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Volume 26, Number 8—August 2020
Research

Factors Associated with Prescription of Antimicrobial Drugs for Dogs and Cats, United Kingdom, 2014–2016

David A. SingletonComments to Author , Gina L. Pinchbeck, Alan D. Radford, Elena Arsevska, Susan Dawson, Philip H. Jones, Peter-John M. Noble, Nicola J. Williams, and Fernando Sánchez-Vizcaíno
Author affiliations: University of Liverpool Leahurst Campus, Neston, UK (D.A. Singleton, G.L. Pinchbeck, A.D. Radford, E. Arsevska, S. Dawson, P.H. Jones, P.-J.M. Noble, N.J. Williams); Animal and Plant Health Agency, Shrewsbury, UK (P.H. Jones); University of Bristol Langford Campus, Bristol, UK (F. Sánchez-Vizcaíno)

Main Article

Table 2

Results from a multivariable mixed effect logistic regression model assessing the association between a range of categorical animal, owner, practitioner and practice-related factors and the probability of prescribing a systemic antimicrobial for dogs, United Kingdom, 2014–2016*

Category β SE OR (95% CI) p value
Intercept
England −0.08 0.08 0.93 (0.80–1.08) NA
Scotland −0.06 0.09 0.94 (0.79–1.12) NA
Wales
−0.13
0.09
0.88 (0.73–1.05)
NA
Categorical factors
Initial complaint
Gastroenteric NA NA Referent NA
Kidney disease −0.38 0.06 0.68 (0.61–0.76) <0.01
Other unwell −0.94 0.02 0.39 (0.38–0.40) <0.01
Pruritus −0.68 0.02 0.51 (0.49–0.53) <0.01
Respiratory 0.10 0.03 1.11 (1.06–1.17) <0.01
Trauma −0.89 0.02 0.41 (0.40–0.43) <0.01
Tumor −1.18 0.03 0.31 (0.29–0.32) <0.01
Neuter status
Not neutered NA NA Referent NA
Neutered −0.11 0.01 0.90 (0.88–0.92) <0.01
Sex
F NA NA Referent NA
M −0.03 0.01 0.97 (0.95–0.99) 0.01
Vaccination status
Not vaccinated NA NA Referent NA
Vaccinated −0.08 0.01 0.93 (0.90–0.95) <0.01
Insurance status
Not insured NA NA Referent NA
Insured −0.14 0.02 0.87 (0.84–0.90) <0.01
Genetic breed group (29)
Retriever NA NA Referent NA
Ancient/spitz 0.25 0.05 1.28 (1.17–1.40) <0.01
Crossbreed 0.06 0.02 1.06 (1.03–1.10) <0.01
Herding 0.14 0.03 1.15 (1.09–1.22) <0.01
Mastiff-like 0.15 0.02 1.16 (1.11–1.21) <0.01
Scent hound 0.10 0.04 1.11 (1.03–1.19) <0.01
Sight hound 0.31 0.04 1.36 (1.25–1.48) <0.01
Small terrier 0.16 0.02 1.18 (1.13–1.22) <0.01
Spaniel 0.16 0.02 1.17 (1.13–1.22) <0.01
Toy −0.00 0.03 1.00 (0.94–1.05) 0.92
Unclassified 0.11 0.02 1.12 (1.07–1.16) <0.01
Unknown 0.09 0.05 1.09 (0.99–1.21) 0.075
Working dog 0.19 0.03 1.21 (1.15–1.27) <0.01
Practice type
Companion animal NA NA Referent NA
Mixed 0.14 0.07 1.15 (1.01–1.30) 0.04
Companion and equine −0.05 0.15 0.95 (0.71–1.27) 0.73
Companion and large 0.13 0.14 1.14 (0.86–1.50) 0.37
Accreditation status
None NA NA Referent NA
>1 accredited site −0.24 0.08 0.79 (0.68–0.92) <0.01
Referral interest
No NA NA Referent NA
Yes
−0.10
0.05
0.91 (0.82–1.00)
0.06
Continuous factors
Age
Linear −1.12 0.01 0.89 (0.87–0.91) <0.01
Quadratic −0.09 0.01 0.92 (0.90–0.93) <0.01
Cubic 0.05 0.01 1.05 (1.04–1.07) <0.01
Interaction terms
Insurance status (insured) and age
Linear age interaction 0.08 0.02 1.09 (1.04–1.14) <0.01
Quadratic age interaction 0.03 0.01 1.03 (1.00–1.06) 0.03
Cubic age interaction −0.03 0.01 0.97 (0.95–1.00) 0.02

*n = 72,436/281,543 sick consultations. Random effect variance (± SD): animal 0.57 (± 0.76), site 0.05 (0.23), practice 0.06 (0.24). Boldface indicates significance (p<0.05). NA, not applicable; OR, odds ratio.

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Page created: June 12, 2020
Page updated: July 17, 2020
Page reviewed: July 17, 2020
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