Figure 3. Recent environmental warming trends in Galicia, Spain, 1982–2016. Trends in the mean values of SST were estimated using daily SST data from a coastal area defined by the coordinates 42°–43°N and 8.5°–9.5°W. A) Mean SST records show stepwise changes rather than a linear pattern. Two regime shifts occurred in June 1994 (0.4°C warming) and June 2014 (0.7°C), which correspond with the first emergence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus cases and the epidemiologic shifts observed for 2015 and 2016. B) Number of days with SST >18°C (blue dot), 5-year moving average (blue line), and regression line (yellow line); slope is of ≈1 d/y (e.g., gaining 1 d/y). C) Mean SST data for Galicia for 2 periods, demonstrating the generalized warming and expansion of season with favorable conditions for sustaining Vibrio organisms in the environment and hence increasing risk of infection. SST, sea surface temperature.