and Reemerging Transmissible Diseases in the Homeless. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1353-1359. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080204.
    APA Badiaga, S., Raoult, D., & Brouqui, P. (2008). Preventing and Controlling Emerging and Reemerging Transmissible Diseases in the Homeless. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1353-1359. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080204.

Synopses

  • Questions on Mediterranean Spotted Fever a Century after Its Discovery PDF Version [PDF - 295 KB - 8 pages]
    C. Rovery et al.
        View Abstract

    Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) was first described in 1910. Twenty years later, it was recognized as a rickettsial disease transmitted by the brown dog tick. In contrast to Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), MSF was thought to be a benign disease; however, the first severe case that resulted in death was reported in France in the 1980s. We have noted important changes in the epidemiology of MSF in the last 10 years, with emergence and reemergence of MSF in several countries. Advanced molecular tools have allowed Rickettsia conorii conorii to be classified as a subspecies of R. conorii. New clinical features, such as multiple eschars, have been recently reported. Moreover, MSF has become more severe than RMSF; the mortality rate was as high as 32% in Portugal in 1997. Whether Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the only vector and reservoir for R. conorii conorii is a question not yet answered.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rovery C, Brouqui P, Raoult D. Questions on Mediterranean Spotted Fever a Century after Its Discovery. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1360-1367. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071133
    AMA Rovery C, Brouqui P, Raoult D. Questions on Mediterranean Spotted Fever a Century after Its Discovery. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1360-1367. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071133.
    APA Rovery, C., Brouqui, P., & Raoult, D. (2008). Questions on Mediterranean Spotted Fever a Century after Its Discovery. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1360-1367. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071133.
  • Regulatory Systems for Prevention and Control of Rabies, Japan PDF Version [PDF - 111 KB - 7 pages]
    H. Takahashi-Omoe et al.
        View Abstract

    Japan is one of the few rabies-free countries. Although 3 imported cases of human rabies were seen in 1970 and 2006, no other cases have been reported for ≈50 years. The elimination of rabies in Japan is attributed to not only its geographic isolation but also to effective prevention and control measures, such as registration and vaccination of domestic dogs, required quarantine of susceptible imported animals, and national plans of action based on scientific research. Countermeasures against rabies have been upgraded; an improved management system for domestic dogs under the amended Enforcement Regulations of the Rabies Prevention Law has been in effect since April 2007. The latest regulatory systems for preventing and controlling rabies provide an effective model for elimination of the disease worldwide.

        Cite This Article
    EID Takahashi-Omoe H, Omoe K, Okabe N. Regulatory Systems for Prevention and Control of Rabies, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1368-1374. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070845
    AMA Takahashi-Omoe H, Omoe K, Okabe N. Regulatory Systems for Prevention and Control of Rabies, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1368-1374. doi:10.3201/eid1409.070845.
    APA Takahashi-Omoe, H., Omoe, K., & Okabe, N. (2008). Regulatory Systems for Prevention and Control of Rabies, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1368-1374. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070845.

Research

  • Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda PDF Version [PDF - 197 KB - 8 pages]
    T. L. Goldberg et al.
        View Abstract

    We conducted a prospective study of bacterial transmission among humans, nonhuman primates (primates hereafter), and livestock in western Uganda. Humans living near forest fragments harbored Escherichia coli bacteria that were ≈75% more similar to bacteria from primates in those fragments than to bacteria from primates in nearby undisturbed forests. Genetic similarity between human/livestock and primate bacteria increased ≈3-fold as anthropogenic disturbance within forest fragments increased from moderate to high. Bacteria harbored by humans and livestock were approximately twice as similar to those of red-tailed guenons, which habitually enter human settlements to raid crops, than to bacteria of other primate species. Tending livestock, experiencing gastrointestinal symptoms, and residing near a disturbed forest fragment increased genetic similarity between a participant’s bacteria and those of nearby primates. Forest fragmentation, anthropogenic disturbance within fragments, primate ecology, and human behavior all influence bidirectional, interspecific bacterial transmission. Targeted interventions on any of these levels should reduce disease transmission and emergence.

        Cite This Article
    EID Goldberg TL, Gillespie TR, Rwego IB, Estoff EL, Chapman CA. Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1375-1382. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071196
    AMA Goldberg TL, Gillespie TR, Rwego IB, et al. Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1375-1382. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071196.
    APA Goldberg, T. L., Gillespie, T. R., Rwego, I. B., Estoff, E. L., & Chapman, C. A. (2008). Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1375-1382. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071196.
  • Pigs as Source of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Infections in Humans, Denmark PDF Version [PDF - 282 KB - 7 pages]
    H. C. Lewis et al.
        View Abstract

    An emerging subtype of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), clonal complex (CC) 398, is associated with animals, particularly pigs. We conducted a matched case–control and a case–case study comparing 21 CC398 case-patients with 2 controls randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registry and 2 case-patients infected with MRSA other than CC398. On farms of case-patients, animals were examined for MRSA. Thirteen case-patients reported pig exposure. Living or working on farms with animals was an independent risk factor for CC398 in the case–control (matched odds ratio [MOR] 35.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7–469.8) and the case–case study (MOR 14.5, 95%CI 2.7–76.7). History of hospitalization was associated with an increased risk only in the case–control study (MOR 11.4, 95% CI 1.4–94.8). A total of 23 of 50 pigs on 4 of 5 farms were positive for CC398. Our results, corroborated by microbiologic testing, demonstrate that pigs are a source of CC398 in Denmark.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lewis HC, Mølbak K, Reese C, Aarestrup FM, Selchau M, Sørum M, et al. Pigs as Source of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Infections in Humans, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1383-1389. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071576
    AMA Lewis HC, Mølbak K, Reese C, et al. Pigs as Source of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Infections in Humans, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1383-1389. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071576.
    APA Lewis, H. C., Mølbak, K., Reese, C., Aarestrup, F. M., Selchau, M., Sørum, M....Skov, R. L. (2008). Pigs as Source of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Infections in Humans, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1383-1389. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071576.
  • Pediatric Parapneumonic Empyema, Spain PDF Version [PDF - 137 KB - 8 pages]
    I. Obando et al.
        View Abstract

    Pediatric parapneumonic empyema (PPE) has been increasing in several countries including Spain. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major PPE pathogen; however, antimicrobial pretreatment before pleural fluid (PF) sampling frequently results in negative diagnostic cultures, thus greatly underestimating the contribution of pneumococci, especially pneumococci susceptible to antimicrobial agents, to PPE. The study aim was to identify the serotypes and genotypes that cause PPE by using molecular diagnostics and relate these data to disease incidence and severity. A total of 208 children with PPE were prospectively enrolled; blood and PF samples were collected. Pneumococci were detected in 79% of culture-positive and 84% of culture-negative samples. All pneumococci were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing. Serotypes were determined for 111 PPE cases; 48% were serotype 1, of 3 major genotypes previously circulating in Spain. Variance in patient complication rates was statistically significant by serotype. The recent PPE increase is principally due to nonvaccine serotypes, especially the highly invasive serotype 1.

        Cite This Article
    EID Obando I, Muñoz-Almagro C, Arroyo LA, Tarrago D, Sanchez-Tatay D, Moreno-Perez D, et al. Pediatric Parapneumonic Empyema, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1390-1397. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071094
    AMA Obando I, Muñoz-Almagro C, Arroyo LA, et al. Pediatric Parapneumonic Empyema, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1390-1397. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071094.
    APA Obando, I., Muñoz-Almagro, C., Arroyo, L. A., Tarrago, D., Sanchez-Tatay, D., Moreno-Perez, D....Brueggemann, A. B. (2008). Pediatric Parapneumonic Empyema, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1390-1397. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071094.
  • Circulation of 3 Lineages of a Novel Saffold Cardiovirus in Humans PDF Version [PDF - 251 KB - 8 pages]
    J. Drexler et al.
        View Abstract

    Cardioviruses cause serious disease, mainly in rodents, including diabetes, myocarditis, encephalomyelitis, and multiple sclerosis–like disseminated encephalomyelitis. Recently, a human virus isolate obtained 25 years ago, termed Saffold virus, was sequenced and classified as a cardiovirus. We conducted systematic molecular screening for Saffold-like viruses in 844 fecal samples from patients with gastroenteritis from Germany and Brazil, across all age groups. Six cardioviruses were identified in patients <6 years of age. Viral loads were 283,305–5,044,412,175 copies/g of stool. Co-infections occurred in 4 of 6 children. No evidence for outbreak-like epidemic patterns was found. Phylogenetic analysis identified 3 distinct genetic lineages. Viral protein 1 amino acids were 67.9%–77.7% identical and had a distance of at least 39.4% from known cardioviruses. Because closely related strains were found on 2 continents, global distribution in humans is suspected. Saffold-like viruses may be the first human cardiovirus species to be identified.

        Cite This Article
    EID Drexler J, Luna LK, Stöcker A, Almeida PS, Ribeiro TC, Petersen N, et al. Circulation of 3 Lineages of a Novel Saffold Cardiovirus in Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1398-1405. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080570
    AMA Drexler J, Luna LK, Stöcker A, et al. Circulation of 3 Lineages of a Novel Saffold Cardiovirus in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1398-1405. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080570.
    APA Drexler, J., Luna, L. K., Stöcker, A., Almeida, P. S., Ribeiro, T. C., Petersen, N....Park, S. (2008). Circulation of 3 Lineages of a Novel Saffold Cardiovirus in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1398-1405. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080570.
  • Excretion of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Urine PDF Version [PDF - 319 KB - 7 pages]
    L. Gregori et al.
        View Abstract

    The route of transmission of most naturally acquired transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infections remains speculative. To investigate urine as a potential source of TSE exposure, we used a sensitive method for detection and quantitation of TSE infectivity. Pooled urine collected from 22 hamsters showing clinical signs of 263K scrapie contained 3.8 ± 0.9 infectious doses/mL of infectivity. Titration of homogenates of kidneys and urinary bladders from the same animals gave concentrations 20,000-fold greater. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of these same tissues showed no indications of inflammatory or other pathologic changes except for occasional deposits of disease-associated prion protein in kidneys. Although the source of TSE infectivity in urine remains unresolved, these results establish that TSE infectivity is excreted in urine and may thereby play a role in the horizontal transmission of natural TSEs. The results also indicate potential risk for TSE transmission from human urine–derived hormones and other medicines.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gregori L, Kovacs GG, Alexeeva I, Budka H, Rohwer RG. Excretion of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Urine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1406-1412. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080259
    AMA Gregori L, Kovacs GG, Alexeeva I, et al. Excretion of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Urine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1406-1412. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080259.
    APA Gregori, L., Kovacs, G. G., Alexeeva, I., Budka, H., & Rohwer, R. G. (2008). Excretion of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Urine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1406-1412. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080259.
  • Spatial Analysis of Tuberculosis Cases in Migrants and Permanent Residents, Beijing, 2000–2006 PDF Version [PDF - 419 KB - 7 pages]
    Z. Jia et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine the role of the migrant population in the transmission of tuberculosis (TB), we investigated the distribution and magnitude of TB in permanent residents and migrant populations of Beijing, People’s Republic of China, from 2000 through 2006. An exploratory spatial data analysis was applied to detect the “hot spots” of TB among the 2 populations. Results, using the data obtained from 2004–2006, showed that people who migrated from the western, middle, and eastern zones of China had a significantly higher risk of having TB than did permanent residents. These findings indicate that population fluctuations have affected the rate of TB prevalence in Beijing, and interventions to control TB should include the migrant population.

        Cite This Article
    EID Jia Z, Jia X, Liu Y, Dye C, Chen F, Chen C, et al. Spatial Analysis of Tuberculosis Cases in Migrants and Permanent Residents, Beijing, 2000–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1413-1419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071543
    AMA Jia Z, Jia X, Liu Y, et al. Spatial Analysis of Tuberculosis Cases in Migrants and Permanent Residents, Beijing, 2000–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1413-1419. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071543.
    APA Jia, Z., Jia, X., Liu, Y., Dye, C., Chen, F., Chen, C....Liu, H. (2008). Spatial Analysis of Tuberculosis Cases in Migrants and Permanent Residents, Beijing, 2000–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1413-1419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071543.

Dispatches

  • Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8 Reemergence in Germany, 2007 and 2008 PDF Version [PDF - 293 KB - 3 pages]
    B. Hoffmann et al.
        View Abstract

    Reemerging bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in Germany was detected first in May 2007 in a sentinel cow and in February 2008 in an export heifer. Reemergence was confirmed by retesting the samples, experimental inoculation, fingerprinting analysis, and virus isolation. Overwintering of BTV-8 and continuous low-level infections are assumed.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hoffmann B, Saßerath M, Thalheim S, Bunzenthal C, Strebelow G, Beer M, et al. Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8 Reemergence in Germany, 2007 and 2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1421-1423. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080417
    AMA Hoffmann B, Saßerath M, Thalheim S, et al. Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8 Reemergence in Germany, 2007 and 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1421-1423. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080417.
    APA Hoffmann, B., Saßerath, M., Thalheim, S., Bunzenthal, C., Strebelow, G., & Beer, M. (2008). Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8 Reemergence in Germany, 2007 and 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1421-1423. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080417.
  • Ecoepidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Outbreak, Israel PDF Version [PDF - 385 KB - 3 pages]
    S. R. Singer et al.
        View Abstract

    A total of 161 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica occurred in the Jerusalem district during 2004–2005; 127 (79%) cases were in a town just outside Jerusalem. Environmental models suggest that in the context of global warming, this outbreak has the potential to extend into Jerusalem.

        Cite This Article
    EID Singer SR, Abramson N, Shoob H, Zaken O, Zentner G, Stein-Zamir C, et al. Ecoepidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Outbreak, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1424-1426. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071100
    AMA Singer SR, Abramson N, Shoob H, et al. Ecoepidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Outbreak, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1424-1426. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071100.
    APA Singer, S. R., Abramson, N., Shoob, H., Zaken, O., Zentner, G., & Stein-Zamir, C. (2008). Ecoepidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Outbreak, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1424-1426. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071100.
  • Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Isolated from Whooper Swans, Japan PDF Version [PDF - 271 KB - 3 pages]
    Y. Uchida et al.
        View Abstract

    On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree.

        Cite This Article
    EID Uchida Y, Mase M, Yoneda K, Kimura A, Obara T, Kumagai S, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Isolated from Whooper Swans, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1427-1429. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080655
    AMA Uchida Y, Mase M, Yoneda K, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Isolated from Whooper Swans, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1427-1429. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080655.
    APA Uchida, Y., Mase, M., Yoneda, K., Kimura, A., Obara, T., Kumagai, S....Yamaguchi, S. (2008). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Isolated from Whooper Swans, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1427-1429. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080655.
  • Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica PDF Version [PDF - 329 KB - 4 pages]
    G. Hernández-Mora et al.
        View Abstract

    Ten striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Costa Rican Pacific coast, had meningoencephalitis and antibodies against Brucella spp. Brucella ceti was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of 6 dolphins and 1 fetus. S. coeruleoalba constitutes a highly susceptible host and a potential reservoir for B. ceti transmission.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hernández-Mora G, González-Barrientos R, Morales J, Chaves-Olarte E, Guzmán-Verri C, Baquero-Calvo E, et al. Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1430-1433. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071056
    AMA Hernández-Mora G, González-Barrientos R, Morales J, et al. Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1430-1433. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071056.
    APA Hernández-Mora, G., González-Barrientos, R., Morales, J., Chaves-Olarte, E., Guzmán-Verri, C., Baquero-Calvo, E....Moreno, E. (2008). Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1430-1433. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071056.
  • Monkey Malaria in a European Traveler Returning from Malaysia PDF Version [PDF - 216 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Kantele et al.
        View Abstract

    In 2007, a Finnish traveler was infected in Peninsular Malaysia with Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite that usually causes malaria in monkeys. P. knowlesi has established itself as the fifth Plasmodium species that can cause human malaria. The disease is potentially life-threatening in humans; clinicians and laboratory personnel should become more aware of this pathogen in travelers.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kantele A, Marti H, Felger I, Müller D, Jokiranta TS. Monkey Malaria in a European Traveler Returning from Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1434-1436. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080170
    AMA Kantele A, Marti H, Felger I, et al. Monkey Malaria in a European Traveler Returning from Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1434-1436. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080170.
    APA Kantele, A., Marti, H., Felger, I., Müller, D., & Jokiranta, T. S. (2008). Monkey Malaria in a European Traveler Returning from Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1434-1436. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080170.
  • Mycobacterium haemophilum and Lymphadenitis in Immunocompetent Children, Israel PDF Version [PDF - 153 KB - 3 pages]
    Y. H. Cohen et al.
        View Abstract

    The database of a major microbiology laboratory in Israel was searched to determine the prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis in immunocompetent children. We observed a 4-fold increase in nontuberculous mycobacteria isolates during 1985–2006, which was attributable mainly to increased detection of Mycobacterium haemophilum starting in 1996.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cohen YH, Amir J, Ashkenazi S, Eidlitz-Markus T, Samra Z, Kaufmann L, et al. Mycobacterium haemophilum and Lymphadenitis in Immunocompetent Children, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1437-1439. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070917
    AMA Cohen YH, Amir J, Ashkenazi S, et al. Mycobacterium haemophilum and Lymphadenitis in Immunocompetent Children, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1437-1439. doi:10.3201/eid1409.070917.
    APA Cohen, Y. H., Amir, J., Ashkenazi, S., Eidlitz-Markus, T., Samra, Z., Kaufmann, L....Zeharia, A. (2008). Mycobacterium haemophilum and Lymphadenitis in Immunocompetent Children, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1437-1439. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070917.
  • Obligations to Report Outbreaks of Foodborne Disease under the International Health Regulations (2005) PDF Version [PDF - 153 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Kirk et al.
        View Abstract

    Every year, Australia identifies 2–3 outbreaks associated with imported foods. To examine national authorities’ obligations under the International Health Regulations (2005), we reviewed outbreaks in 2001–2007 that implicated internationally distributed foods. Under these regulations, 6 (43%) of 14 outbreaks would have required notification to the World Health Organization.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kirk M, Musto J, Gregory J, Fullerton K. Obligations to Report Outbreaks of Foodborne Disease under the International Health Regulations (2005). Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1440-1442. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080468
    AMA Kirk M, Musto J, Gregory J, et al. Obligations to Report Outbreaks of Foodborne Disease under the International Health Regulations (2005). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1440-1442. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080468.
    APA Kirk, M., Musto, J., Gregory, J., & Fullerton, K. (2008). Obligations to Report Outbreaks of Foodborne Disease under the International Health Regulations (2005). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1440-1442. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080468.
  • Occurrence and Clinical Relevance of Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov., Germany PDF Version [PDF - 334 KB - 4 pages]
    B. Schweickert et al.
        View Abstract

    Retrospective molecular genetic analysis of 166 Mycobacterium intracellulare isolates showed that 143 (86%) strains could be assigned to Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov. Of 97 patients from whom M. chimaera sp. nov. was isolated, only 3.3% exhibited mycobacterial lung disease, whereas all M. intracellulare isolates caused severe pulmonary infections.

        Cite This Article
    EID Schweickert B, Goldenberg O, Richter E, Göbel UB, Petrich A, Buchholz P, et al. Occurrence and Clinical Relevance of Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov., Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1443-1446. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071032
    AMA Schweickert B, Goldenberg O, Richter E, et al. Occurrence and Clinical Relevance of Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov., Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1443-1446. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071032.
    APA Schweickert, B., Goldenberg, O., Richter, E., Göbel, U. B., Petrich, A., Buchholz, P....Moter, A. (2008). Occurrence and Clinical Relevance of Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov., Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1443-1446. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071032.
  • Juquitiba-like Hantavirus from 2 Nonrelated Rodent Species, Uruguay PDF Version [PDF - 390 KB - 5 pages]
    A. Delfraro et al.
        View Abstract

    Serologic and genetic analyses indicate that a Juquitiba-like hantavirus circulates in Maldonado, Uruguay. This virus is carried by 2 rodent species, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Oxymycterus nasutus. The same hantavirus in 2 nonrelated species can be explained by a spillover infection or a host-switching event.

        Cite This Article
    EID Delfraro A, Tomé L, D’Elía G, Clara M, Achával F, Russi JC, et al. Juquitiba-like Hantavirus from 2 Nonrelated Rodent Species, Uruguay. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1447-1451. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080455
    AMA Delfraro A, Tomé L, D’Elía G, et al. Juquitiba-like Hantavirus from 2 Nonrelated Rodent Species, Uruguay. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1447-1451. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080455.
    APA Delfraro, A., Tomé, L., D’Elía, G., Clara, M., Achával, F., Russi, J. C....Arbiza, J. (2008). Juquitiba-like Hantavirus from 2 Nonrelated Rodent Species, Uruguay. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1447-1451. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080455.
  • Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, Marseille, France, 1994–2005 PDF Version [PDF - 128 KB - 3 pages]
    P. Gautret et al.
        View Abstract

    The administration of human rabies postexposure prophylaxis near Marseille (southern France) has changed since the eradication of terrestrial mammal rabies in 2001. Most injuries were associated with indigenous dogs; rabies vaccine was overprescribed. We suggest that the World Health Organization guidelines be adapted for countries free of terrestrial mammal rabies.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gautret P, Soula G, Adamou H, Soavi M, Delmont J, Rotivel Y, et al. Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, Marseille, France, 1994–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1452-1454. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071322
    AMA Gautret P, Soula G, Adamou H, et al. Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, Marseille, France, 1994–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1452-1454. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071322.
    APA Gautret, P., Soula, G., Adamou, H., Soavi, M., Delmont, J., Rotivel, Y....Brouqui, P. (2008). Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, Marseille, France, 1994–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1452-1454. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071322.
  • Host Range and Genetic Diversity of Arenaviruses in Rodents, United Kingdom PDF Version [PDF - 171 KB - 4 pages]
    K. R. Blasdell et al.
        View Abstract

    During a study to extend our knowledge of the host range and genetic diversity of arenaviruses in Great Britain, 66 of 1,147 rodent blood samples tested for antibody, and 127 of 482 tested by PCR, were found positive. All sequences most closely resembled those of previously identified lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Blasdell KR, Becker SD, Hurst J, Begon M, Bennett M. Host Range and Genetic Diversity of Arenaviruses in Rodents, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1455-1458. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080209
    AMA Blasdell KR, Becker SD, Hurst J, et al. Host Range and Genetic Diversity of Arenaviruses in Rodents, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1455-1458. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080209.
    APA Blasdell, K. R., Becker, S. D., Hurst, J., Begon, M., & Bennett, M. (2008). Host Range and Genetic Diversity of Arenaviruses in Rodents, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1455-1458. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080209.
  • Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Avian Influenza (H5N1), Afghanistan PDF Version [PDF - 220 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Leslie et al.
        View Abstract

    From February through April 2007, avian influenza (H5N1) was confirmed in poultry in 4 of 34 Afghan provinces. A survey conducted in 2 affected and 3 unaffected provinces found that greater knowledge about reducing exposure was associated with higher socioeconomic status, residence in affected provinces, and not owning backyard poultry.

        Cite This Article
    EID Leslie T, Billaud J, Mofleh J, Mustafa L, Yingst S. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Avian Influenza (H5N1), Afghanistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1459-1461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071382
    AMA Leslie T, Billaud J, Mofleh J, et al. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Avian Influenza (H5N1), Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1459-1461. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071382.
    APA Leslie, T., Billaud, J., Mofleh, J., Mustafa, L., & Yingst, S. (2008). Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Avian Influenza (H5N1), Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1459-1461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071382.
  • Emergence and Spread of Chlamydia trachomatis Variant, Sweden PDF Version [PDF - 288 KB - 4 pages]
    B. Herrmann et al.
        View Abstract

    A variant of Chlamydia trachomatis that had escaped detection by commonly used systems was discovered in Sweden in 2006. In a nationwide study, we found that it is now prevalent across Sweden, irrespective of the detection system used. Genetic analysis by multilocus sequence typing identified a predominant variant, suggesting recent emergence.

        Cite This Article
    EID Herrmann B, Törner A, Low N, Klint M, Nilsson A, Velicko I, et al. Emergence and Spread of Chlamydia trachomatis Variant, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1462-1465. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080153
    AMA Herrmann B, Törner A, Low N, et al. Emergence and Spread of Chlamydia trachomatis Variant, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1462-1465. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080153.
    APA Herrmann, B., Törner, A., Low, N., Klint, M., Nilsson, A., Velicko, I....Blaxhult, A. (2008). Emergence and Spread of Chlamydia trachomatis Variant, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1462-1465. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080153.
  • Crack Cocaine and Infectious Tuberculosis PDF Version [PDF - 346 KB - 4 pages]
    A. Story et al.
        View Abstract

    We hypothesize that crack cocaine is independently associated with smear-positive tuberculosis (TB). In a case–control study of TB in London, 19 (86%) of 22 crack cocaine users with pulmonary TB were smear positive compared with 302 (36%) of 833 non–drug users. Respiratory damage caused by crack cocaine may predispose drug users to infectivity.

        Cite This Article
    EID Story A, Bothamley G, Hayward A. Crack Cocaine and Infectious Tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1466-1469. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070654
    AMA Story A, Bothamley G, Hayward A. Crack Cocaine and Infectious Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1466-1469. doi:10.3201/eid1409.070654.
    APA Story, A., Bothamley, G., & Hayward, A. (2008). Crack Cocaine and Infectious Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1466-1469. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070654.
  • Human Case of Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Triple Reassortant Virus Infection, Wisconsin PDF Version [PDF - 193 KB - 3 pages]
    A. P. Newman et al.
        View Abstract

    Zoonotic infections with swine influenza A viruses are reported sporadically. Triple reassortant swine influenza viruses have been isolated from pigs in the United States since 1998. We report a human case of upper respiratory illness associated with swine influenza A (H1N1) triple reassortant virus infection that occurred during 2005 following exposure to freshly killed pigs.

        Cite This Article
    EID Newman AP, Reisdorf E, Beinemann J, Uyeki TM, Balish A, Shu B, et al. Human Case of Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Triple Reassortant Virus Infection, Wisconsin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1470-1472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080305
    AMA Newman AP, Reisdorf E, Beinemann J, et al. Human Case of Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Triple Reassortant Virus Infection, Wisconsin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1470-1472. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080305.
    APA Newman, A. P., Reisdorf, E., Beinemann, J., Uyeki, T. M., Balish, A., Shu, B....Davis, J. P. (2008). Human Case of Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Triple Reassortant Virus Infection, Wisconsin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1470-1472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080305.
  • Diagnostic Challenges of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis PDF Version [PDF - 158 KB - 3 pages]
    L. J. Christie et al.
        View Abstract

    Central nervous system tuberculosis (TB) was identified in 20 cases of unexplained encephalitis referred to the California Encephalitis Project. Atypical features (encephalitic symptoms, rapid onset, age) and diagnostic challenges (insensitive cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] TB PCR result, elevated CSF glucose levels in patients with diabetes, negative result for tuberculin skin test) complicated diagnosis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Christie LJ, Loeffler AM, Honarmand S, Flood JM, Baxter R, Jacobson S, et al. Diagnostic Challenges of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1473-1475. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070264
    AMA Christie LJ, Loeffler AM, Honarmand S, et al. Diagnostic Challenges of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1473-1475. doi:10.3201/eid1409.070264.
    APA Christie, L. J., Loeffler, A. M., Honarmand, S., Flood, J. M., Baxter, R., Jacobson, S....Glaser, C. A. (2008). Diagnostic Challenges of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1473-1475. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070264.

Commentaries

  • In Memoriam: Michael B. Gregg (1930–2008) PDF Version [PDF - 149 KB - 3 pages]
    D. M. Morens
            Cite This Article
    EID Morens DM. In Memoriam: Michael B. Gregg (1930–2008). Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1476-1478. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080952
    AMA Morens DM. In Memoriam: Michael B. Gregg (1930–2008). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1476-1478. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080952.
    APA Morens, D. M. (2008). In Memoriam: Michael B. Gregg (1930–2008). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1476-1478. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080952.

Photo Quizzes

  • Photo Quiz PDF Version [PDF - 750 KB - 2 pages]
    M. G. Schultz
            Cite This Article
    EID Schultz MG. Rudolf Virchow. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1479-1481. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.086672
    AMA Schultz MG. Rudolf Virchow. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1479-1481. doi:10.3201/eid1409.086672.
    APA Schultz, M. G. (2008). Rudolf Virchow. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1479-1481. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.086672.

Another Dimension

  • We are Legend PDF Version [PDF - 164 KB - 1 page]
    J. W. Tang
            Cite This Article
    EID Tang JW. We are Legend. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1420. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080682
    AMA Tang JW. We are Legend. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1420. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080682.
    APA Tang, J. W. (2008). We are Legend. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1420. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080682.

Letters

  • Tularemia in a Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania PDF Version [PDF - 140 KB - 2 pages]
    J. R. Sinclair et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Sinclair JR, Newton A, Hinshaw K, Fraser G, Ross P, Chernak E, et al. Tularemia in a Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1482-1483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071690
    AMA Sinclair JR, Newton A, Hinshaw K, et al. Tularemia in a Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1482-1483. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071690.
    APA Sinclair, J. R., Newton, A., Hinshaw, K., Fraser, G., Ross, P., Chernak, E....Warren, N. (2008). Tularemia in a Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1482-1483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071690.
  • Genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi from Humans with Scrub Typhus, Laos PDF Version [PDF - 142 KB - 3 pages]
    P. Parola et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Parola P, Blacksell SD, Phetsouvanh R, Phongmany S, Rolain J, Day N, et al. Genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi from Humans with Scrub Typhus, Laos. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1483-1485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071259
    AMA Parola P, Blacksell SD, Phetsouvanh R, et al. Genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi from Humans with Scrub Typhus, Laos. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1483-1485. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071259.
    APA Parola, P., Blacksell, S. D., Phetsouvanh, R., Phongmany, S., Rolain, J., Day, N....Raoult, D. (2008). Genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi from Humans with Scrub Typhus, Laos. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1483-1485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071259.
  • Clindamycin-Resistant Clone of Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 027, Europe PDF Version [PDF - 179 KB - 3 pages]
    D. Drudy et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Drudy D, Goorhuis B, Bakker D, Kyne L, van den Berg R, Fenelon L, et al. Clindamycin-Resistant Clone of Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 027, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1485-1487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071346
    AMA Drudy D, Goorhuis B, Bakker D, et al. Clindamycin-Resistant Clone of Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 027, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1485-1487. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071346.
    APA Drudy, D., Goorhuis, B., Bakker, D., Kyne, L., van den Berg, R., Fenelon, L....Kuijper, E. J. (2008). Clindamycin-Resistant Clone of Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 027, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1485-1487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071346.
  • Increasing Incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated Disease, Singapore PDF Version [PDF - 154 KB - 3 pages]
    P. Lim et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Lim P, Barkham TM, Ling LM, Dimatatac F, Alfred T, Ang B, et al. Increasing Incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated Disease, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1487-1489. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070043
    AMA Lim P, Barkham TM, Ling LM, et al. Increasing Incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated Disease, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1487-1489. doi:10.3201/eid1409.070043.
    APA Lim, P., Barkham, T. M., Ling, L. M., Dimatatac, F., Alfred, T., & Ang, B. (2008). Increasing Incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated Disease, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1487-1489. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.070043.
  • West Nile Virus in Golden Eagles, Spain, 2007 PDF Version [PDF - 160 KB - 3 pages]
    M. A. Jiménez-Clavero et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Jiménez-Clavero MA, Sotelo E, Fernandez-Pinero J, Llorente F, Blanco JM, Rodriguez-Ramos J, et al. West Nile Virus in Golden Eagles, Spain, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1489-1491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080190
    AMA Jiménez-Clavero MA, Sotelo E, Fernandez-Pinero J, et al. West Nile Virus in Golden Eagles, Spain, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1489-1491. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080190.
    APA Jiménez-Clavero, M. A., Sotelo, E., Fernandez-Pinero, J., Llorente, F., Blanco, J. M., Rodriguez-Ramos, J....Höfle, U. (2008). West Nile Virus in Golden Eagles, Spain, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1489-1491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080190.
  • Merkel Cell Polyomavirus and Merkel Cell Carcinoma, France PDF Version [PDF - 160 KB - 3 pages]
    V. Foulongne et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Foulongne V, Kluger N, Dereure O, Brieu N, Guillot B, Segondy M, et al. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus and Merkel Cell Carcinoma, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1491-1493. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080651
    AMA Foulongne V, Kluger N, Dereure O, et al. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus and Merkel Cell Carcinoma, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1491-1493. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080651.
    APA Foulongne, V., Kluger, N., Dereure, O., Brieu, N., Guillot, B., & Segondy, M. (2008). Merkel Cell Polyomavirus and Merkel Cell Carcinoma, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1491-1493. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080651.
  • Worldwide Prevalence of Head Lice PDF Version [PDF - 155 KB - 2 pages]
    M. E. Falagas et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Falagas ME, Matthaiou DK, Rafailidis PI, Panos G, Pappas G. Worldwide Prevalence of Head Lice. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1493-1494. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080368
    AMA Falagas ME, Matthaiou DK, Rafailidis PI, et al. Worldwide Prevalence of Head Lice. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1493-1494. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080368.
    APA Falagas, M. E., Matthaiou, D. K., Rafailidis, P. I., Panos, G., & Pappas, G. (2008). Worldwide Prevalence of Head Lice. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1493-1494. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080368.
  • Texas Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis Ames PDF Version [PDF - 196 KB - 3 pages]
    L. J. Kenefic et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kenefic LJ, Pearson T, Okinaka RT, Chung W, Max T, Van Ert MN, et al. Texas Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis Ames. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1494-1496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080076
    AMA Kenefic LJ, Pearson T, Okinaka RT, et al. Texas Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis Ames. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1494-1496. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080076.
    APA Kenefic, L. J., Pearson, T., Okinaka, R. T., Chung, W., Max, T., Van Ert, M. N....Keim, P. (2008). Texas Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis Ames. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1494-1496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080076.
  • Bluetongue in Eurasian Lynx PDF Version [PDF - 152 KB - 3 pages]
    T. P. Jauniaux et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Jauniaux TP, De Clercq KE, Cassart DE, Kennedy S, Vandenbussche FE, Vandemeulebroucke EL, et al. Bluetongue in Eurasian Lynx. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1496-1498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080434
    AMA Jauniaux TP, De Clercq KE, Cassart DE, et al. Bluetongue in Eurasian Lynx. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1496-1498. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080434.
    APA Jauniaux, T. P., De Clercq, K. E., Cassart, D. E., Kennedy, S., Vandenbussche, F. E., Vandemeulebroucke, E. L....Coignoul, F. L. (2008). Bluetongue in Eurasian Lynx. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1496-1498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080434.
  • Indigenous Dengue Fever, Buenos Aires, Argentina PDF Version [PDF - 136 KB - 2 pages]
    M. Natiello et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Natiello M, Ritacco V, Morales MA, Deodato B, Picollo M, Dinerstein E, et al. Indigenous Dengue Fever, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1498-1499. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080143
    AMA Natiello M, Ritacco V, Morales MA, et al. Indigenous Dengue Fever, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1498-1499. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080143.
    APA Natiello, M., Ritacco, V., Morales, M. A., Deodato, B., Picollo, M., Dinerstein, E....Enria, D. (2008). Indigenous Dengue Fever, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1498-1499. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080143.
  • Naegleria fowleri in Well Water PDF Version [PDF - 153 KB - 3 pages]
    B. Blair et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Blair B, Sarkar P, Bright KR, Marciano-Cabral F, Gerba CP. Naegleria fowleri in Well Water. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1499-1501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071076
    AMA Blair B, Sarkar P, Bright KR, et al. Naegleria fowleri in Well Water. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1499-1501. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071076.
    APA Blair, B., Sarkar, P., Bright, K. R., Marciano-Cabral, F., & Gerba, C. P. (2008). Naegleria fowleri in Well Water. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1499-1501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.071076.
  • Popular and Scientific Attitudes Regarding Pandemic Influenza PDF Version [PDF - 146 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Doshi
            Cite This Article
    EID Doshi P. Popular and Scientific Attitudes Regarding Pandemic Influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1501-1502. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080647
    AMA Doshi P. Popular and Scientific Attitudes Regarding Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1501-1502. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080647.
    APA Doshi, P. (2008). Popular and Scientific Attitudes Regarding Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1501-1502. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080647.

Books and Media

  • Food-Borne Parasitic Zoonoses: Fish and Plant-Borne Parasites (World Class Parasites)
    F. J. Sorvillo
            Cite This Article
    EID Sorvillo FJ. Food-Borne Parasitic Zoonoses: Fish and Plant-Borne Parasites (World Class Parasites). Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080495
    AMA Sorvillo FJ. Food-Borne Parasitic Zoonoses: Fish and Plant-Borne Parasites (World Class Parasites). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1503. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080495.
    APA Sorvillo, F. J. (2008). Food-Borne Parasitic Zoonoses: Fish and Plant-Borne Parasites (World Class Parasites). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080495.
  • Epidemiologic Principles and Food Safety PDF Version [PDF - 407 KB - 2 pages]
    T. F. Jones
            Cite This Article
    EID Jones TF. Epidemiologic Principles and Food Safety. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1503-1504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080585
    AMA Jones TF. Epidemiologic Principles and Food Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1503-1504. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080585.
    APA Jones, T. F. (2008). Epidemiologic Principles and Food Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1503-1504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.080585.

About the Cover

  • “How Comes It, Rocinante, You’re so Lean?” “I’m Underfed, with Overwork I’m Worn” PDF Version [PDF - 151 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. “How Comes It, Rocinante, You’re so Lean?” “I’m Underfed, with Overwork I’m Worn”. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1505-1506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.AC1409
    AMA Potter P. “How Comes It, Rocinante, You’re so Lean?” “I’m Underfed, with Overwork I’m Worn”. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1505-1506. doi:10.3201/eid1409.AC1409.
    APA Potter, P. (2008). “How Comes It, Rocinante, You’re so Lean?” “I’m Underfed, with Overwork I’m Worn”. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1505-1506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.AC1409.

Etymologia

  • Merkel Cells PDF Version [PDF - 139 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Merkel Cells. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1502. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.E11409
    AMA Merkel Cells. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9):1502. doi:10.3201/eid1409.E11409.
    APA (2008). Merkel Cells. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1502. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.E11409.
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