Volume 15, Number 6—June 2009
Lineage 2 West Nile Virus as Cause of Fatal Neurologic Disease in Horses, South Africa
|Case no.||Age||Clinical findings||Outcome||Postmortem findings||Histopathologic findings|
|SAE12/07||5 y||Neurologic signs, hind and fore limb ataxia, pupil miosis, head held to left||Survived|
|SAE89/08||1 y||Neurologic signs, hind and forelimb ataxia, fever, complete paralysis, anorexia, hepatitis||Died (euthanized after week of fluid therapy)||Postmortem not done|
|HS101/08||8 y||Neurologic signs, severe ataxia especially hind limb, seizures and chewing, froth from mouth, fever, recumbency, paralysis||Died||Marked generalized subcutaneous edema involving trunk and proximal forelimbs, edema (periaortic, coronary grooves, neck, and hind quarters), partial pulmonary collapse, foam-filled trachea, mild serosanguinous hydrothorax, moderate hydropericardium, subpleural petechiae and ecchymoses, epicardial grooves and at bases of the mitral valves||Lesions in gray matter and meninges of lumbar spinal cord (pericentral canal gliosis, edema, gray matter gliosis with occasional neuronal degeneration or death), mild perivascular cuffing with mononuclear cells and scattered neutrophils, moderate vascular congestion, occasional perivascular petechiae, mild leptomeningitis (mostly round cells) and occasional mild spinal ganglioneuritis, segmental mural necrosis of the dural blood vessels and neutrophil invasion, less-marked lesions in rest of spinal cord and white matter of midbrain|
|M123/08||4 mo||Fever, neurologic signs, paralysis (Schiff-Sherington sign), rectal prolapse||Died||Severe perirenal and intermuscular edema, severe diffuse interlobular lung edema and mild serous hydropericardium||Marked white matter lesions in peripheral lateral and ventromedial spinal cord white matter, mild perivascular round cell cuffing in midbrain, patchy spongiosis and gliosis in brain and cerebellum white matter|
|HS125/08||8 mo||Neurologic signs, ataxia, mild colic, swollen head and neck||Died (shot by owner)||Severe lung edema and congestion, moderate serous hydropericardium, intermuscular edema||Subtle lesions on brain and cerebellum sections (e.g., gliosis and spongiosis in white matter and vascular leukostasis)|
|SAE126/08||6 y||Neurologic signs, head hanging, sick for week||Died suddenly||Spinal cord lesions|
|SAE134/09||19 y||Neurologic signs, partial blindness, hyperexcitability, seizures||Survived|
*AHSV, African horse sickness virus; IHC, immunohistochemistry.
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