Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Issue Cover for Volume 15, Number 6—June 2009

Volume 15, Number 6—June 2009

[PDF - 4.78 MB - 151 pages]

Perspective

Medscape CME Activity
Past, Present, and Possible Future Human Infection with Influenza Virus A Subtype H7 [PDF - 501 KB - 7 pages]
J. A. Belser et al.

Influenza A subtype H7 viruses have resulted in >100 cases of human infection since 2002 in the Netherlands, Italy, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Clinical illness from subtype H7 infection ranges from conjunctivitis to mild upper respiratory illness to pneumonia. Although subtype H7 infections have resulted in a smaller proportion of hospitalizations and deaths in humans than those caused by subtype H5N1, some subtype H7 strains appear more adapted for human infection on the basis of their virus-binding properties and illness rates among exposed persons. Moreover, increased isolation of subtype H7 influenza viruses from poultry and the ability of this subtype to cause severe human disease underscore the need for continued surveillance and characterization of these viruses. We review the history of human infection caused by subtype H7. In addition, we discuss recently identified molecular correlates of subtype H7 virus pathogenesis and assess current measures to prevent future subtype H7 virus infection.

EID Belser JA, Bridges CB, Katz JM, Tumpey TM. Past, Present, and Possible Future Human Infection with Influenza Virus A Subtype H7. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):859-865. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090072
AMA Belser JA, Bridges CB, Katz JM, et al. Past, Present, and Possible Future Human Infection with Influenza Virus A Subtype H7. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):859-865. doi:10.3201/eid1506.090072.
APA Belser, J. A., Bridges, C. B., Katz, J. M., & Tumpey, T. M. (2009). Past, Present, and Possible Future Human Infection with Influenza Virus A Subtype H7. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 859-865. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090072.
Synopses

Diphyllobothriasis Associated with Eating Raw Pacific Salmon [PDF - 544 KB - 5 pages]
N. Arizono et al.

The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be as long as 12 m. The natural life history and the geographic range of the tapeworm remain to be elucidated, but recent studies have indicated that the brown bear in the northern territories of the Pacific coast region is its natural final host. A recent surge of clinical cases highlights a change in the epidemiologic trend of this tapeworm disease from one of rural populations to a disease of urban populations worldwide who eat seafood as part of a healthy diet.

EID Arizono N, Yamada M, Nakamura-Uchiyama F, Ohnishi K. Diphyllobothriasis Associated with Eating Raw Pacific Salmon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):866-870. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090132
AMA Arizono N, Yamada M, Nakamura-Uchiyama F, et al. Diphyllobothriasis Associated with Eating Raw Pacific Salmon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):866-870. doi:10.3201/eid1506.090132.
APA Arizono, N., Yamada, M., Nakamura-Uchiyama, F., & Ohnishi, K. (2009). Diphyllobothriasis Associated with Eating Raw Pacific Salmon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 866-870. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090132.
Research

Geographic Clustering of Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil [PDF - 614 KB - 6 pages]
A. Schriefer et al.

To determine whether disease outcomes and clades of Leishmania braziliensis genotypes are associated, we studied geographic clustering of clades and most severe disease outcomes for leishmaniasis during 1999–2003 in Corte de Pedra in northeastern Brazil. Highly significant differences were observed in distribution of mucosal leishmaniasis versus disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) (p<0.0001). Concordance was observed between distribution of these disease forms and clades of L. braziliensis genotypes shown to be associated with these disease forms. We also detected spread of DL over this region and an inverse correlation between frequency of recent DL diagnoses and distance to a previous DL case. These findings indicate that leishmaniasis outcomes are distributed differently within transmission foci and show that DL is rapidly spreading in northeastern Brazil.

EID Schriefer A, Guimarães LH, Machado PR, Lessa M, Lessa HA, Lago E, et al. Geographic Clustering of Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):871-876. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.080406
AMA Schriefer A, Guimarães LH, Machado PR, et al. Geographic Clustering of Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):871-876. doi:10.3201/eid1506.080406.
APA Schriefer, A., Guimarães, L. H., Machado, P. R., Lessa, M., Lessa, H. A., Lago, E....Carvalho, E. M. (2009). Geographic Clustering of Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 871-876. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.080406.

Lineage 2 West Nile Virus as Cause of Fatal Neurologic Disease in Horses, South Africa [PDF - 552 KB - 8 pages]
M. Venter et al.

Serologic evidence suggests that West Nile virus (WNV) is widely distributed in horses in southern Africa. However, because few neurologic cases have been reported, endemic lineage 2 strains were postulated to be nonpathogenic in horses. Recent evidence suggests that highly neuroinvasive lineage 2 strains exist in humans and mice. To determine whether neurologic cases are being missed in South Africa, we tested 80 serum or brain specimens from horses with unexplained fever (n = 48) and/or neurologic signs (n = 32) for WNV. From March 2007 through June 2008, using reverse transcription–PCR (RT-PCR) and immunoglobulin (Ig) M ELISA, we found WNV RNA or IgM in 7/32 horses with acute neurologic disease; 5 horses died or were euthanized. In 5/7 horses, no other pathogen was detected. DNA sequencing for all 5 RT-PCR–positive cases showed the virus belonged to lineage 2. WNV lineage 2 may cause neurologic disease in horses in South Africa.

EID Venter M, Human S, Zaayman D, Gerdes GH, Williams J, Steyl J, et al. Lineage 2 West Nile Virus as Cause of Fatal Neurologic Disease in Horses, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):877-884. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081515
AMA Venter M, Human S, Zaayman D, et al. Lineage 2 West Nile Virus as Cause of Fatal Neurologic Disease in Horses, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):877-884. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081515.
APA Venter, M., Human, S., Zaayman, D., Gerdes, G. H., Williams, J., Steyl, J....Swanepoel, R. (2009). Lineage 2 West Nile Virus as Cause of Fatal Neurologic Disease in Horses, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 877-884. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081515.

Hantaviruses in Rodents and Humans, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China [PDF - 607 KB - 7 pages]
Y. Zhang et al.

Surveys were carried out in 2003–2006 to better understand the epidemiology of hantaviruses in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China (Inner Mongolia). Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) was first reported in this region in 1955 and has been an important public health problem here since then. During 1955–2006, 8,309 persons with HFRS were reported in Inner Mongolia (average incidence rate 0.89/100,000), and 261 (3.14%) died. Before the 1990s, all HFRS cases occurred in northeastern Inner Mongolia. Subsequently, HFRS cases were registered in central (1995) and western (1999) Inner Mongolia. In this study, hantaviral antigens were identified in striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) from northeastern Inner Mongolia and in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from middle and western Inner Mongolia. Phylogenetic analysis of hantaviral genome sequences suggests that HFRS has been caused mainly by Hantaan virus in northeastern Inner Mongolia and by Seoul virus in central and western Inner Mongolia.

EID Zhang Y, Zhang F, Gao N, Wang J, Zhao Z, Li M, et al. Hantaviruses in Rodents and Humans, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):885-891. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081126
AMA Zhang Y, Zhang F, Gao N, et al. Hantaviruses in Rodents and Humans, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):885-891. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081126.
APA Zhang, Y., Zhang, F., Gao, N., Wang, J., Zhao, Z., Li, M....Plyusnin, A. (2009). Hantaviruses in Rodents and Humans, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 885-891. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081126.

Case-based Surveillance of Influenza Hospitalizations during 2004–2008, Colorado, USA [PDF - 479 KB - 7 pages]
R. Proff et al.

Colorado became the first state to make laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations a case-based reportable condition in 2004. We summarized surveillance for influenza hospitalizations in Colorado during the first 4 recorded influenza seasons (2004–2008). We highlight the similarities and differences among influenza seasons; no 2 seasons were entirely the same. The 2005–06 influenza season had 2 distinct waves of activity (types A and B), the 2006–07 season was substantially later and milder, and 2007–08 had substantially greater influenza B activity. The case-based surveillance for influenza hospitalizations provides information regarding the time course of seasonal influenza activity, reported case numbers and population-based rates by age group and influenza virus type, and a measure of relative severity. Influenza hospitalization surveillance provides more information about seasonal influenza activity than any other surveillance measure (e.g., surveillance for influenza-like illness) currently in widespread use among states. More states should consider implementing case-based surveillance for influenza hospitalizations.

EID Proff R, Gershman K, Lezotte D, Nyquist A. Case-based Surveillance of Influenza Hospitalizations during 2004–2008, Colorado, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):892-898. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081645
AMA Proff R, Gershman K, Lezotte D, et al. Case-based Surveillance of Influenza Hospitalizations during 2004–2008, Colorado, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):892-898. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081645.
APA Proff, R., Gershman, K., Lezotte, D., & Nyquist, A. (2009). Case-based Surveillance of Influenza Hospitalizations during 2004–2008, Colorado, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 892-898. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081645.

Tuberculosis Disparity between US-born Blacks and Whites, Houston, Texas, USA [PDF - 502 KB - 6 pages]
J. A. Serpa et al.

Tuberculosis (TB) rates in the United States are disproportionately high for certain ethnic minorities. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we compared data for 1,318 US-born blacks with 565 US-born non-Hispanic whites who participated in the Houston TB Initiative (1995–2004). All available Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates underwent susceptibility and genotype testing (insertion sequence 6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism, spoligotyping, and genetic grouping). TB in blacks was associated with younger age, inner city residence, HIV seropositivity, and drug resistance. TB cases clustered in 82% and 77% of blacks and whites, respectively (p = 0.46). Three clusters had >100 patients each, including 1 cluster with a predominance of blacks. Size of TB clusters was unexpectedly large, underscoring the ongoing transmission of TB in Houston, particularly among blacks.

EID Serpa JA, Teeter LD, Musser JM, Graviss EA. Tuberculosis Disparity between US-born Blacks and Whites, Houston, Texas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):899-904. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081617
AMA Serpa JA, Teeter LD, Musser JM, et al. Tuberculosis Disparity between US-born Blacks and Whites, Houston, Texas, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):899-904. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081617.
APA Serpa, J. A., Teeter, L. D., Musser, J. M., & Graviss, E. A. (2009). Tuberculosis Disparity between US-born Blacks and Whites, Houston, Texas, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 899-904. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081617.

Changes in Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Streptococcus pneumonia after 7-Valent Conjugate Vaccination, Spain [PDF - 469 KB - 7 pages]
A. G. de la Campa et al.

Among 4,215 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates obtained in Spain during 2006, 98 (2.3%) were ciprofloxacin resistant (3.6% from adults and 0.14% from children). In comparison with findings from a 2002 study, global resistance remained stable. Low-level resistance (30 isolates with MIC 4–8 μg/mL) was caused by a reserpine-sensitive efflux phenotype (n = 4) or single topoisomerase IV (parC [n = 24] or parE [n = 1]) changes. One isolate did not show reserpine-sensitive efflux or mutations. High-level resistance (68 isolates with MIC ≥16 μg/mL) was caused by changes in gyrase (gyrA) and parC or parE. New changes in parC (S80P) and gyrA (S81V, E85G) were shown to be involved in resistance by genetic transformation. Although 49 genotypes were observed, clones Spain9V-ST156 and Sweden15A-ST63 accounted for 34.7% of drug-resistant isolates. In comparison with findings from the 2002 study, clones Spain14-ST17, Spain23F-ST81, and ST8819F decreased and 4 new genotypes (ST9710A, ST57016, ST43322, and ST71733) appeared in 2006.

EID de la Campa AG, Ardanuy C, Balsalobre L, Pérez-Trallero E, Marimón JM, Fenoll A, et al. Changes in Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Streptococcus pneumonia after 7-Valent Conjugate Vaccination, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):905-911. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.080684
AMA de la Campa AG, Ardanuy C, Balsalobre L, et al. Changes in Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Streptococcus pneumonia after 7-Valent Conjugate Vaccination, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):905-911. doi:10.3201/eid1506.080684.
APA de la Campa, A. G., Ardanuy, C., Balsalobre, L., Pérez-Trallero, E., Marimón, J. M., Fenoll, A....Liñares, J. (2009). Changes in Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Streptococcus pneumonia after 7-Valent Conjugate Vaccination, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 905-911. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.080684.

Bartonella quintana in Body Lice and Head Lice from Homeless Persons, San Francisco, California, USA [PDF - 391 KB - 4 pages]
D. L. Bonilla et al.

Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that causes trench fever in humans. Past reports have shown Bartonella spp. infections in homeless populations in San Francisco, California, USA. The California Department of Public Health in collaboration with San Francisco Project Homeless Connect initiated a program in 2007 to collect lice from the homeless to test for B. quintana and to educate the homeless and their caregivers on prevention and control of louse-borne disease. During 2007–2008, 33.3% of body lice–infested persons and 25% of head lice–infested persons had lice pools infected with B. quintana strain Fuller. Further work is needed to examine how homeless persons acquire lice and determine the risk for illness to persons infested with B. quintana–infected lice.

EID Bonilla DL, Kabeya H, Henn J, Kramer VL, Kosoy MY. Bartonella quintana in Body Lice and Head Lice from Homeless Persons, San Francisco, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):912-915. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090054
AMA Bonilla DL, Kabeya H, Henn J, et al. Bartonella quintana in Body Lice and Head Lice from Homeless Persons, San Francisco, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):912-915. doi:10.3201/eid1506.090054.
APA Bonilla, D. L., Kabeya, H., Henn, J., Kramer, V. L., & Kosoy, M. Y. (2009). Bartonella quintana in Body Lice and Head Lice from Homeless Persons, San Francisco, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 912-915. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090054.
Historical Review

Drought, Smallpox, and Emergence of Leishmania braziliensis in Northeastern Brazil [PDF - 602 KB - 6 pages]
A. Q. Sousa and R. D. Pearson

Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis is a major health problem in the state of Ceará in northeastern Brazil. We propose that the disease emerged as a consequence of the displacement of persons from Ceará to the Amazon region following the Great Drought and smallpox epidemic of 1877–1879. As the economic and social situation in Ceará deteriorated, ≈55,000 residents migrated to the Amazon region to find work, many on rubber plantations. Those that returned likely introduced L. (V.) brazilensis into Ceará, where the first cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were reported early in the 20th century. The absence of an animal reservoir in Ceará, apart from dogs, supports the hypothesis. The spread of HIV/AIDS into the region and the possibility of concurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis raise the possibility of future problems.

EID Sousa AQ, Pearson RD. Drought, Smallpox, and Emergence of Leishmania braziliensis in Northeastern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):916-921. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.071331
AMA Sousa AQ, Pearson RD. Drought, Smallpox, and Emergence of Leishmania braziliensis in Northeastern Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):916-921. doi:10.3201/eid1506.071331.
APA Sousa, A. Q., & Pearson, R. D. (2009). Drought, Smallpox, and Emergence of Leishmania braziliensis in Northeastern Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 916-921. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.071331.
Dispatches

Tropheryma whipplei in Fecal Samples from Children, Senegal [PDF - 486 KB - 3 pages]
F. Fenollar et al.

We tested fecal samples from 150 healthy children 2–10 years of age who lived in rural Senegal and found the prevalence of Tropheryma whipplei was 44%. Unique genotypes were associated with this bacterium. Our findings suggest that T. whipplei is emerging as a highly prevalent pathogen in sub-Saharan Africa.

EID Fenollar F, Trape J, Bassene H, Sokhna C, Raoult D. Tropheryma whipplei in Fecal Samples from Children, Senegal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):922-924. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090182
AMA Fenollar F, Trape J, Bassene H, et al. Tropheryma whipplei in Fecal Samples from Children, Senegal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):922-924. doi:10.3201/eid1506.090182.
APA Fenollar, F., Trape, J., Bassene, H., Sokhna, C., & Raoult, D. (2009). Tropheryma whipplei in Fecal Samples from Children, Senegal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 922-924. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090182.

Phocine Distemper Virus in Northern Sea Otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA [PDF - 497 KB - 3 pages]
T. Goldstein et al.

Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused 2 epidemics in harbor seals in the Atlantic Ocean but had never been identified in any Pacific Ocean species. We found that northern sea otters in Alaska are infected with PDV, which has created a disease threat to several sympatric and decreasing Pacific marine mammals.

EID Goldstein T, Mazet J, Gill VA, Doroff AM, Burek KA, Hammond JA. Phocine Distemper Virus in Northern Sea Otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):925-927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090056
AMA Goldstein T, Mazet J, Gill VA, et al. Phocine Distemper Virus in Northern Sea Otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):925-927. doi:10.3201/eid1506.090056.
APA Goldstein, T., Mazet, J., Gill, V. A., Doroff, A. M., Burek, K. A., & Hammond, J. A. (2009). Phocine Distemper Virus in Northern Sea Otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 925-927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090056.

Diversity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains, USA [PDF - 548 KB - 3 pages]
E. Morissette et al.

We analyzed the structure of the expression site encoding the immunoprotective protein MSP2/P44 from multiple Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains in the United States. The sequence of p44ESup1 had diverged in Ap-variant 1 strains infecting ruminants. In contrast, no differences were detected between A. phagocytophilum strains infecting humans and domestic dogs.

EID Morissette E, Massung RF, Foley JE, Alleman AR, Foley P, Barbet AF. Diversity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):928-931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081610
AMA Morissette E, Massung RF, Foley JE, et al. Diversity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):928-931. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081610.
APA Morissette, E., Massung, R. F., Foley, J. E., Alleman, A. R., Foley, P., & Barbet, A. F. (2009). Diversity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 928-931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081610.

Increasing Incidence of Zoonotic Visceral Leishmaniasis on Crete, Greece [PDF - 381 KB - 3 pages]
M. Antoniou et al.

To determine whether the incidence of canine leishmaniasis has increased on Crete, Greece, we fitted infection models to serodiagnostic records of 8,848 dog samples for 1990–2006. Models predicted that seroprevalence has increased 2.4% (95% confidence interval 1.61%–3.51%) per year and that incidence has increased 2.2- to 3.8-fold over this 17-year period.

EID Antoniou M, Messaritakis I, Christodoulou V, Ascoksilaki I, Kanavakis N, Sutton AJ, et al. Increasing Incidence of Zoonotic Visceral Leishmaniasis on Crete, Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):932-934. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.071666
AMA Antoniou M, Messaritakis I, Christodoulou V, et al. Increasing Incidence of Zoonotic Visceral Leishmaniasis on Crete, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):932-934. doi:10.3201/eid1506.071666.
APA Antoniou, M., Messaritakis, I., Christodoulou, V., Ascoksilaki, I., Kanavakis, N., Sutton, A. J....Courtenay, O. (2009). Increasing Incidence of Zoonotic Visceral Leishmaniasis on Crete, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 932-934. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.071666.

Avian Influenza in Wild Birds, Central Coast of Peru [PDF - 577 KB - 4 pages]
B. M. Ghersi et al.

To determine genotypes of avian influenza virus circulating among wild birds in South America, we collected and tested environmental fecal samples from birds along the coast of Peru, June 2006–December 2007. The 9 isolates recovered represented 4 low-pathogenicity avian influenza strains: subtypes H3N8, H4N5, H10N9, and H13N2.

EID Ghersi BM, Blazes DL, Icochea E, Gonzalez RI, Kochel TJ, Tinoco Y, et al. Avian Influenza in Wild Birds, Central Coast of Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):935-938. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.080981
AMA Ghersi BM, Blazes DL, Icochea E, et al. Avian Influenza in Wild Birds, Central Coast of Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):935-938. doi:10.3201/eid1506.080981.
APA Ghersi, B. M., Blazes, D. L., Icochea, E., Gonzalez, R. I., Kochel, T. J., Tinoco, Y....Montgomery, J. M. (2009). Avian Influenza in Wild Birds, Central Coast of Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 935-938. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.080981.

Japanese Encephalitis Viruses from Bats in Yunnan, China
J. Wang et al.

Genome sequencing and virulence studies of 2 Japanese encephalitis viruses (JEVs) from bats in Yunnan, China, showed a close relationship with JEVs isolated from mosquitoes and humans in the same region over 2 decades. These results indicate that bats may play a role in human Japanese encephalitis outbreaks in this region.

EID Wang J, Pan X, Zhang H, Fu S, Wang H, Tang Q, et al. Japanese Encephalitis Viruses from Bats in Yunnan, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):939-942. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081525
AMA Wang J, Pan X, Zhang H, et al. Japanese Encephalitis Viruses from Bats in Yunnan, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):939-942. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081525.
APA Wang, J., Pan, X., Zhang, H., Fu, S., Wang, H., Tang, Q....Liang, G. (2009). Japanese Encephalitis Viruses from Bats in Yunnan, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 939-942. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081525.

Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Michigan, USA, 2007 [PDF - 468 KB - 3 pages]
J. Finks et al.

Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) infections, which are always methicillin-resistant, are a rare but serious public health concern. We examined 2 cases in Michigan in 2007. Both patients had underlying illnesses. Isolates were vanA-positive. VRSA was neither transmitted to or from another known VRSA patient nor transmitted from patients to identified contacts.

EID Finks J, Wells E, Dyke TL, Husain N, Plizga L, Heddurshetti R, et al. Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Michigan, USA, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):943-945. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081312
AMA Finks J, Wells E, Dyke TL, et al. Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Michigan, USA, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):943-945. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081312.
APA Finks, J., Wells, E., Dyke, T. L., Husain, N., Plizga, L., Heddurshetti, R....Miller, C. (2009). Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Michigan, USA, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 943-945. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081312.

Rabies in Ferret Badgers, Southeastern China [PDF - 506 KB - 3 pages]
S. Zhang et al.

Ferret badger–associated human rabies cases emerged in China in 1994. We used a retrospective epidemiologic survey, virus isolation, laboratory diagnosis, and nucleotide sequencing to document its reemergence in 2002–2008. Whether the cause is spillover from infected dogs or recent host shift and new reservoir establishment requires further investigation.

EID Zhang S, Tang Q, Wu X, Liu Y, Zhang F, Rupprecht CE, et al. Rabies in Ferret Badgers, Southeastern China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):946-949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081485
AMA Zhang S, Tang Q, Wu X, et al. Rabies in Ferret Badgers, Southeastern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):946-949. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081485.
APA Zhang, S., Tang, Q., Wu, X., Liu, Y., Zhang, F., Rupprecht, C. E....Hu, R. (2009). Rabies in Ferret Badgers, Southeastern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 946-949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081485.

Nipah Virus Infection in Dogs, Malaysia, 1999 [PDF - 447 KB - 3 pages]
J. N. Mills et al.

The 1999 outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in humans and pigs in Peninsular Malaysia ended with the evacuation of humans and culling of pigs in the epidemic area. Serologic screening showed that, in the absence of infected pigs, dogs were not a secondary reservoir for Nipah virus.

EID Mills JN, Alim AN, Bunning ML, Lee OB, Wagoner KD, Amman BR, et al. Nipah Virus Infection in Dogs, Malaysia, 1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):950-952. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.080453
AMA Mills JN, Alim AN, Bunning ML, et al. Nipah Virus Infection in Dogs, Malaysia, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):950-952. doi:10.3201/eid1506.080453.
APA Mills, J. N., Alim, A. N., Bunning, M. L., Lee, O. B., Wagoner, K. D., Amman, B. R....Ksiazek, T. G. (2009). Nipah Virus Infection in Dogs, Malaysia, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 950-952. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.080453.

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Clone in Long-Term Care Facility [PDF - 393 KB - 3 pages]
P. Tattevin et al.

We performed a longitudinal analysis of 661 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates obtained from patients in a long-term care facility. USA300 clone increased from 11.3% of all MRSA isolates in 2002 to 64.0% in 2006 (p<0.0001) and was mostly recovered from skin or skin structures (64.3% vs. 27.0% for non-USA300 MRSA; p<0.0001).

EID Tattevin P, Diep BA, Jula M, Perdreau-Remington F. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Clone in Long-Term Care Facility. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):953-955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.080195
AMA Tattevin P, Diep BA, Jula M, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Clone in Long-Term Care Facility. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):953-955. doi:10.3201/eid1506.080195.
APA Tattevin, P., Diep, B. A., Jula, M., & Perdreau-Remington, F. (2009). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Clone in Long-Term Care Facility. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 953-955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.080195.

Leishmaniasis, Autoimmune Rheumatic Disease, and Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy, Europe [PDF - 497 KB - 4 pages]
I. D. Xynos et al.

We report 2 cases of leishmaniasis in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases in Greece. To assess trends in leishmaniasis reporting in this patient population, we searched the literature for similar reports from Europe. Reports increased during 2004–2008, especially for patients treated with anti–tumor necrosis factor agents.

EID Xynos ID, Tektonidou MG, Pikazis D, Sipsas NV. Leishmaniasis, Autoimmune Rheumatic Disease, and Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):956-959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090101
AMA Xynos ID, Tektonidou MG, Pikazis D, et al. Leishmaniasis, Autoimmune Rheumatic Disease, and Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):956-959. doi:10.3201/eid1506.090101.
APA Xynos, I. D., Tektonidou, M. G., Pikazis, D., & Sipsas, N. V. (2009). Leishmaniasis, Autoimmune Rheumatic Disease, and Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 956-959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090101.

Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Strains in Patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma [PDF - 368 KB - 3 pages]
A. Touzé et al.

We investigated whether Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) patients in France carry Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and then identified strain variations. All frozen MCC specimens and 45% of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens, but none of the non-MCC neuroendocrine carcinomas specimens, had MCPyV. Strains from France and the United States were similar.

EID Touzé A, Gaitan J, Maruani A, Le Bidre E, Doussinaud A, Clavel C, et al. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Strains in Patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):960-962. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081463
AMA Touzé A, Gaitan J, Maruani A, et al. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Strains in Patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):960-962. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081463.
APA Touzé, A., Gaitan, J., Maruani, A., Le Bidre, E., Doussinaud, A., Clavel, C....Coursaget, P. (2009). Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Strains in Patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 960-962. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081463.

Diagnosis of Queensland Tick Typhus and African Tick Bite Fever by PCR of Lesion Swabs [PDF - 350 KB - 3 pages]
J. Wang et al.

We report 3 cases of Queensland tick typhus (QTT) and 1 case of African tick bite fever in which the causative rickettsiae were detected by PCR of eschar and skin lesions in all cases. An oral mucosal lesion in 1 QTT case was also positive.

EID Wang J, Hudson BJ, Watts MR, Karagiannis T, Fisher NJ, Anderson C, et al. Diagnosis of Queensland Tick Typhus and African Tick Bite Fever by PCR of Lesion Swabs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):963-965. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.080855
AMA Wang J, Hudson BJ, Watts MR, et al. Diagnosis of Queensland Tick Typhus and African Tick Bite Fever by PCR of Lesion Swabs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):963-965. doi:10.3201/eid1506.080855.
APA Wang, J., Hudson, B. J., Watts, M. R., Karagiannis, T., Fisher, N. J., Anderson, C....Roffey, P. (2009). Diagnosis of Queensland Tick Typhus and African Tick Bite Fever by PCR of Lesion Swabs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 963-965. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.080855.

Oseltamivir- and Amantadine-Resistant Influenza Viruses A (H1N1) [PDF - 486 KB - 3 pages]
P. K. Cheng et al.

Surveillance of amantadine and oseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses was begun in Hong Kong in 2006. In 2008, while both A/Brisbane/59/2007-like and A/Hong Kong/2652/2006-like viruses (H1N1) were cocirculating, we detected amantadine and oseltamivir resistance among A/Hong Kong/2652/2006-like viruses (H1N1), caused by genetic reassortment or spontaneous mutation.

EID Cheng PK, Leung TW, Ho EC, Leung PC, Ng AY, Lai MY, et al. Oseltamivir- and Amantadine-Resistant Influenza Viruses A (H1N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):966-968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081357
AMA Cheng PK, Leung TW, Ho EC, et al. Oseltamivir- and Amantadine-Resistant Influenza Viruses A (H1N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):966-968. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081357.
APA Cheng, P. K., Leung, T. W., Ho, E. C., Leung, P. C., Ng, A. Y., Lai, M. Y....Lim, W. W. (2009). Oseltamivir- and Amantadine-Resistant Influenza Viruses A (H1N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 966-968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081357.

Clinical Recovery and Circulating Botulinum Toxin Type F in Adult Patient [PDF - 436 KB - 3 pages]
J. Sobel et al.

A 56-year-old woman in Helena, Montana, USA, who showed clinical signs of paralysis, received antitoxins to botulinum toxins A, B, and E within 24 hours; nevertheless, symptoms progressed to complete quadriplegia. On day 8, she began moving spontaneously, even though blood tests later showed botulinum toxin type F remained.

EID Sobel J, Dill T, Kirkpatrick CL, Riek L, Luedtke P, Damrow TA. Clinical Recovery and Circulating Botulinum Toxin Type F in Adult Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):969-971. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.070571
AMA Sobel J, Dill T, Kirkpatrick CL, et al. Clinical Recovery and Circulating Botulinum Toxin Type F in Adult Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):969-971. doi:10.3201/eid1506.070571.
APA Sobel, J., Dill, T., Kirkpatrick, C. L., Riek, L., Luedtke, P., & Damrow, T. A. (2009). Clinical Recovery and Circulating Botulinum Toxin Type F in Adult Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 969-971. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.070571.

Murine Typhus in Child, Yucatan, Mexico [PDF - 470 KB - 3 pages]
J. E. Zavala-Castro et al.

A case of murine typhus in Yucatan was diagnosed in a child with nonspecific signs and symptoms. The finding of Rickettsia typhi increases the number of Rickettsia species identified in Yucatan and shows that studies are needed to determine the prevalence and incidence of rickettsioses in Mexico.

EID Zavala-Castro JE, Zavala-Velázquez JE, Uicab JE. Murine Typhus in Child, Yucatan, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):972-974. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081367
AMA Zavala-Castro JE, Zavala-Velázquez JE, Uicab JE. Murine Typhus in Child, Yucatan, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):972-974. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081367.
APA Zavala-Castro, J. E., Zavala-Velázquez, J. E., & Uicab, J. E. (2009). Murine Typhus in Child, Yucatan, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 972-974. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081367.

Murine Typhus and Leptospirosis as Causes of Acute Undifferentiated Fever, Indonesia [PDF - 374 KB - 3 pages]
M. H. Gasem et al.

To investigate rickettsioses and leptospirosis among urban residents of Semarang, Indonesia, we tested the blood of 137 patients with fever. Evidence of Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in 9 patients. Another 9 patients showed inconclusive serologic results. Thirteen patients received a diagnosis of leptospirosis. No dual infections were detected.

EID Gasem MH, Wagenaar JF, Goris MG, Adi MS, Isbandrio BB, Hartskeerl RA, et al. Murine Typhus and Leptospirosis as Causes of Acute Undifferentiated Fever, Indonesia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):975-977. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081405
AMA Gasem MH, Wagenaar JF, Goris MG, et al. Murine Typhus and Leptospirosis as Causes of Acute Undifferentiated Fever, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):975-977. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081405.
APA Gasem, M. H., Wagenaar, J. F., Goris, M. G., Adi, M. S., Isbandrio, B. B., Hartskeerl, R. A....van Gorp, E. C. (2009). Murine Typhus and Leptospirosis as Causes of Acute Undifferentiated Fever, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 975-977. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081405.
Letters

Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii [PDF - 379 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Doi et al.
EID Doi Y, Husain S, Potoski BA, McCurry KR, Paterson DL. Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):980-982. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081006
AMA Doi Y, Husain S, Potoski BA, et al. Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):980-982. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081006.
APA Doi, Y., Husain, S., Potoski, B. A., McCurry, K. R., & Paterson, D. L. (2009). Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 980-982. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081006.

Cryptosporidium Pig Genotype II in Immunocompetent Man [PDF - 393 KB - 2 pages]
M. Kváč et al.
EID Kváč M, Květoňová D, Sak B, Ditrich O. Cryptosporidium Pig Genotype II in Immunocompetent Man. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):982-983. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.071621
AMA Kváč M, Květoňová D, Sak B, et al. Cryptosporidium Pig Genotype II in Immunocompetent Man. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):982-983. doi:10.3201/eid1506.071621.
APA Kváč, M., Květoňová, D., Sak, B., & Ditrich, O. (2009). Cryptosporidium Pig Genotype II in Immunocompetent Man. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 982-983. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.071621.

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Southwestern Bulgaria [PDF - 437 KB - 3 pages]
I. Christova et al.
EID Christova I, Di Caro A, Papa A, Castilletti C, Andonova L, Kalvatchev N, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Southwestern Bulgaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):983-985. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081567
AMA Christova I, Di Caro A, Papa A, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Southwestern Bulgaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):983-985. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081567.
APA Christova, I., Di Caro, A., Papa, A., Castilletti, C., Andonova, L., Kalvatchev, N....Superiore di Sanità, I. (2009). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Southwestern Bulgaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 983-985. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081567.

Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica Bacteremia in Homeless Woman [PDF - 356 KB - 3 pages]
S. Rebaudet et al.
EID Rebaudet S, Genot S, Renvoise A, Fournier P, Stein A. Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica Bacteremia in Homeless Woman. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):985-987. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.080232
AMA Rebaudet S, Genot S, Renvoise A, et al. Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica Bacteremia in Homeless Woman. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):985-987. doi:10.3201/eid1506.080232.
APA Rebaudet, S., Genot, S., Renvoise, A., Fournier, P., & Stein, A. (2009). Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica Bacteremia in Homeless Woman. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 985-987. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.080232.

Serologic Screening for Neospora caninum, France [PDF - 358 KB - 2 pages]
F. Robert-Gangneux and F. Klein
EID Robert-Gangneux F, Klein F. Serologic Screening for Neospora caninum, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):987-988. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081414
AMA Robert-Gangneux F, Klein F. Serologic Screening for Neospora caninum, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):987-988. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081414.
APA Robert-Gangneux, F., & Klein, F. (2009). Serologic Screening for Neospora caninum, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 987-988. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081414.

Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase in Long-term Care Facility, Illinois, USA [PDF - 350 KB - 2 pages]
M. McGuinn et al.
EID McGuinn M, Hershow RC, Janda WM. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase in Long-term Care Facility, Illinois, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):988-989. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081735
AMA McGuinn M, Hershow RC, Janda WM. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase in Long-term Care Facility, Illinois, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):988-989. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081735.
APA McGuinn, M., Hershow, R. C., & Janda, W. M. (2009). Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase in Long-term Care Facility, Illinois, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 988-989. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081735.

Bedbugs and Healthcare-associated Dermatitis, France [PDF - 381 KB - 2 pages]
P. Delaunay et al.
EID Delaunay P, Blanc V, Dandine M, Del Giudice P, Franc M, Pomares-Estran C, et al. Bedbugs and Healthcare-associated Dermatitis, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):989-990. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081480
AMA Delaunay P, Blanc V, Dandine M, et al. Bedbugs and Healthcare-associated Dermatitis, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):989-990. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081480.
APA Delaunay, P., Blanc, V., Dandine, M., Del Giudice, P., Franc, M., Pomares-Estran, C....Chosidow, O. (2009). Bedbugs and Healthcare-associated Dermatitis, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 989-990. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081480.

New Saffold Cardiovirus in Children, China [PDF - 387 KB - 2 pages]
Z. Xu et al.
EID Xu Z, Cheng W, Qi H, Cui S, Jin Y, Duan Z. New Saffold Cardiovirus in Children, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):993-994. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090109
AMA Xu Z, Cheng W, Qi H, et al. New Saffold Cardiovirus in Children, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):993-994. doi:10.3201/eid1506.090109.
APA Xu, Z., Cheng, W., Qi, H., Cui, S., Jin, Y., & Duan, Z. (2009). New Saffold Cardiovirus in Children, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 993-994. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090109.

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA400 Clone, Italy [PDF - 336 KB - 2 pages]
C. Vignaroli et al.
EID Vignaroli C, Varaldo PE, Camporese A. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA400 Clone, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):995-996. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081632
AMA Vignaroli C, Varaldo PE, Camporese A. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA400 Clone, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):995-996. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081632.
APA Vignaroli, C., Varaldo, P. E., & Camporese, A. (2009). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA400 Clone, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 995-996. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081632.

Meningitis and Radiculomyelitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis [PDF - 450 KB - 3 pages]
T. Maretić et al.
EID Maretić T, Perović M, Vince A, Lukas D, Dekumyoy P, Begovac J. Meningitis and Radiculomyelitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):996-998. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081263
AMA Maretić T, Perović M, Vince A, et al. Meningitis and Radiculomyelitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):996-998. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081263.
APA Maretić, T., Perović, M., Vince, A., Lukas, D., Dekumyoy, P., & Begovac, J. (2009). Meningitis and Radiculomyelitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 996-998. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081263.

Religious Opposition to Polio Vaccination [PDF - 329 KB - 1 page]
H. J. Warraich
EID Warraich HJ. Religious Opposition to Polio Vaccination. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):978. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090087
AMA Warraich HJ. Religious Opposition to Polio Vaccination. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):978. doi:10.3201/eid1506.090087.
APA Warraich, H. J. (2009). Religious Opposition to Polio Vaccination. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 978. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090087.

Recurrent Human Rhinovirus Infections in Infants with Refractory Wheezing [PDF - 378 KB - 3 pages]
P. Linsuwanon et al.
EID Linsuwanon P, Payungporn S, Samransamruajkit R, Theamboonlers A, Poovorawan Y. Recurrent Human Rhinovirus Infections in Infants with Refractory Wheezing. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):978-980. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081558
AMA Linsuwanon P, Payungporn S, Samransamruajkit R, et al. Recurrent Human Rhinovirus Infections in Infants with Refractory Wheezing. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):978-980. doi:10.3201/eid1506.081558.
APA Linsuwanon, P., Payungporn, S., Samransamruajkit, R., Theamboonlers, A., & Poovorawan, Y. (2009). Recurrent Human Rhinovirus Infections in Infants with Refractory Wheezing. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 978-980. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.081558.

Angiostrongyliasis in the Americas [PDF - 331 KB - 1 page]
A. J. Dorta-Contreras et al.
EID Dorta-Contreras AJ, Magraner-Tarrau ME, Sánchez-Zulueta E. Angiostrongyliasis in the Americas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):991. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.071708
AMA Dorta-Contreras AJ, Magraner-Tarrau ME, Sánchez-Zulueta E. Angiostrongyliasis in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):991. doi:10.3201/eid1506.071708.
APA Dorta-Contreras, A. J., Magraner-Tarrau, M. E., & Sánchez-Zulueta, E. (2009). Angiostrongyliasis in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 991. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.071708.

Increase in Group G Streptococcal Infections in a Community Hospital, New York, USA
S. S. Wong et al.
EID Wong SS, Lin YS, Mathew L, Rajagopal L, Sepkowitz D. Increase in Group G Streptococcal Infections in a Community Hospital, New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):991-993. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.080666
AMA Wong SS, Lin YS, Mathew L, et al. Increase in Group G Streptococcal Infections in a Community Hospital, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):991-993. doi:10.3201/eid1506.080666.
APA Wong, S. S., Lin, Y. S., Mathew, L., Rajagopal, L., & Sepkowitz, D. (2009). Increase in Group G Streptococcal Infections in a Community Hospital, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 991-993. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.080666.
Books and Media

Sex, Sin, and Science: A History of Syphilis in America [PDF - 294 KB - 1 page]
T. A. Peterman
EID Peterman TA. Sex, Sin, and Science: A History of Syphilis in America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):999. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090308
AMA Peterman TA. Sex, Sin, and Science: A History of Syphilis in America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):999. doi:10.3201/eid1506.090308.
APA Peterman, T. A. (2009). Sex, Sin, and Science: A History of Syphilis in America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 999. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090308.

Novel and Re-emerging Respiratory Viral Diseases: Novartis Foundation Symposium 290 [PDF - 370 KB - 2 pages]
D. M. Morens
EID Morens DM. Novel and Re-emerging Respiratory Viral Diseases: Novartis Foundation Symposium 290. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):999-1000. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090293
AMA Morens DM. Novel and Re-emerging Respiratory Viral Diseases: Novartis Foundation Symposium 290. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):999-1000. doi:10.3201/eid1506.090293.
APA Morens, D. M. (2009). Novel and Re-emerging Respiratory Viral Diseases: Novartis Foundation Symposium 290. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 999-1000. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090293.
About the Cover

“Sometimes the naked taste of potato reminds me of being poor” [PDF - 330 KB - 1 page]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. “Sometimes the naked taste of potato reminds me of being poor”. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):1001-1002. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.ac1506
AMA Potter P. “Sometimes the naked taste of potato reminds me of being poor”. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):1001-1002. doi:10.3201/eid1506.ac1506.
APA Potter, P. (2009). “Sometimes the naked taste of potato reminds me of being poor”. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 1001-1002. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.ac1506.
Etymologia

Typhus [PDF - 327 KB - 1 page]
EID Typhus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):977. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.et1506
AMA Typhus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):977. doi:10.3201/eid1506.et1506.
APA (2009). Typhus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 977. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.et1506.
Conference Summaries

Stockpiling Supplies for the Next Influenza Pandemic [PDF - 85 KB - 6 pages]
L. J. Radonovich et al.

Faced with increasing concerns about the likelihood of an influenza pandemic, healthcare systems have been challenged to determine what specific medical supplies that should be procured and stockpiled as a component of preparedness. Despite publication of numerous pandemic planning recommendations, little or no specific guidance about the types of items and quantities of supplies needed has been available. The primary purpose of this report is to detail the approach of 1 healthcare system in building a cache of supplies to be used for patient care during the next influenza pandemic. These concepts may help guide the actions of other healthcare systems.

News and Notes

Typhus [ti′ fəs]
EID Typhus [ti′ fəs]. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):977. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.999999
AMA Typhus [ti′ fəs]. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):977. doi:10.3201/eid1506.999999.
APA (2009). Typhus [ti′ fəs]. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 977. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.999999.
Page created: April 26, 2019
Page updated: April 26, 2019
Page reviewed: April 26, 2019
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
edit_01 Submit Manuscript
Issue Select
GO
GO

Get Email Updates

To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address:

file_external