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Volume 26, Number 8—August 2020

Factors Associated with Prescription of Antimicrobial Drugs for Dogs and Cats, United Kingdom, 2014–2016

David A. SingletonComments to Author , Gina L. Pinchbeck, Alan D. Radford, Elena Arsevska, Susan Dawson, Philip H. Jones, Peter-John M. Noble, Nicola J. Williams, and Fernando Sánchez-Vizcaíno
Author affiliations: University of Liverpool Leahurst Campus, Neston, UK (D.A. Singleton, G.L. Pinchbeck, A.D. Radford, E. Arsevska, S. Dawson, P.H. Jones, P.-J.M. Noble, N.J. Williams); Animal and Plant Health Agency, Shrewsbury, UK (P.H. Jones); University of Bristol Langford Campus, Bristol, UK (F. Sánchez-Vizcaíno)

Main Article

Table 5

Results from a multivariable mixed effect logistic regression model assessing the association between a range of categorical animal, owner, practitioner and practice-related factors and the probability of prescribing a systemic antimicrobial in cats, United Kingdom, 2014–2016*

Category β SE OR (95% CI) p value
England −0.81 0.06 0.45 (0.39–0.50) NA
Scotland −0.77 0.10 0.46 (0.38–0.57) NA
0.58 (0.46–0.72)
Categorical factors
Main presenting complaint
Gastroenteric NA NA Referent NA
Kidney disease −0.20 0.07 0.82 (0.71–0.94) 0.01
Other unwell −0.23 0.04 0.79 (0.73–0.85) <0.01
Pruritus −0.37 0.05 0.69 (0.63–0.76) <0.01
Respiratory 0.91 0.06 2.48 (2.23–2.77) <0.01
Trauma 0.59 0.04 1.80 (1.65–1.97) <0.01
Tumor −0.56 0.07 0.57 (0.50–0.65) <0.01
F NA NA Referent NA
M 0.03 0.05 1.03 (0.93–1.14) 0.59
Vaccination status
Not vaccinated NA NA Referent NA
Vaccinated −0.09 0.02 0.92 (0.89–0.95) <0.01
Insurance status
Not insured NA NA Referent NA
Insured −0.19 0.02 0.82 (0.79–0.86) <0.01
Genetic breed group (31)
West Europe NA NA Referent NA
Asian 0.20 0.05 1.22 (1.10–1.36) <0.01
Crossbreed 0.14 0.03 1.16 (1.08–1.23) <0.01
Mediterranean 0.36 0.26 1.43 (0.86–2.38) 0.17
Unclassified 0.11 0.06 1.11 (0.99–1.24) 0.07
Unknown 0.13 0.05 1.14 (1.03–1.26) 0.01
Practice type
Companion animal NA NA Referent NA
Mixed 0.18 0.08 1.20 (1.03–1.39) 0.02
Companion and equine −0.01 0.18 1.00 (0.70–1.41) 0.98
Companion and large 0.10 0.17 1.10 (0.80–1.53) 0.56
Referral interest
No NA NA Referent NA
Yes −0.08 0.06 0.92 (0.82–1.04) 0.18
Employed RCVS AVP†
None NA NA Referent NA
>1 AVP
0.90 (0.79–1.04)
Continuous factors
Linear −0.38 0.02 0.69 (0.66–0.72) <0.01
Quadratic −0.08 0.01 0.90 (0.90–0.95) <0.01
Cubic 0.10 0.01 1.08 (1.08–1.12) <0.01
Cats per km2 (30)
Linear −0.02 0.01 0.98 (0.97–1.00) 0.02
Interaction terms
Male sex and age
Linear age interaction −0.10 0.03 0.91 (0.85–0.97) <0.01
Quadratic age interaction −0.10 0.02 0.91 (0.88–0.94) <0.01
Cubic age interaction 0.03 0.02 1.03 (1.00–1.06) 0.11
Male sex and main presenting complaint
Kidney disease −0.26 0.11 0.77 (0.62–0.96) 0.02
Other unwell 0.17 0.05 1.19 (1.07–1.32) <0.01
Pruritus 0.10 0.07 1.10 (0.96–1.26) 0.16
Respiratory 0.06 0.08 1.06 (0.91–1.23) 0.44
Trauma 0.48 0.06 1.62 (1.44–1.82) <0.01
Tumor 0.15 0.10 1.16 (0.96–1.40) 0.12

*n = 36,521/111,139 sick consultations. Random effect variance (± SD): animal 0.50 (0.70), site 0.06 (0.25), practice 0.08 (0.28). Significant (p<0.05) results are displayed in boldface. NA, not applicable; OR, odds ratio;
RCVS, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons.
†RCVS Advanced Veterinary Practitioner and/or specialist status.

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