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Issue Cover for Volume 13, Number 4—April 2007

Volume 13, Number 4—April 2007

[PDF - 9.89 MB - 159 pages]

Synopses

Human Benefits of Animal Interventions for Zoonosis Control [PDF - 86 KB - 5 pages]
J. Zinsstag et al.

Although industrialized countries have been able to contain recent outbreaks of zoonotic diseases, many resource-limited and transitioning countries have not been able to react adequately. The key for controlling zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis, and brucellosis is to focus on the animal reservoir. In this respect, ministries of health question whether the public health sector really benefits from interventions for livestock. Cross-sectoral assessments of interventions such as mass vaccination for brucellosis in Mongolia or vaccination of dogs for rabies in Chad consider human and animal health sectors from a societal economic perspective. Combining the total societal benefits, the intervention in the animal sector saves money and provides the economic argument, which opens new approaches for the control of zoonoses in resource-limited countries through contributions from multiple sectors.

EID Zinsstag J, Schelling E, Roth F, Bonfoh B, de Savigny D, Tanner M. Human Benefits of Animal Interventions for Zoonosis Control. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):527. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060381
AMA Zinsstag J, Schelling E, Roth F, et al. Human Benefits of Animal Interventions for Zoonosis Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):527. doi:10.3201/eid1304.060381.
APA Zinsstag, J., Schelling, E., Roth, F., Bonfoh, B., de Savigny, D., & Tanner, M. (2007). Human Benefits of Animal Interventions for Zoonosis Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 527. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060381.
Research

Hantavirus and Arenavirus Antibodies in Persons with Occupational Rodent Exposure, North America [PDF - 112 KB - 7 pages]
C. F. Fulhorst et al.

Rodents are the principal hosts of Sin Nombre virus, 4 other hantaviruses known to cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America, and the 3 North American arenaviruses. Serum samples from 757 persons who had worked with rodents in North America and handled neotomine or sigmodontine rodents were tested for antibodies against Sin Nombre virus, Whitewater Arroyo virus, Guanarito virus, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Antibodies against Sin Nombre virus were found in 4 persons, against Whitewater Arroyo virus or Guanarito virus in 2 persons, and against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in none. These results suggest that risk for infection with hantaviruses or arenaviruses usually is low in persons whose occupations entail close physical contact with neotomine or sigmodontine rodents in North America.

EID Fulhorst CF, Milazzo ML, Armstrong LR, Childs JE, Rollin PE, Khabbaz R, et al. Hantavirus and Arenavirus Antibodies in Persons with Occupational Rodent Exposure, North America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061509
AMA Fulhorst CF, Milazzo ML, Armstrong LR, et al. Hantavirus and Arenavirus Antibodies in Persons with Occupational Rodent Exposure, North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):532. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061509.
APA Fulhorst, C. F., Milazzo, M. L., Armstrong, L. R., Childs, J. E., Rollin, P. E., Khabbaz, R....Ksiazek, T. G. (2007). Hantavirus and Arenavirus Antibodies in Persons with Occupational Rodent Exposure, North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061509.

Influenza (H5N1) Viruses in Poultry, Russian Federation, 2005–2006 [PDF - 399 KB - 8 pages]
A. S. Lipatov et al.

We studied 7 influenza (H5N1) viruses isolated from poultry in western Siberia and the European part of the Russian Federation during July 2005–February 2006. Full genome sequences showed high homology to Qinghai-like influenza (H5N1) viruses. Phylogenetic analysis not only showed a close genetic relationship between the H5N1 strains isolated from poultry and wild migratory waterfowls but also suggested genetic reassortment among the analyzed isolates. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequences of the M2 and neuraminidase proteins showed that all isolates are potentially sensitive to currently available antiviral drugs. Pathogenicity testing showed that all studied viruses were highly pathogenic in chickens; for 3 isolates tested in mice and 2 tested in ferrets, pathogenicity was heterogeneous. Pathogenicity in mammalian models was generally correlated with Lys at residue 627 of polymerase basic protein 2.

EID Lipatov AS, Evseenko VA, Wang H, Zaykovskaya AV, Durimanov AG, Zolotykh SI, et al. Influenza (H5N1) Viruses in Poultry, Russian Federation, 2005–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):539. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061266
AMA Lipatov AS, Evseenko VA, Wang H, et al. Influenza (H5N1) Viruses in Poultry, Russian Federation, 2005–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):539. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061266.
APA Lipatov, A. S., Evseenko, V. A., Wang, H., Zaykovskaya, A. V., Durimanov, A. G., Zolotykh, S. I....Shestopalov, A. M. (2007). Influenza (H5N1) Viruses in Poultry, Russian Federation, 2005–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 539. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061266.

Movements of Birds and Avian Influenza from Asia into Alaska [PDF - 177 KB - 6 pages]
K. Winker et al.

Asian-origin avian influenza (AI) viruses are spread in part by migratory birds. In Alaska, diverse avian hosts from Asia and the Americas overlap in a region of intercontinental avifaunal mixing. This region is hypothesized to be a zone of Asia-to-America virus transfer because birds there can mingle in waters contaminated by wild-bird–origin AI viruses. Our 7 years of AI virus surveillance among waterfowl and shorebirds in this region (1998–2004; 8,254 samples) showed remarkably low infection rates (0.06%). Our findings suggest an Arctic effect on viral ecology, caused perhaps by low ecosystem productivity and low host densities relative to available water. Combined with a synthesis of avian diversity and abundance, intercontinental host movements, and genetic analyses, our results suggest that the risk and probably the frequency of intercontinental virus transfer in this region are relatively low.

EID Winker K, McCracken KG, Gibson DD, Pruett CL, Meier R, Huettmann F, et al. Movements of Birds and Avian Influenza from Asia into Alaska. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061072
AMA Winker K, McCracken KG, Gibson DD, et al. Movements of Birds and Avian Influenza from Asia into Alaska. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):547. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061072.
APA Winker, K., McCracken, K. G., Gibson, D. D., Pruett, C. L., Meier, R., Huettmann, F....Swayne, D. E. (2007). Movements of Birds and Avian Influenza from Asia into Alaska. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061072.

Diagnosis of Tuberculosis by an Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay for Interferon-γ [PDF - 194 KB - 6 pages]
J. Wang et al.

We evaluated an enzyme-linked immunospot assay for interferon-γ (T SPOT-TB) for rapid diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) in a disease-endemic area. From January to June 2005, patients whose clinical symptoms and radiographic findings were compatible with TB were recruited, and a blood sample was obtained for T SPOT-TB assay within 7 days of microbiologic studies. Sixty-five patients were studied, including 39 (60%) with active TB. Thirty-five (53.8%) patients had underlying medical conditions. Thirty-seven patients had positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 11 patients had positive cultures for nontuberculous mycobacteria. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the T SPOT-TB assay were 87.2%, 88.5%, 91.9%, and 82.1%, respectively. The accuracy of this test in diagnosing active TB is >80%, even in an area with a high incidence of nontuberculous mycobacteria disease.

EID Wang J, Chou C, Lee L, Hsu H, Jan I, Hsueh P, et al. Diagnosis of Tuberculosis by an Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay for Interferon-γ. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):553. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.051195
AMA Wang J, Chou C, Lee L, et al. Diagnosis of Tuberculosis by an Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay for Interferon-γ. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):553. doi:10.3201/eid1304.051195.
APA Wang, J., Chou, C., Lee, L., Hsu, H., Jan, I., Hsueh, P....Luh, K. (2007). Diagnosis of Tuberculosis by an Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay for Interferon-γ. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 553. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.051195.

Global Emergence of Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Mediated by Acquisition of sul Genes [PDF - 163 KB - 7 pages]
M. A. Toleman et al.

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) resistance remains a serious threat in the treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections. We analyzed an international collection of 55 S. maltophilia TMP/SMX-sensitive (S) (n = 30) and -resistant (R) (n = 25) strains for integrons; sul1, sul2 and dhfr genes; and insertion element common region (ISCR) elements. sul1, as part of a class 1 integron, was detected in 17 of 25 TMP/SMX-R. Nine TMP/SMX-R strains carried sul2; 7 were on large plasmids. Five TMP/SMX-R isolates were positive for ISCR2, and 4 were linked to sul2; 2 others possessed ISCR3. Two ISCR2s were adjacent to floR. Six TMP/SMX-S isolates harbored novel ISCR elements, ISCR9 and ISCR10. Linkage of ISCR3, ISCR9, and ISCR10 to sul2 and dhfr genes was not demonstrated. The data from this study indicate that class 1 integrons and ISCR elements linked to sul2 genes can mediate TMP/SMX resistance in S. maltophilia and are geographically widespread, findings that reinforce the need for ongoing resistance surveillance.

EID Toleman MA, Bennett PM, Bennett DM, Jones RN, Walsh TR. Global Emergence of Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Mediated by Acquisition of sul Genes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):559. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061378
AMA Toleman MA, Bennett PM, Bennett DM, et al. Global Emergence of Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Mediated by Acquisition of sul Genes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):559. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061378.
APA Toleman, M. A., Bennett, P. M., Bennett, D. M., Jones, R. N., & Walsh, T. R. (2007). Global Emergence of Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Mediated by Acquisition of sul Genes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 559. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061378.

Symptomatic and Subclinical Infection with Rotavirus P[8]G9, Rural Ecuador [PDF - 323 KB - 7 pages]
P. Endara et al.

During the past decade, rotavirus genotype G9 has spread throughout the world, adding to and sometimes supplanting the common genotypes G1–G4. We report evidence of this spread in a population sample within rural Ecuador. A total of 1,656 stool samples were collected from both patients with diarrhea and asymptomatic residents in 22 remote communities in northwestern Ecuador from August 2003 through February 2006. Rotavirus was detected in 23.4% of case-patients and 3.2% of controls. From these 136 rotavirus-positive samples, a subset of 47 were genotyped; 72% were of genotype G9, and 62% were genotype P[8]G9. As a comparison, 29 rotavirus-positive stool samples were collected from a hospital in Quito during March 2006 and genotyped; 86% were of genotype P[8]G9. Few countries have reported P[8]G9 rotavirus detection rates as high as those of the current study. This growing prevalence may require changes to current vaccination programs to include coverage for this genotype.

EID Endara P, Trueba G, Solberg OD, Bates SJ, Ponce K, Cevallos W, et al. Symptomatic and Subclinical Infection with Rotavirus P[8]G9, Rural Ecuador. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):574. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061285
AMA Endara P, Trueba G, Solberg OD, et al. Symptomatic and Subclinical Infection with Rotavirus P[8]G9, Rural Ecuador. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):574. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061285.
APA Endara, P., Trueba, G., Solberg, O. D., Bates, S. J., Ponce, K., Cevallos, W....Eisenberg, J. (2007). Symptomatic and Subclinical Infection with Rotavirus P[8]G9, Rural Ecuador. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 574. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061285.

Spanish Influenza in Japanese Armed Forces, 1918–1920 [PDF - 88 KB - 4 pages]
A. Kawana et al.

With the recent outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1), the risk for the next influenza pandemic has increased. For effective countermeasures against the next pandemic, investigation of past pandemics is necessary. We selected cases diagnosed as influenza from medical records and hospitalization registries of Japanese army hospitals during 1918–1920, the Spanish influenza era, and investigated clinical features and circumstances of outbreaks. Admission lists showed a sudden increase in the number of inpatients with influenza in November 1918 and showed the effect of the first wave of this pandemic in Tokyo. The death rate was high (6%–8%) even though patients were otherwise healthy male adults.

EID Kawana A, Naka G, Fujikura Y, Kato Y, Mizuno Y, Kondo T, et al. Spanish Influenza in Japanese Armed Forces, 1918–1920. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):590. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060615
AMA Kawana A, Naka G, Fujikura Y, et al. Spanish Influenza in Japanese Armed Forces, 1918–1920. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):590. doi:10.3201/eid1304.060615.
APA Kawana, A., Naka, G., Fujikura, Y., Kato, Y., Mizuno, Y., Kondo, T....Kudo, K. (2007). Spanish Influenza in Japanese Armed Forces, 1918–1920. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 590. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060615.

Global Distribution of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–positive Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 2006 [PDF - 128 KB - 7 pages]
A. Tristan et al.

We determined the agr type, multilocus sequence type, protein A gene type (spa typing), toxin gene profile, and antimicrobial drug resistance profile of 469 isolates of Panton-Valentine leukocidin–positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (PVL-positive CA-MRSA). The isolates had been collected from around the world from 1999 through 2005 by the French National Reference Center for Staphylococci. We found that some continent-specific clones described in 2003, such as clone ST8, have now spread all over the world. Likewise, some PVL-positive CA-MRSA have spread to several countries on various continents. New clones have emerged (e.g., ST377) on new genetic backgrounds. PVL-positive CA-MRSA that were usually susceptible to most antistaphylococcal antimicrobial agents have acquired new resistance determinants (e.g., to gentamicin) in certain countries. The major trait shared by all these clones is a short staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec element of type IV or V.

EID Tristan A, Bes M, Meugnier H, Lina G, Bozdogan B, Courvalin P, et al. Global Distribution of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–positive Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):594. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061316
AMA Tristan A, Bes M, Meugnier H, et al. Global Distribution of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–positive Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):594. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061316.
APA Tristan, A., Bes, M., Meugnier, H., Lina, G., Bozdogan, B., Courvalin, P....Etienne, J. (2007). Global Distribution of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–positive Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 594. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061316.

Flinders Island Spotted Fever Rickettsioses Caused by “marmionii” Strain of Rickettsia honei, Eastern Australia [PDF - 251 KB - 8 pages]
N. B. Unsworth et al.

Australia has 4 rickettsial diseases: murine typhus, Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever, and scrub typhus. We describe 7 cases of a rickettsiosis, with an acute onset and symptoms of fever (100%), headache (71%), arthralgia (43%), myalgia (43%), cough (43%), maculopapular/petechial rash (43%), nausea (29%), pharyngitis (29%), lymphadenopathy (29%), and eschar (29%). Cases were most prevalent in autumn and from eastern Australia, including Queensland, Tasmania, and South Australia. One patient had a history of tick bite (Haemaphysalis novaeguineae). An isolate shared 99.2%, 99.8%, 99.8%, 99.9%, and 100% homology with the 17 kDa, ompA, gltA, 16S rRNA, and Sca4 genes, respectively, of Rickettsia honei. This Australian rickettsiosis has similar symptoms to Flinders Island spotted fever, and the strain is genetically related to R. honei. It has been designated the “marmionii” strain of R. honei, in honor of Australian physician and scientist Barrie Marmion.

EID Unsworth NB, Stenos J, Graves SR, Faa AG, Cox G, Dyer JR, et al. Flinders Island Spotted Fever Rickettsioses Caused by “marmionii” Strain of Rickettsia honei, Eastern Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):566-573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.050087
AMA Unsworth NB, Stenos J, Graves SR, et al. Flinders Island Spotted Fever Rickettsioses Caused by “marmionii” Strain of Rickettsia honei, Eastern Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):566-573. doi:10.3201/eid1304.050087.
APA Unsworth, N. B., Stenos, J., Graves, S. R., Faa, A. G., Cox, G., Dyer, J. R....Nissen, M. D. (2007). Flinders Island Spotted Fever Rickettsioses Caused by “marmionii” Strain of Rickettsia honei, Eastern Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 566-573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.050087.

Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Contact Rates during a Simulated Influenza Pandemic [PDF - 255 KB - 9 pages]
M. J. Haber et al.

Measures to decrease contact between persons during an influenza pandemic have been included in pandemic response plans. We used stochastic simulation models to explore the effects of school closings, voluntary confinements of ill persons and their household contacts, and reductions in contacts among long-term care facility (LTCF) residents on pandemic-related illness and deaths. Our findings suggest that school closings would not have a substantial effect on pandemic-related outcomes in the absence of measures to reduce out-of-school contacts. However, if persons with influenzalike symptoms and their household contacts were encouraged to stay home, then rates of illness and death might be reduced by ≈50%. By preventing ill LTCF residents from making contact with other residents, illness and deaths in this vulnerable population might be reduced by ≈60%. Restricting the activities of infected persons early in a pandemic could decrease negative health impact.

EID Haber MJ, Shay DK, Davis XM, Patel R, Jin X, Weintraub E, et al. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Contact Rates during a Simulated Influenza Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):581-589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060828
AMA Haber MJ, Shay DK, Davis XM, et al. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Contact Rates during a Simulated Influenza Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):581-589. doi:10.3201/eid1304.060828.
APA Haber, M. J., Shay, D. K., Davis, X. M., Patel, R., Jin, X., Weintraub, E....Thompson, W. W. (2007). Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Contact Rates during a Simulated Influenza Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 581-589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060828.
Dispatches

Genetic Stasis of Dominant West Nile Virus Genotype, Houston, Texas [PDF - 202 KB - 4 pages]
C. Davis et al.

The accumulation and fixation of mutations in West Nile virus (WNV) led to the emergence of a dominant genotype throughout North America. Subsequent analysis of 44 isolates, including 19 new sequences, from Houston, Texas, suggests that WNV has reached relative genetic stasis at the local level in recent years.

EID Davis C, Li L, May FJ, Bueno R, Dennett JA, Bala AA, et al. Genetic Stasis of Dominant West Nile Virus Genotype, Houston, Texas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):601. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061473
AMA Davis C, Li L, May FJ, et al. Genetic Stasis of Dominant West Nile Virus Genotype, Houston, Texas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):601. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061473.
APA Davis, C., Li, L., May, F. J., Bueno, R., Dennett, J. A., Bala, A. A....Barrett, A. (2007). Genetic Stasis of Dominant West Nile Virus Genotype, Houston, Texas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 601. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061473.

Autochthonous Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, Louisiana [PDF - 150 KB - 3 pages]
P. L. Dorn et al.

Autochthonous transmission of the Chagas disease parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, was detected in a patient in rural New Orleans, Louisiana. The patient had positive test results from 2 serologic tests and hemoculture. Fifty-six percent of 18 Triatoma sanguisuga collected from the house of the patient were positive for T. cruzi by PCR.

EID Dorn PL, Perniciaro L, Yabsley MJ, Roellig DM, Balsamo G, Diaz J, et al. Autochthonous Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, Louisiana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061002
AMA Dorn PL, Perniciaro L, Yabsley MJ, et al. Autochthonous Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, Louisiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):605. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061002.
APA Dorn, P. L., Perniciaro, L., Yabsley, M. J., Roellig, D. M., Balsamo, G., Diaz, J....Wesson, D. (2007). Autochthonous Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, Louisiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061002.

Endpoints for Lymphatic Filariasis Programs [PDF - 180 KB - 3 pages]
C. A. Grady et al.

In 2000, annual mass administration of diethlycarbamazine and albendazole began in Leogane Commune, Haiti, to interrupt transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF). After 5 years of treatment, microfilaremia, antigenemia, and mosquito infection rates were significantly reduced, but LF transmission was not interrupted. These finding have implications for other LF elimination programs.

EID Grady CA, Beau de Rochars M, Direny AN, Orelus JN, Wendt J, Radday J, et al. Endpoints for Lymphatic Filariasis Programs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061063
AMA Grady CA, Beau de Rochars M, Direny AN, et al. Endpoints for Lymphatic Filariasis Programs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):608. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061063.
APA Grady, C. A., Beau de Rochars, M., Direny, A. N., Orelus, J. N., Wendt, J., Radday, J....Lammie, P. J. (2007). Endpoints for Lymphatic Filariasis Programs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061063.

Genetic Characterization of HPAI (H5N1) Viruses from Poultry and Wild Vultures, Burkina Faso [PDF - 205 KB - 3 pages]
M. F. Ducatez et al.

Genetic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) viruses from poultry and hooded vultures in Burkina Faso shows that these viruses belong to 1 of 3 sublineages initially found in Nigeria and later in other African countries. Hooded vultures could potentially be vectors or sentinels of influenza subtype H5N1, as are cats and swans elsewhere.

EID Ducatez MF, Tarnagda Z, Tahita MC, Sow A, de Landtsheer S, Londt BZ, et al. Genetic Characterization of HPAI (H5N1) Viruses from Poultry and Wild Vultures, Burkina Faso. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061356
AMA Ducatez MF, Tarnagda Z, Tahita MC, et al. Genetic Characterization of HPAI (H5N1) Viruses from Poultry and Wild Vultures, Burkina Faso. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):611. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061356.
APA Ducatez, M. F., Tarnagda, Z., Tahita, M. C., Sow, A., de Landtsheer, S., Londt, B. Z....Muller, C. P. (2007). Genetic Characterization of HPAI (H5N1) Viruses from Poultry and Wild Vultures, Burkina Faso. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061356.

Bluetongue in Belgium, 2006 [PDF - 129 KB - 3 pages]
J. Toussaint et al.

Bluetongue has emerged recently in Belgium. A bluetongue virus strain was isolated and characterized as serotype 8. Two new real-time reverse transcription–quantitative PCRs (RT-qPCRs) that amplified 2 different segments of bluetongue virus detected this exotic strain. These 2 RT-qPCRs detected infection earlier than a competitive ELISA for antibody detection.

EID Toussaint J, Sailleau C, Mast J, Houdart P, Czaplicki G, Demeestere L, et al. Bluetongue in Belgium, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):614. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061136
AMA Toussaint J, Sailleau C, Mast J, et al. Bluetongue in Belgium, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):614. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061136.
APA Toussaint, J., Sailleau, C., Mast, J., Houdart, P., Czaplicki, G., Demeestere, L....De Clercq, K. (2007). Bluetongue in Belgium, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 614. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061136.

Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness among US Military Basic Trainees, 2005–06 Season [PDF - 403 KB - 3 pages]
J. K. Strickler et al.

Virtually all US military basic trainees receive seasonal influenza vaccine. Surveillance data collected from December 2005 through March 2006 were evaluated to estimate effectiveness of the influenza vaccine at 6 US military basic training centers. Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed influenza was 92% (95% confidence interval 85%–96%).

EID Strickler JK, Hawksworth AW, Myers C, Irvine M, Ryan MA, Russell KL. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness among US Military Basic Trainees, 2005–06 Season. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):617. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061308
AMA Strickler JK, Hawksworth AW, Myers C, et al. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness among US Military Basic Trainees, 2005–06 Season. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):617. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061308.
APA Strickler, J. K., Hawksworth, A. W., Myers, C., Irvine, M., Ryan, M. A., & Russell, K. L. (2007). Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness among US Military Basic Trainees, 2005–06 Season. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 617. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061308.

Human Sapovirus in Clams, Japan [PDF - 262 KB - 3 pages]
G. S. Hansman et al.

Human sapovirus was detected in 4 of 57 clam packages by reverse transcription–PCR and sequence analysis. This represents the first finding of sapovirus contamination in food. Closely matching sequences have been detected in stool specimens from patients with gastroenteritis in Japan, which indicates a possible food-to-human transmission link.

EID Hansman GS, Oka T, Okamoto R, Nishida T, Toda S, Noda M, et al. Human Sapovirus in Clams, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):620. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061390
AMA Hansman GS, Oka T, Okamoto R, et al. Human Sapovirus in Clams, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):620. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061390.
APA Hansman, G. S., Oka, T., Okamoto, R., Nishida, T., Toda, S., Noda, M....Takeda, N. (2007). Human Sapovirus in Clams, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 620. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061390.

Cryptosporidiosis Decline after Regulation, England and Wales, 1989–2005 [PDF - 75 KB - 3 pages]
I. R. Lake et al.

Since new drinking water regulations were implemented in England and Wales in 2000, cryptosporidiosis has been significantly reduced in the first half of the year but not in the second. We estimate an annual reduction in disease of 905 reported cases and ≈6,700 total cases.

EID Lake IR, Nichols G, Bentham G, Harrison FC, Hunter PR, Kovats RS. Cryptosporidiosis Decline after Regulation, England and Wales, 1989–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):623. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060890
AMA Lake IR, Nichols G, Bentham G, et al. Cryptosporidiosis Decline after Regulation, England and Wales, 1989–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):623. doi:10.3201/eid1304.060890.
APA Lake, I. R., Nichols, G., Bentham, G., Harrison, F. C., Hunter, P. R., & Kovats, R. S. (2007). Cryptosporidiosis Decline after Regulation, England and Wales, 1989–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 623. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060890.

Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa [PDF - 142 KB - 4 pages]
N. Gaidet et al.

We report the first large-scale surveillance of avian influenza viruses in water birds conducted in Africa. This study shows evidence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds, both Eurasian and Afro-tropical species, in several major wetlands of Africa.

EID Gaidet N, Dodman T, Caron A, Balança G, Desvaux S, Goutard F, et al. Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):626. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061011
AMA Gaidet N, Dodman T, Caron A, et al. Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):626. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061011.
APA Gaidet, N., Dodman, T., Caron, A., Balança, G., Desvaux, S., Goutard, F....Monicat, F. (2007). Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 626. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061011.

MRSA Transmission between Cows and Humans [PDF - 101 KB - 3 pages]
É. Juhász-Kaszanyitzky et al.

We isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from cows with subclinical mastitis and from a person who worked with these animals. The bovine and human strains were indistinguishable by phenotyping and genotyping methods and were of a low frequency spa type. To our knowledge, this finding indicates the first documented case of direct transmission of MRSA between cows and humans.

EID Juhász-Kaszanyitzky É, Jánosi S, Somogyi P, Dán Á, van Bloois Lv, van Duijkeren E, et al. MRSA Transmission between Cows and Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):630. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060833
AMA Juhász-Kaszanyitzky É, Jánosi S, Somogyi P, et al. MRSA Transmission between Cows and Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):630. doi:10.3201/eid1304.060833.
APA Juhász-Kaszanyitzky, É., Jánosi, S., Somogyi, P., Dán, Á., van Bloois, L. v., van Duijkeren, E....Wagenaar, J. A. (2007). MRSA Transmission between Cows and Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 630. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060833.

Human Babesia microti Incidence and Ixodes scapularis Distribution, Rhode Island, 1998–2004 [PDF - 180 KB - 3 pages]
S. E. Rodgers and T. N. Mather

Distribution of nymphal Ixodes scapularis in Rhode Island was used as a logistical regressor for predicting presence of human babesiosis. Although the incidence of babesiosis is increasing in southern Rhode Island, large areas of the state are free of babesiosis risk.

EID Rodgers SE, Mather TN. Human Babesia microti Incidence and Ixodes scapularis Distribution, Rhode Island, 1998–2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):633. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061035
AMA Rodgers SE, Mather TN. Human Babesia microti Incidence and Ixodes scapularis Distribution, Rhode Island, 1998–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):633. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061035.
APA Rodgers, S. E., & Mather, T. N. (2007). Human Babesia microti Incidence and Ixodes scapularis Distribution, Rhode Island, 1998–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 633. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061035.

Human Bocavirus, a Respiratory and Enteric Virus [PDF - 42 KB - 2 pages]
D. Vicente et al.

In Spain, human bocavirus (HBoV) was detected in 48 (9.1%) of 527 children with gastroenteritis at similar frequency as for children with respiratory illness (40/520, 7.7%). Fecal excretion adds new concern about the transmission of HBoV. To our knowledge, this report is the first to document HBoV in human feces.

EID Vicente D, Cilla G, Montes M, Pérez-Yarza EG, Pérez-Trallero E. Human Bocavirus, a Respiratory and Enteric Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061501
AMA Vicente D, Cilla G, Montes M, et al. Human Bocavirus, a Respiratory and Enteric Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):636. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061501.
APA Vicente, D., Cilla, G., Montes, M., Pérez-Yarza, E. G., & Pérez-Trallero, E. (2007). Human Bocavirus, a Respiratory and Enteric Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061501.

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Salmonella Isolates from Meat and Humans, Denmark [PDF - 141 KB - 4 pages]
M. N. Skov et al.

We compared 8,144 Salmonella isolates collected from meat imported to or produced in Denmark, as well as from Danish patients. Isolates from imported meat showed a higher rate of antimicrobial drug resistance, including multidrug resistance, than did isolates from domestic meat. Isolates from humans showed resistance rates lower than those found in imported meat but higher than in domestic meat. These findings indicate that programs for controlling resistant Salmonella spp. are a global issue.

EID Skov MN, Andersen JS, Aabo S, Ethelberg S, Aarestrup FM, Sørensen AH, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Salmonella Isolates from Meat and Humans, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):638. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060748
AMA Skov MN, Andersen JS, Aabo S, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Salmonella Isolates from Meat and Humans, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):638. doi:10.3201/eid1304.060748.
APA Skov, M. N., Andersen, J. S., Aabo, S., Ethelberg, S., Aarestrup, F. M., Sørensen, A. H....Baggesen, D. L. (2007). Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Salmonella Isolates from Meat and Humans, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 638. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060748.

16S rRNA Methylase–producing, Gram-Negative Pathogens, Japan [PDF - 236 KB - 5 pages]
K. Yamane et al.

To investigate the exact isolation frequency of 16S rRNA methylase–producing, gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, we tested 87,626 clinical isolates from 169 hospitals. Twenty-six strains from 16 hospitals harbored 16S rRNA methylase genes, which suggests sparse but diffuse spread of pan-aminoglycoside–resistant microbes in Japan.

EID Yamane K, Wachino J, Suzuki S, Shibata N, Kato H, Shibayama K, et al. 16S rRNA Methylase–producing, Gram-Negative Pathogens, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):642. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060501
AMA Yamane K, Wachino J, Suzuki S, et al. 16S rRNA Methylase–producing, Gram-Negative Pathogens, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):642. doi:10.3201/eid1304.060501.
APA Yamane, K., Wachino, J., Suzuki, S., Shibata, N., Kato, H., Shibayama, K....Arakawa, Y. (2007). 16S rRNA Methylase–producing, Gram-Negative Pathogens, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 642. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060501.
Letters

Spread of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis [PDF - 28 KB - 2 pages]
S. Samper and C. Martín
EID Samper S, Martín C. Spread of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):647. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061329
AMA Samper S, Martín C. Spread of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):647. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061329.
APA Samper, S., & Martín, C. (2007). Spread of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 647. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061329.

Transfusion-associated Hepatitis E, France [PDF - 55 KB - 2 pages]
P. Colson et al.
EID Colson P, Coze C, Gallian P, Henry M, de Micco P, Tamalet C. Transfusion-associated Hepatitis E, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):648. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061387
AMA Colson P, Coze C, Gallian P, et al. Transfusion-associated Hepatitis E, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):648. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061387.
APA Colson, P., Coze, C., Gallian, P., Henry, M., de Micco, P., & Tamalet, C. (2007). Transfusion-associated Hepatitis E, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 648. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061387.

Dengue and Relative Bradycardia [PDF - 57 KB - 2 pages]
A. Lateef et al.
EID Lateef A, Fisher DA, Tambyah PA. Dengue and Relative Bradycardia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):650. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061212
AMA Lateef A, Fisher DA, Tambyah PA. Dengue and Relative Bradycardia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):650. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061212.
APA Lateef, A., Fisher, D. A., & Tambyah, P. A. (2007). Dengue and Relative Bradycardia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 650. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061212.

West Nile Virus, Venezuela [PDF - 106 KB - 3 pages]
I. Bosch et al.
EID Bosch I, Herrera F, Navarro J, Lentino M, Dupuis AP, Maffei J, et al. West Nile Virus, Venezuela. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):651. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061383
AMA Bosch I, Herrera F, Navarro J, et al. West Nile Virus, Venezuela. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):651. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061383.
APA Bosch, I., Herrera, F., Navarro, J., Lentino, M., Dupuis, A. P., Maffei, J....Kramer, L. D. (2007). West Nile Virus, Venezuela. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 651. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061383.

Novel Extended-spectrum β-Lactamase in Shigella sonnei [PDF - 47 KB - 2 pages]
A. Lefort et al.
EID Lefort A, Arlet G, Join-Lambert OF, Lecuit M, Lortholary O. Novel Extended-spectrum β-Lactamase in Shigella sonnei. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):653. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061160
AMA Lefort A, Arlet G, Join-Lambert OF, et al. Novel Extended-spectrum β-Lactamase in Shigella sonnei. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):653. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061160.
APA Lefort, A., Arlet, G., Join-Lambert, O. F., Lecuit, M., & Lortholary, O. (2007). Novel Extended-spectrum β-Lactamase in Shigella sonnei. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 653. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061160.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 Epidemic Diarrhea, Chile, 2005 [PDF - 46 KB - 2 pages]
F. C. Cabello et al.
EID Cabello FC, Espejo R, Hernandez MC, Rioseco ML, Ulloa J, Vergara JA. Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 Epidemic Diarrhea, Chile, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):655. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061152
AMA Cabello FC, Espejo R, Hernandez MC, et al. Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 Epidemic Diarrhea, Chile, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):655. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061152.
APA Cabello, F. C., Espejo, R., Hernandez, M. C., Rioseco, M. L., Ulloa, J., & Vergara, J. A. (2007). Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 Epidemic Diarrhea, Chile, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 655. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061152.

Toxoplasma gondii Prevalence, United States [PDF - 58 KB - 2 pages]
J. L. Jones et al.
EID Jones JL, Kruszon-Moran D, Wilson M. Toxoplasma gondii Prevalence, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):656. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061355
AMA Jones JL, Kruszon-Moran D, Wilson M. Toxoplasma gondii Prevalence, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):656. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061355.
APA Jones, J. L., Kruszon-Moran, D., & Wilson, M. (2007). Toxoplasma gondii Prevalence, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 656. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061355.

Human Infection with Rickettsia sp. related to R. japonica, Thailand [PDF - 88 KB - 3 pages]
J. Gaywee et al.
EID Gaywee J, Sunyakumthorn P, Rodkvamtook W, Ruang-areerate T, Mason CJ, Sirisopana N. Human Infection with Rickettsia sp. related to R. japonica, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):657. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060585
AMA Gaywee J, Sunyakumthorn P, Rodkvamtook W, et al. Human Infection with Rickettsia sp. related to R. japonica, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):657. doi:10.3201/eid1304.060585.
APA Gaywee, J., Sunyakumthorn, P., Rodkvamtook, W., Ruang-areerate, T., Mason, C. J., & Sirisopana, N. (2007). Human Infection with Rickettsia sp. related to R. japonica, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 657. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060585.

Isolation of Schineria sp. from a Man [PDF - 124 KB - 3 pages]
L. Roudiere et al.
EID Roudiere L, Jean-Pierre H, Comte C, Zorgniotti I, Marchandin H, Jumas-Bilak E. Isolation of Schineria sp. from a Man. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):659. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061255
AMA Roudiere L, Jean-Pierre H, Comte C, et al. Isolation of Schineria sp. from a Man. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):659. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061255.
APA Roudiere, L., Jean-Pierre, H., Comte, C., Zorgniotti, I., Marchandin, H., & Jumas-Bilak, E. (2007). Isolation of Schineria sp. from a Man. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 659. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061255.

Salmonella Kingabwa Infections and Lizard Contact, United States, 2005 [PDF - 116 KB - 2 pages]
S. K. Greene et al.
EID Greene SK, Yartel A, Moriarty K, Nathan L, Salehi E, Tengelsen L, et al. Salmonella Kingabwa Infections and Lizard Contact, United States, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):661. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060888
AMA Greene SK, Yartel A, Moriarty K, et al. Salmonella Kingabwa Infections and Lizard Contact, United States, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):661. doi:10.3201/eid1304.060888.
APA Greene, S. K., Yartel, A., Moriarty, K., Nathan, L., Salehi, E., Tengelsen, L....Lynch, M. (2007). Salmonella Kingabwa Infections and Lizard Contact, United States, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 661. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060888.

Influenza Virus Type A Serosurvey in Cats [PDF - 101 KB - 3 pages]
P. Saverio et al.
EID Saverio P, Valentina S, Alessia G, Ana MM, Andrea L. Influenza Virus Type A Serosurvey in Cats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):662. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060736
AMA Saverio P, Valentina S, Alessia G, et al. Influenza Virus Type A Serosurvey in Cats. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):662. doi:10.3201/eid1304.060736.
APA Saverio, P., Valentina, S., Alessia, G., Ana, M. M., & Andrea, L. (2007). Influenza Virus Type A Serosurvey in Cats. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 662. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060736.

Pneumonic Plague, Northern India, 2002 [PDF - 53 KB - 3 pages]
M. L. Gupta and A. Sharma
EID Gupta ML, Sharma A. Pneumonic Plague, Northern India, 2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):664. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.051105
AMA Gupta ML, Sharma A. Pneumonic Plague, Northern India, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):664. doi:10.3201/eid1304.051105.
APA Gupta, M. L., & Sharma, A. (2007). Pneumonic Plague, Northern India, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 664. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.051105.

Francisella tularensis, Portugal [PDF - 50 KB - 2 pages]
I. Lopes de Carvalho et al.
EID Lopes de Carvalho I, Escudero R, García-Amil C, Falcão H, Anda P, Núncio MS. Francisella tularensis, Portugal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):666. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060714
AMA Lopes de Carvalho I, Escudero R, García-Amil C, et al. Francisella tularensis, Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):666. doi:10.3201/eid1304.060714.
APA Lopes de Carvalho, I., Escudero, R., García-Amil, C., Falcão, H., Anda, P., & Núncio, M. S. (2007). Francisella tularensis, Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 666. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060714.

VIM-2–producing Pseudomonas putida, Buenos Aires [PDF - 36 KB - 2 pages]
M. Almuzara et al.
EID Almuzara M, Radice M, de Gárate N, Kossman A, Cuirolo A, Santella G, et al. VIM-2–producing Pseudomonas putida, Buenos Aires. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):668. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061083
AMA Almuzara M, Radice M, de Gárate N, et al. VIM-2–producing Pseudomonas putida, Buenos Aires. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):668. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061083.
APA Almuzara, M., Radice, M., de Gárate, N., Kossman, A., Cuirolo, A., Santella, G....Vay, V. (2007). VIM-2–producing Pseudomonas putida, Buenos Aires. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 668. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061083.

Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Russia [PDF - 148 KB - 3 pages]
T. Naas et al.
EID Naas T, Kernbaum S, Allali S, Nordmann P. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):669. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060755
AMA Naas T, Kernbaum S, Allali S, et al. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):669. doi:10.3201/eid1304.060755.
APA Naas, T., Kernbaum, S., Allali, S., & Nordmann, P. (2007). Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 669. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060755.

Human Infection with Schineria larvae [PDF - 231 KB - 3 pages]
M. Maurin et al.
EID Maurin M, Delbano JN, Mackaya L, Colomb H, Guier C, Mandjee A, et al. Human Infection with Schineria larvae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):671. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061151
AMA Maurin M, Delbano JN, Mackaya L, et al. Human Infection with Schineria larvae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):671. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061151.
APA Maurin, M., Delbano, J. N., Mackaya, L., Colomb, H., Guier, C., Mandjee, A....Croize, J. (2007). Human Infection with Schineria larvae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 671. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061151.
Another Dimension

New Water [PDF - 22 KB - 1 page]
S. Chmielarz
EID Chmielarz S. New Water. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.069999
AMA Chmielarz S. New Water. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):625. doi:10.3201/eid1304.069999.
APA Chmielarz, S. (2007). New Water. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.069999.
Books and Media

Global Mapping of Infectious Diseases: Methods, Examples, and Emerging Applications [PDF - 18 KB - 1 page]
M. I. Meltzer
EID Meltzer MI. Global Mapping of Infectious Diseases: Methods, Examples, and Emerging Applications. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):674. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.070037
AMA Meltzer MI. Global Mapping of Infectious Diseases: Methods, Examples, and Emerging Applications. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):674. doi:10.3201/eid1304.070037.
APA Meltzer, M. I. (2007). Global Mapping of Infectious Diseases: Methods, Examples, and Emerging Applications. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 674. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.070037.

Handbook of Helminthiasis for Public Health [PDF - 53 KB - 2 pages]
R. Blanton
EID Blanton R. Handbook of Helminthiasis for Public Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):674. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.070032
AMA Blanton R. Handbook of Helminthiasis for Public Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):674. doi:10.3201/eid1304.070032.
APA Blanton, R. (2007). Handbook of Helminthiasis for Public Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 674. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.070032.
About the Cover

The Darkest Place Is under the Light House [PDF - 125 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. The Darkest Place Is under the Light House. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):676-677. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.ac1304
AMA Potter P. The Darkest Place Is under the Light House. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):676-677. doi:10.3201/eid1304.ac1304.
APA Potter, P. (2007). The Darkest Place Is under the Light House. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 676-677. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.ac1304.
Etymologia

Bocavirus [PDF - 33 KB - 1 page]
EID Bocavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):637. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.e11304
AMA Bocavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):637. doi:10.3201/eid1304.e11304.
APA (2007). Bocavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 637. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.e11304.
Page created: July 09, 2012
Page updated: July 09, 2012
Page reviewed: July 09, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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