Sensitive and Specific Detection of Low-Level Antibody Responses in Mild Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections
Nisreen M.A. Okba, V. Stalin Raj, Ivy Widjaja, Corine H. GeurtsvanKessel, Erwin de Bruin, Felicity D. Chandler, Wan Beom Park, Nam-Joong Kim, Elmoubasher A.B.A. Farag, Mohammed Al-Hajri, Berend-Jan Bosch, Myoung-don Oh, Marion P.G. Koopmans, Chantal B.E.M. Reusken, and Bart L. Haagmans
Author affiliations: Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (N.M.A. Okba, V.S. Raj, C.H. GeurtsvanKessel, E. de Bruin, F.D. Chandler, M.P.G. Koopmans, C.B.E.M. Reusken, B.L. Haagmans); Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands (I. Widjaja, B.-J. Bosch); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea (W.B. Park, N.-J. Kim, M.-D. Oh); Ministry of Public Health, Doha, Qatar (E.A.B.A. Farag, M. Al-Hajri)
Figure 1. Detection of MERS-CoV–specific antibody responses 6–12 months following PCR-diagnosed mild and severe infections using different assays. Spike S1–specific antibody responses were tested with a routinely used S1 ELISA (rELISA) (A), in-house S1 ELISA (iELISA) (B), and S1 microarray (C). Nucleocapsid-specific antibody responses were tested using a luciferase immunoprecipitation assay (D). Severe infections (red, n = 5; cohort H) resulted in antibody responses detected for up to 1 year by all assays, while detection of mild infections (green, n = 6; cohort G) varied among assays. Horizontal dotted line indicates cutoff for each assay; yellow shaded area indicates serum undetected by each assay. CoV, coronavirus; LU, luminescence units; MERS, Middle East respiratory syndrome; OD, optical density.
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