Sensitive and Specific Detection of Low-Level Antibody Responses in Mild Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections
Nisreen M.A. Okba, V. Stalin Raj, Ivy Widjaja, Corine H. GeurtsvanKessel, Erwin de Bruin, Felicity D. Chandler, Wan Beom Park, Nam-Joong Kim, Elmoubasher A.B.A. Farag, Mohammed Al-Hajri, Berend-Jan Bosch, Myoung-don Oh, Marion P.G. Koopmans, Chantal B.E.M. Reusken, and Bart L. Haagmans
Author affiliations: Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (N.M.A. Okba, V.S. Raj, C.H. GeurtsvanKessel, E. de Bruin, F.D. Chandler, M.P.G. Koopmans, C.B.E.M. Reusken, B.L. Haagmans); Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands (I. Widjaja, B.-J. Bosch); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea (W.B. Park, N.-J. Kim, M.-D. Oh); Ministry of Public Health, Doha, Qatar (E.A.B.A. Farag, M. Al-Hajri)
Figure 4. Reactivity to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus of serum samples from 2 patients with human coronavirus OC43 in different assays. Longitudinal serum samples, collected before and after OC43 infection, from the 2 patients (red, patient 1; black, patient 2) were analyzed by commercial IgG S1 ELISA (A); in-house IgG S1 ELISA (B); S1 protein microarray(C); and PRNT90 (D). Dotted line indicates the cutoff for each assay. Error bars indicate 95% CIs. OD, optical density; PRNT90, 90% reduction in plaque reduction neutralization test; RFU, relative fluorescence units.
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