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Issue Cover for Volume 17, Number 6—June 2011

Volume 17, Number 6—June 2011

[PDF - 6.04 MB - 203 pages]

Synopses

Reality Check of Laboratory Service Effectiveness during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Victoria, Australia [PDF - 239 KB - 6 pages]
M. Catton et al.

In Australia, the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 began in Melbourne, Victoria; in the first 17 days, the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory detected 977 cases. Although the laboratory had a pandemic plan in place, a retrospective evaluation found 3 major variations from plan assumptions: 1) higher peak demand not limited by a case definition, 2) prolonged peak demand because containment attempts continued despite widespread influenza, and 3) unexpected influence of negative test results on public health actions. Although implementation of the plan was generally successful, the greatest challenges were limited availability of skilled staff and test reagents. Despite peak demand of 1,401 tests per day, results were provided within the usual 24 hours of specimen receipt; however, turnaround time seemed slower because of slow transport times (>3 days for 45% of specimens). Hence, effective laboratory capability might be enhanced by speeding transport of specimens and improving transmission of clinical data.

EID Catton M, Druce J, Papadakis G, Tran T, Birch C. Reality Check of Laboratory Service Effectiveness during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Victoria, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):963-968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101747
AMA Catton M, Druce J, Papadakis G, et al. Reality Check of Laboratory Service Effectiveness during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Victoria, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):963-968. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101747.
APA Catton, M., Druce, J., Papadakis, G., Tran, T., & Birch, C. (2011). Reality Check of Laboratory Service Effectiveness during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Victoria, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 963-968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101747.
Research

Multiple Introductions of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis into Households, Lima, Peru [PDF - 189 KB - 7 pages]
T. Cohen et al.

Two cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in a household are assumed to reflect within-household transmission. However, in high-incidence areas of MDR TB, secondary cases may arise through exposure to MDR TB in the community. To estimate the frequency of multiple introductions of MDR TB into households, we used spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable number tandem repeats to classify isolates from 101 households in Lima, Peru, in which >1 MDR TB patient received treatment during 1996–2004. We found different MDR TB strains in >10% of households. Alternate approaches for classifying matching strains produced estimates of multiple introductions in <38% of households. At least 4% of MDR TB patients were reinfected by a second strain of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings suggest that community exposure to MDR TB in Lima occurs frequently. Rapid drug sensitivity testing of strains from household contacts of known MDR TB patients is needed to identify optimal treatment regimens.

EID Cohen T, Murray MB, Abubakar I, Zhang Z, Sloutsky A, Arteaga F, et al. Multiple Introductions of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis into Households, Lima, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):969-975. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101471
AMA Cohen T, Murray MB, Abubakar I, et al. Multiple Introductions of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis into Households, Lima, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):969-975. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101471.
APA Cohen, T., Murray, M. B., Abubakar, I., Zhang, Z., Sloutsky, A., Arteaga, F....Becerra, M. C. (2011). Multiple Introductions of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis into Households, Lima, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 969-975. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101471.

Binary Toxin and Death after Clostridium difficile Infection [PDF - 173 KB - 7 pages]
S. Bacci et al.

We compared 30-day case-fatality rates for patients infected with Clostridium difficile possessing genes for toxins A and B without binary toxin (n = 212) with rates for patients infected with C. difficile possessing genes for A, B, and binary toxin. The latter group comprised patients infected with strains of PCR ribotype 027 (CD027, n = 193) or non-027 (CD non-027, n = 72). Patients with binary toxin had higher case-fatality rates than patients without binary toxin, in univariate analysis (relative risk [RR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–2.7) and multivariate analysis after adjustment for age, sex, and geographic region (RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0–2.4). Similar case-fatality rates (27.8%, 28.0%) were observed for patients infected with CD027 or CD non-027. Binary toxin either is a marker for more virulent C. difficile strains or contributes directly to strain virulence. Efforts to control C. difficile infection should target all virulent strains irrespective of PCR ribotype.

EID Bacci S, Mølbak K, Kjeldsen MK, Olsen KE. Binary Toxin and Death after Clostridium difficile Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):976-982. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101483
AMA Bacci S, Mølbak K, Kjeldsen MK, et al. Binary Toxin and Death after Clostridium difficile Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):976-982. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101483.
APA Bacci, S., Mølbak, K., Kjeldsen, M. K., & Olsen, K. E. (2011). Binary Toxin and Death after Clostridium difficile Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 976-982. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101483.

Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection and Vaccine Implications, Auckland, New Zealand [PDF - 165 KB - 7 pages]
A. Safar et al.

We aimed to assess the effect of invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infection and the potential effects of a multivalent GAS vaccine in New Zealand. During January 2005–December 2006, we conducted prospective population-based laboratory surveillance of Auckland residents admitted to all public hospitals with isolation of GAS from normally sterile sites. Using emm typing, we identified 225 persons with confirmed invasive GAS infection (median 53 years of age; range 0–97 years). Overall incidence was 8.1 cases per 100,00 persons per year (20.4/100,000/year for Maori and Pacific Islanders; 24.4/100,000/year for persons >65 years of age; 33/100,000/year for infants <1 year of age). Nearly half (49%) of all cases occurred in Auckland’s lowest socioeconomic quintile. Twenty-two persons died, for an overall case-fatality rate of 10% (63% for toxic shock syndrome). Seventy-four percent of patients who died had an underlying condition. To the population in our study, the proposed 26-valent vaccine would provide limited benefit.

EID Safar A, Lennon D, Stewart J, Trenholme A, Drinkovic D, Peat B, et al. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection and Vaccine Implications, Auckland, New Zealand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):983-989. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100804
AMA Safar A, Lennon D, Stewart J, et al. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection and Vaccine Implications, Auckland, New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):983-989. doi:10.3201/eid1706.100804.
APA Safar, A., Lennon, D., Stewart, J., Trenholme, A., Drinkovic, D., Peat, B....Voss, L. (2011). Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection and Vaccine Implications, Auckland, New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 983-989. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100804.

Use of Antiviral Drugs to Reduce Household Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United Kingdom [PDF - 341 KB - 7 pages]
R. G. Pebody et al.

The United Kingdom implemented a containment strategy for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 through administering antiviral agents (AVs) to patients and their close contacts. This observational household cohort study describes the effect of AVs on household transmission. We followed 285 confirmed primary cases in 259 households with 761 contacts. At 2 weeks, the confirmed secondary attack rate (SAR) was 8.1% (62/761) and significantly higher in persons <16 years of age than in those >50 years of age (18.9% vs. 1.2%, p<0.001). Early (<48 hours) treatment of primary case-patients reduced SAR (4.5% vs. 10.6%, p = 0.003). The SAR in child contacts was 33.3% (10/30) when the primary contact was a woman and 2.9% (1/34) when the primary contact was a man (p = 0.010). Of 53 confirmed secondary case-patients, 45 had not received AV prophylaxis. The effectiveness of AV prophylaxis in preventing infection was 92%.

EID Pebody RG, Harris R, Kafatos G, Chamberland M, Campbell C, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS, et al. Use of Antiviral Drugs to Reduce Household Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):990-999. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101161
AMA Pebody RG, Harris R, Kafatos G, et al. Use of Antiviral Drugs to Reduce Household Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):990-999. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101161.
APA Pebody, R. G., Harris, R., Kafatos, G., Chamberland, M., Campbell, C., Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S....Watson, J. M. (2011). Use of Antiviral Drugs to Reduce Household Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 990-999. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101161.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Risk for Frontline Health Care Workers [PDF - 216 KB - 7 pages]
C. Marshall et al.

To determine whether frontline health care workers (HCWs) are at greater risk for contracting pandemic (H1N1) 2009 than nonclinical staff, we conducted a study of 231 HCWs and 215 controls. Overall, 79 (17.7%) of 446 had a positive antibody titer by hemagglutination inhibition, with 46 (19.9%) of 231 HCWs and 33 (15.3%) of 215 controls positive (OR 1.37, 95% confidence interval 0.84–2.22). Of 87 participants who provided a second serum sample, 1 showed a 4-fold rise in antibody titer; of 45 patients who had a nose swab sample taken during a respiratory illness, 7 had positive results. Higher numbers of children in a participant’s family and working in an intensive care unit were risk factors for infection; increasing age, working at hospital 2, and wearing gloves were protective factors. This highly exposed group of frontline HCWs was no more likely to contract pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza infection than nonclinical staff, which suggests that personal protective measures were adequate in preventing transmission.

EID Marshall C, Kelso A, McBryde E, Barr IG, Eisen DP, Sasadeusz J, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Risk for Frontline Health Care Workers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1000-1006. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101030
AMA Marshall C, Kelso A, McBryde E, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Risk for Frontline Health Care Workers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1000-1006. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101030.
APA Marshall, C., Kelso, A., McBryde, E., Barr, I. G., Eisen, D. P., Sasadeusz, J....Richards, M. (2011). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Risk for Frontline Health Care Workers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1000-1006. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101030.

Marked Campylobacteriosis Decline after Interventions Aimed at Poultry, New Zealand [PDF - 335 KB - 9 pages]
A. Sears et al.

Beginning in the 1980s, New Zealand experienced rising annual rates of campylobacteriosis that peaked in 2006. We analyzed notification, hospitalization, and other data to explore the 2007–2008 drop in campylobacteriosis incidence. Source attribution techniques based on genotyping of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from patients and environmental sources were also used to examine the decline. In 2008, the annual campylobacteriosis notification rate was 161.5/100,000 population, representing a 54% decline compared with the average annual rate of 353.8/100,000 for 2002–2006. A similar decline was seen for hospitalizations. Source attribution findings demonstrated a 74% (95% credible interval 49%–94%) reduction in the number of cases attributed to poultry. These reductions coincided with the introduction of a range of voluntary and regulatory interventions to reduce Campylobacter spp. contamination of poultry. The apparent success of these interventions may inform approaches other countries could consider to help control foodborne campylobacteriosis.

EID Sears A, Baker MG, Wilson N, Marshall JC, Muellner P, Campbell DM, et al. Marked Campylobacteriosis Decline after Interventions Aimed at Poultry, New Zealand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1007-1015. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101272
AMA Sears A, Baker MG, Wilson N, et al. Marked Campylobacteriosis Decline after Interventions Aimed at Poultry, New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1007-1015. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101272.
APA Sears, A., Baker, M. G., Wilson, N., Marshall, J. C., Muellner, P., Campbell, D. M....French, N. P. (2011). Marked Campylobacteriosis Decline after Interventions Aimed at Poultry, New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1007-1015. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101272.

Wild Birds and Increased Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) among Poultry, Thailand [PDF - 737 KB - 7 pages]
J. Keawcharoen et al.

Since the outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 virus, wild birds have been suspected of transmitting this virus to poultry. On January 23, 2004, the Ministry of Public Health in Thailand informed the World Health Organization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) outbreak. To determine the epidemiology of this viral infection and its relation to poultry outbreaks in Thailand from 2004 through 2007, we investigated how wild birds play a role in transmission. A total of 24,712 serum samples were collected from migratory and resident wild birds. Reverse transcription PCR showed a 0.7% HPAI (H5N1) prevalence. The highest prevalence was observed during January–February 2004 and March–June 2004, predominantly in central Thailand, which harbors most of the country’s poultry flocks. Analysis of the relationship between poultry and wild bird outbreaks was done by using a nonhomogeneous birth and death statistical model. Transmission efficiency among poultry flocks was 1.7× higher in regions with infected wild birds in the given or preceding month. The joint presence of wild birds and poultry is associated with increased spread among poultry flocks.

EID Keawcharoen J, van den Broek J, Bouma A, Tiensin T, Osterhaus AD, Heesterbeek H. Wild Birds and Increased Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) among Poultry, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1016-1022. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100880
AMA Keawcharoen J, van den Broek J, Bouma A, et al. Wild Birds and Increased Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) among Poultry, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1016-1022. doi:10.3201/eid1706.100880.
APA Keawcharoen, J., van den Broek, J., Bouma, A., Tiensin, T., Osterhaus, A. D., & Heesterbeek, H. (2011). Wild Birds and Increased Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) among Poultry, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1016-1022. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100880.

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Samoa, 2007–2008 [PDF - 182 KB - 7 pages]
J. Alesana-Slater et al.

Little is known about the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in most Pacific Island nations. Relatively high rates of MRSA have been reported in Polynesian people living outside the Pacific Islands. To determine the prevalence and characteristics of MRSA, we assessed wound swabs from 399 persons with skin and soft tissue infection living in Samoa. MRSA was isolated from 9% of study participants; 34 of the 196 S. aureus isolates were MRSA. Five MRSA genotypes were identified; the 3 most common were USA300, the Queensland clone, and a sequence type 1 MRSA strain that shares <85% homology with the sequence type 1 MRSA strain common in the region (WA MRSA-1). The Southwest Pacific MRSA clone was identified but accounted for only 12% of MRSA isolates. The high prevalence of MRSA in Samoa provides impetus for initiatives to improve antimicrobial drug resistance surveillance, infection control, and antimicrobial drug use in Pacific Island nations.

EID Alesana-Slater J, Ritchie SR, Heffernan H, Camp T, Richardson A, Herbison P, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Samoa, 2007–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1023-1029. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101083
AMA Alesana-Slater J, Ritchie SR, Heffernan H, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Samoa, 2007–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1023-1029. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101083.
APA Alesana-Slater, J., Ritchie, S. R., Heffernan, H., Camp, T., Richardson, A., Herbison, P....Norris, P. (2011). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Samoa, 2007–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1023-1029. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101083.

Medscape CME Activity
Taenia solium Tapeworm Infection, Oregon, 2006–2009 [PDF - 108 KB - 7 pages]
S. E. O’Neal et al.

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by Taenia solium larval cysts. Its epidemiology in cysticercosis-nonendemic regions is poorly understood, and the role of public health institutions is unclear. To determine the incidence of NCC and to pilot screening of household contacts for tapeworms, we conducted population-based active surveillance in Oregon. We screened for T. solium infection by examining hospital billing codes and medical charts for NCC diagnosed during January 1, 2006–December 31, 2009 and collecting fecal and blood samples from household contacts of recent case-patients. We identified 87 case-patients, for an annual incidence of 0.5 cases per 100,000 general population and 5.8 cases per 100,000 Hispanics. In 22 households, we confirmed 2 additional NCC case-patients but no current adult intestinal tapeworm infections. NCC is of clinical and public health concern in Oregon, particularly among Hispanics. Public health intervention should focus on family members because household investigations can identify additional case-patients.

EID O’Neal SE, Noh J, Wilkins PP, Keene W, Lambert W, Anderson J, et al. Taenia solium Tapeworm Infection, Oregon, 2006–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1030-1036. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101397
AMA O’Neal SE, Noh J, Wilkins PP, et al. Taenia solium Tapeworm Infection, Oregon, 2006–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1030-1036. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101397.
APA O’Neal, S. E., Noh, J., Wilkins, P. P., Keene, W., Lambert, W., Anderson, J....Townes, J. M. (2011). Taenia solium Tapeworm Infection, Oregon, 2006–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1030-1036. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101397.

Medscape CME Activity
Cefepime-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa [PDF - 155 KB - 7 pages]
E. Akhabue et al.

Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins complicates treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. To elucidate risk factors for cefepime-resistant P. aeruginosa and determine its association with patient death, we conducted a case–control study in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Among 2,529 patients hospitalized during 2001–2006, a total of 213 (8.4%) had cefepime-resistant P. aeruginosa infection. Independent risk factors were prior use of an extended-spectrum cephalosphorin (p<0.001), prior use of an extended-spectrum penicillin (p = 0.005), prior use of a quinolone (p<0.001), and transfer from an outside facility (p = 0.01). Among those hospitalized at least 30 days, mortality rates were higher for those with cefepime-resistant than with cefepime-susceptible P. aeruginosa infection (20.2% vs. 13.2%, p = 0.007). Cefepime-resistant P. aeruginosa was an independent risk factor for death only for patients for whom it could be isolated from blood (p = 0.001). Strategies to counter its emergence should focus on optimizing use of antipseudomonal drugs.

1Current affiliation: Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

EID Akhabue E, Synnestvedt M, Weiner MG, Bilker WB, Lautenbach E. Cefepime-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1037-1043. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100358
AMA Akhabue E, Synnestvedt M, Weiner MG, et al. Cefepime-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1037-1043. doi:10.3201/eid1706.100358.
APA Akhabue, E., Synnestvedt, M., Weiner, M. G., Bilker, W. B., & Lautenbach, E. (2011). Cefepime-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1037-1043. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100358.
Historical Review

Reflections on 30 Years of AIDS [PDF - 64 KB - 5 pages]
K. M. De Cock et al.

June 2011 marks the 30th anniversary of the first description of what became known as HIV/AIDS, now one of history’s worst pandemics. The basic public health tools of surveillance and epidemiologic investigation helped define the epidemic and led to initial prevention recommendations. Features of the epidemic, including the zoonotic origin of HIV and its spread through global travel, are central to the concept of emerging infectious diseases. As the epidemic expanded into developing countries, new models of global health and new global partnerships developed. Advocacy groups played a major role in mobilizing the response to the epidemic, having human rights as a central theme. Through the commitments of governments and private donors, modern HIV treatment has become available throughout the developing world. Although the end of the epidemic is not yet in sight and many challenges remain, the response has been remarkable and global health has changed for the better.

EID De Cock KM, Jaffe HW, Curran JW. Reflections on 30 Years of AIDS. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1044-1048. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100184
AMA De Cock KM, Jaffe HW, Curran JW. Reflections on 30 Years of AIDS. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1044-1048. doi:10.3201/eid1706.100184.
APA De Cock, K. M., Jaffe, H. W., & Curran, J. W. (2011). Reflections on 30 Years of AIDS. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1044-1048. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100184.
Dispatches

Reassortant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Pigs, United Kingdom [PDF - 247 KB - 4 pages]
W. A. Howard et al.

Surveillance for influenza virus in pigs in the United Kingdom during spring 2010 detected a novel reassortant influenza virus. This virus had genes encoding internal proteins from pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes from swine influenza virus (H1N2). Our results demonstrate processes contributing to influenza virus heterogeneity.

EID Howard WA, Essen SC, Strugnell BW, Russell C, Barrass L, Reid SM, et al. Reassortant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Pigs, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1049-1052. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101886
AMA Howard WA, Essen SC, Strugnell BW, et al. Reassortant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Pigs, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1049-1052. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101886.
APA Howard, W. A., Essen, S. C., Strugnell, B. W., Russell, C., Barrass, L., Reid, S. M....Brown, I. H. (2011). Reassortant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Pigs, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1049-1052. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101886.

Immunologic Changes during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, China [PDF - 255 KB - 3 pages]
H. Shen et al.

We analyzed changes in immunologic values over time for 28 hospitalized patients with pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Levels of interleukin-6, interferon-γ, and interleukin-10 increased 1 day after illness onset and then decreased to baseline levels. Levels of virus-specific antibody were undetectable 1 day after illness onset and peaked 36 days later.

EID Shen H, Hou J, Chen W, Bai B, Wang H, Guo T, et al. Immunologic Changes during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1053-1055. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100643
AMA Shen H, Hou J, Chen W, et al. Immunologic Changes during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1053-1055. doi:10.3201/eid1706.100643.
APA Shen, H., Hou, J., Chen, W., Bai, B., Wang, H., Guo, T....Mao, Y. (2011). Immunologic Changes during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1053-1055. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100643.

Human Infection with Avian Influenza Virus, Pakistan, 2007 [PDF - 277 KB - 4 pages]
M. Zaman et al.

Human infection with avian influenza (H5N1) virus raises concern for the possibility of a pandemic. We report 20 cases, which ranged from asymptomatic to fatal, in Pakistan in 2007. These cases indicate human-to-human-to-human transmission of this virus, and the number of cases may be higher than realized.

EID Zaman M, Ashraf S, Dreyer NA, Toovey S. Human Infection with Avian Influenza Virus, Pakistan, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1056-1059. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.091652
AMA Zaman M, Ashraf S, Dreyer NA, et al. Human Infection with Avian Influenza Virus, Pakistan, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1056-1059. doi:10.3201/eid1706.091652.
APA Zaman, M., Ashraf, S., Dreyer, N. A., & Toovey, S. (2011). Human Infection with Avian Influenza Virus, Pakistan, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1056-1059. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.091652.

Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N5) Viruses in Domestic Ducks, China [PDF - 509 KB - 4 pages]
M. Gu et al.

In China, domestic ducks and wild birds often share the same water, in which influenza viruses replicate preferentially. Isolation of 2 novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N5) viruses from apparently healthy domestic ducks highlights the role of these ducks as reassortment vessels. Such new subtypes of influenza viruses may pose a pandemic threat.

EID Gu M, Liu W, Cao Y, Peng D, Wang X, Wan H, et al. Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N5) Viruses in Domestic Ducks, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1060-1063. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101406
AMA Gu M, Liu W, Cao Y, et al. Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N5) Viruses in Domestic Ducks, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1060-1063. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101406.
APA Gu, M., Liu, W., Cao, Y., Peng, D., Wang, X., Wan, H....Liu, X. (2011). Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N5) Viruses in Domestic Ducks, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1060-1063. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101406.

Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Harboring OXA-24 Carbapenemase, Spain [PDF - 407 KB - 4 pages]
J. Acosta et al.

In February 2006, a patient colonized with a multidrug-resistant sequence type 56 Acinetobacter baumannii strain was admitted to a hospital in Madrid, Spain. This strain spread rapidly and caused a large outbreak in the hospital. Clinicians should be alert for this strain because its spread would have serious health consequences.

EID Acosta J, Merino M, Viedma E, Poza M, Sanz F, Otero JR, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Harboring OXA-24 Carbapenemase, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1064-1067. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.091866
AMA Acosta J, Merino M, Viedma E, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Harboring OXA-24 Carbapenemase, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1064-1067. doi:10.3201/eid1706.091866.
APA Acosta, J., Merino, M., Viedma, E., Poza, M., Sanz, F., Otero, J. R....Bou, G. (2011). Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Harboring OXA-24 Carbapenemase, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1064-1067. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.091866.

Internet Queries and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Surveillance [PDF - 232 KB - 3 pages]
V. M. Dukic et al.

The Internet is a common source of medical information and has created novel surveillance opportunities. We assessed the potential for Internet-based surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and examined the extent to which it reflects trends in hospitalizations and news coverage. Google queries were a useful predictor of hospitalizations for methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections.

EID Dukic VM, David MZ, Lauderdale DS. Internet Queries and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1068-1070. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101451
AMA Dukic VM, David MZ, Lauderdale DS. Internet Queries and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1068-1070. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101451.
APA Dukic, V. M., David, M. Z., & Lauderdale, D. S. (2011). Internet Queries and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1068-1070. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101451.

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome in Hybrid Wild Boars, China
J. Wu et al.

We conducted a serologic investigation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in hybrid wild boar herds in China during 2008–2009. PRRSV isolates with novel genetic markers were recovered. Experimental infection of pigs indicated that hybrid wild boars are involved in the epidemiology of PRRSV.

EID Wu J, Liu S, Zhou S, Wang Z, Li K, Zhang Y, et al. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome in Hybrid Wild Boars, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1071-1073. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101518
AMA Wu J, Liu S, Zhou S, et al. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome in Hybrid Wild Boars, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1071-1073. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101518.
APA Wu, J., Liu, S., Zhou, S., Wang, Z., Li, K., Zhang, Y....Wang, J. (2011). Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome in Hybrid Wild Boars, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1071-1073. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101518.

Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence and Chronic Infections in Patients with HIV, Switzerland [PDF - 394 KB - 5 pages]
A. Kenfak-Foguena et al.

We screened 735 HIV-infected patients in Switzerland with unexplained alanine aminotransferase elevation for hepatitis E virus (HEV) immunoglobulin G. Although HEV seroprevalence in this population is low (2.6%), HEV RNA can persist in patients with low CD4 cell counts. Findings suggest chronic HEV infection should be considered as a cause of persistent alanine aminotransferase elevation.

EID Kenfak-Foguena A, Schöni-Affolter F, Bürgisser P, Witteck A, Darling KE, Kovari H, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence and Chronic Infections in Patients with HIV, Switzerland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1074-1078. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101067
AMA Kenfak-Foguena A, Schöni-Affolter F, Bürgisser P, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence and Chronic Infections in Patients with HIV, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1074-1078. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101067.
APA Kenfak-Foguena, A., Schöni-Affolter, F., Bürgisser, P., Witteck, A., Darling, K. E., Kovari, H....Cavassini, M. (2011). Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence and Chronic Infections in Patients with HIV, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1074-1078. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101067.

Macrolide Resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Israel, 2010 [PDF - 361 KB - 4 pages]
D. Averbuch et al.

Macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae is often found in Asia but is rare elsewhere. We report the emergence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in Israel and the in vivo evolution of such resistance during the treatment of a 6-year-old boy with pneumonia.

EID Averbuch D, Hidalgo-Grass C, Moses AE, Engelhard D, Nir-Paz R. Macrolide Resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Israel, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1079-1082. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101558
AMA Averbuch D, Hidalgo-Grass C, Moses AE, et al. Macrolide Resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Israel, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1079-1082. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101558.
APA Averbuch, D., Hidalgo-Grass, C., Moses, A. E., Engelhard, D., & Nir-Paz, R. (2011). Macrolide Resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Israel, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1079-1082. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101558.

Outcome Predictors in Treatment of Yaws [PDF - 210 KB - 3 pages]
O. Mitjà et al.

To estimate failure rates after treatment with benzathine penicillin and to identify determinants of failure that affected outcomes for yaws, we conducted a cohort study of 138 patients; treatment failed in 24 (17.4%). Having low initial titers on Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test and living in a village where yaws baseline incidence was high were associated with increased likelihood of treatment failure.

EID Mitjà O, Hays R, Ipai A, Gubaila D, Lelngei F, Kirara M, et al. Outcome Predictors in Treatment of Yaws. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1083-1085. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101575
AMA Mitjà O, Hays R, Ipai A, et al. Outcome Predictors in Treatment of Yaws. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1083-1085. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101575.
APA Mitjà, O., Hays, R., Ipai, A., Gubaila, D., Lelngei, F., Kirara, M....Bassat, Q. (2011). Outcome Predictors in Treatment of Yaws. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1083-1085. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101575.

Increasing Ceftriaxone Resistance in Salmonellae, Taiwan [PDF - 401 KB - 5 pages]
L. Su et al.

In Taiwan, despite a substantial decline of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis infections, strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone persist. A self-transferable blaCMY-2-harboring IncI1 plasmid was identified in S. enterica serotypes Choleraesuis, Typhimurium, Agona, and Enteritidis and contributed to the overall increase of ceftriaxone resistance in salmonellae.

EID Su L, Teng W, Chen C, Lee H, Li H, Wu T, et al. Increasing Ceftriaxone Resistance in Salmonellae, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1086-1090. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101949
AMA Su L, Teng W, Chen C, et al. Increasing Ceftriaxone Resistance in Salmonellae, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1086-1090. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101949.
APA Su, L., Teng, W., Chen, C., Lee, H., Li, H., Wu, T....Chiu, C. (2011). Increasing Ceftriaxone Resistance in Salmonellae, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1086-1090. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101949.

Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi with Nonclassical Quinolone Resistance Phenotype [PDF - 391 KB - 4 pages]
M. Accou-Demartin et al.

We report Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi strains with a nonclassical quinolone resistance phenotype (i.e., decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin but with susceptibility to nalidixic acid) associated with a nonsynonymous mutation at codon 464 of the gyrB gene. These strains, not detected by the nalidixic acid disk screening test, can result in fluoroquinolone treatment failure.

EID Accou-Demartin M, Gaborieau V, Song Y, Roumagnac P, Marchou B, Achtman M, et al. Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi with Nonclassical Quinolone Resistance Phenotype. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1091-1094. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101242
AMA Accou-Demartin M, Gaborieau V, Song Y, et al. Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi with Nonclassical Quinolone Resistance Phenotype. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1091-1094. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101242.
APA Accou-Demartin, M., Gaborieau, V., Song, Y., Roumagnac, P., Marchou, B., Achtman, M....Weill, F. (2011). Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi with Nonclassical Quinolone Resistance Phenotype. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1091-1094. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101242.

Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi, United States, 1999–2008 [PDF - 329 KB - 4 pages]
F. Medalla et al.

We report 9 ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolates submitted to the US National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System during 1999–2008. The first 2 had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and identical gyrA and parC mutations. Eight of the 9 patients had traveled to India within 30 days before illness onset.

EID Medalla F, Sjölund-Karlsson M, Shin S, Harvey E, Joyce K, Theobald L, et al. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi, United States, 1999–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1095-1098. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100594
AMA Medalla F, Sjölund-Karlsson M, Shin S, et al. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi, United States, 1999–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1095-1098. doi:10.3201/eid1706.100594.
APA Medalla, F., Sjölund-Karlsson, M., Shin, S., Harvey, E., Joyce, K., Theobald, L....Barzilay, E. J. (2011). Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi, United States, 1999–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1095-1098. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100594.

High Vancomycin MIC and Complicated Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia [PDF - 212 KB - 4 pages]
J. M. Aguado et al.

We conducted a retrospective study of 99 patients with methicillin-suseptible Staphylococcus aureus catheter-related bacteremia in which vancomycin MIC was determined by Etest. High vancomycin MIC (>1.5 μg/mL) was the only independent risk factor for development of complicated bacteremia caused by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (odds ratio 22.9, 95% confidence interval 6.7–78.1).

EID Aguado JM, San-Juan R, Lalueza A, Sanz F, Rodríguez-Otero J, Gómez-Gonzalez C, et al. High Vancomycin MIC and Complicated Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1099-1102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101037
AMA Aguado JM, San-Juan R, Lalueza A, et al. High Vancomycin MIC and Complicated Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1099-1102. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101037.
APA Aguado, J. M., San-Juan, R., Lalueza, A., Sanz, F., Rodríguez-Otero, J., Gómez-Gonzalez, C....Chaves, F. (2011). High Vancomycin MIC and Complicated Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1099-1102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101037.

Characterization and Prevalence of a New Porcine Calicivirus in Swine, United States [PDF - 239 KB - 4 pages]
Q. Wang et al.

Real-time reverse transcription PCR revealed that new St-Valerien–like porcine caliciviruses are prevalent (2.6%–80%; 23.8% overall) in finisher pigs in North Carolina. One strain, NC-WGP93C, shares 89.3%–89.7% genomic nucleotide identity with Canadian strains. Whether these viruses cause disease in pigs or humans or are of food safety concern requires further investigation.

EID Wang Q, Scheuer K, Zhang Z, Gebreyes WA, Molla BZ, Hoet AE, et al. Characterization and Prevalence of a New Porcine Calicivirus in Swine, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1103-1106. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101756
AMA Wang Q, Scheuer K, Zhang Z, et al. Characterization and Prevalence of a New Porcine Calicivirus in Swine, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1103-1106. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101756.
APA Wang, Q., Scheuer, K., Zhang, Z., Gebreyes, W. A., Molla, B. Z., Hoet, A. E....Saif, L. J. (2011). Characterization and Prevalence of a New Porcine Calicivirus in Swine, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1103-1106. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101756.

Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Children, Malawi, 2004–2006 [PDF - 157 KB - 3 pages]
J. E. Cornick et al.

Of 176 invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from children in Malawi, common serotypes were 1 (23%), 6A/B (18%), 14 (6%), and 23F (6%). Coverage with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was 39%; PCV10 and PCV13 increased coverage to 66% and 88%, respectively. We found chloramphenicol resistance in 27% of isolates and penicillin nonsusceptibility in 10% (by using meningitis breakpoints); all were ceftriaxone susceptible.

EID Cornick JE, Everett DB, Broughton C, Denis BB, Banda DL, Carrol ED, et al. Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Children, Malawi, 2004–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1107-1109. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101404
AMA Cornick JE, Everett DB, Broughton C, et al. Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Children, Malawi, 2004–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1107-1109. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101404.
APA Cornick, J. E., Everett, D. B., Broughton, C., Denis, B. B., Banda, D. L., Carrol, E. D....Parry, C. M. (2011). Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Children, Malawi, 2004–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1107-1109. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101404.

Worldwide Distribution of Major Clones of Listeria monocytogenes [PDF - 209 KB - 3 pages]
V. Chenal-Francisque et al.

Listeria monocytogenes is worldwide a pathogen, but the geographic distribution of clones remains largely unknown. Genotyping of 300 isolates from the 5 continents and diverse sources showed the existence of few prevalent and globally distributed clones, some of which include previously described epidemic clones. Cosmopolitan distribution indicates the need for genotyping standardization.

EID Chenal-Francisque V, Lopez J, Cantinelli T, Caro V, Tran C, Leclercq A, et al. Worldwide Distribution of Major Clones of Listeria monocytogenes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1110-1112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101778
AMA Chenal-Francisque V, Lopez J, Cantinelli T, et al. Worldwide Distribution of Major Clones of Listeria monocytogenes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1110-1112. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101778.
APA Chenal-Francisque, V., Lopez, J., Cantinelli, T., Caro, V., Tran, C., Leclercq, A....Brisse, S. (2011). Worldwide Distribution of Major Clones of Listeria monocytogenes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1110-1112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101778.

Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacteremia and Capsular Serotypes, Taiwan [PDF - 218 KB - 3 pages]
C. Liao et al.

Capsular serotypes of 225 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in Taiwan were identified by using PCR. Patients infected with K1 serotypes (41 isolates) had increased community-onset bacteremia, more nonfatal diseases and liver abscesses, lower Pittsburgh bacteremia scores and mortality rates, and fewer urinary tract infections than patients infected with non–K1/K2 serotypes (147 isolates).

EID Liao C, Huang Y, Lai C, Chang C, Chu F, Hsu M, et al. Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacteremia and Capsular Serotypes, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1113-1115. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100811
AMA Liao C, Huang Y, Lai C, et al. Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacteremia and Capsular Serotypes, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1113-1115. doi:10.3201/eid1706.100811.
APA Liao, C., Huang, Y., Lai, C., Chang, C., Chu, F., Hsu, M....Hsueh, P. (2011). Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacteremia and Capsular Serotypes, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1113-1115. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100811.

Association of Patients’ Geographic Origins with Viral Hepatitis Co-infection Patterns, Spain [PDF - 229 KB - 4 pages]
S. P. Cachafeiro et al.

To determine if hepatitis C virus seropositivity and active hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-positive patients vary with patients’ geographic origins, we studied co-infections in HIV-seropositive adults. Active hepatitis B infection was more prevalent in persons from Africa, and hepatitis C seropositivity was more common in persons from eastern Europe.

EID Cachafeiro SP, Caro-Murillo AM, Berenguer J, Segura F, Gutiérrez F, Vidal F, et al. Association of Patients’ Geographic Origins with Viral Hepatitis Co-infection Patterns, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1116-1119. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.091810
AMA Cachafeiro SP, Caro-Murillo AM, Berenguer J, et al. Association of Patients’ Geographic Origins with Viral Hepatitis Co-infection Patterns, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1116-1119. doi:10.3201/eid1706.091810.
APA Cachafeiro, S. P., Caro-Murillo, A. M., Berenguer, J., Segura, F., Gutiérrez, F., Vidal, F....Del Amo, J. (2011). Association of Patients’ Geographic Origins with Viral Hepatitis Co-infection Patterns, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1116-1119. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.091810.

Possible Novel Nebovirus Genotype in Cattle, France [PDF - 227 KB - 4 pages]
J. Kaplon et al.

To determine if bovine caliciviruses circulate in France, we studied 456 fecal samples from diarrheic calves. We found a 20% prevalence of genogroup III noroviruses and a predominance of genotype III.2. Neboviruses, with a prevalence of 7%, were all related to the reference strain Bo/Nebraska/80/US, except for the strain Bo/DijonA216/06/FR, which could represent a novel genotype.

EID Kaplon J, Guenau E, Asdrubal P, Pothier P, Ambert-Balay K. Possible Novel Nebovirus Genotype in Cattle, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1120-1123. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100038
AMA Kaplon J, Guenau E, Asdrubal P, et al. Possible Novel Nebovirus Genotype in Cattle, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1120-1123. doi:10.3201/eid1706.100038.
APA Kaplon, J., Guenau, E., Asdrubal, P., Pothier, P., & Ambert-Balay, K. (2011). Possible Novel Nebovirus Genotype in Cattle, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1120-1123. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100038.
Letters

Vibrio cholerae in Traveler from Haiti to Canada [PDF - 70 KB - 2 pages]
M. W. Gilmour et al.
EID Gilmour MW, Martel-Laferrière V, Lévesque S, Gaudreau C, Bekal S, Nadon C, et al. Vibrio cholerae in Traveler from Haiti to Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1124-1125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.110161
AMA Gilmour MW, Martel-Laferrière V, Lévesque S, et al. Vibrio cholerae in Traveler from Haiti to Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1124-1125. doi:10.3201/eid1706.110161.
APA Gilmour, M. W., Martel-Laferrière, V., Lévesque, S., Gaudreau, C., Bekal, S., Nadon, C....Bourgault, A. (2011). Vibrio cholerae in Traveler from Haiti to Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1124-1125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.110161.

Easy Diagnosis of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease [PDF - 149 KB - 3 pages]
L. Selva et al.
EID Selva L, Krauel X, Pallares R, Muñoz-Almagro C. Easy Diagnosis of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1125-1127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100997
AMA Selva L, Krauel X, Pallares R, et al. Easy Diagnosis of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1125-1127. doi:10.3201/eid1706.100997.
APA Selva, L., Krauel, X., Pallares, R., & Muñoz-Almagro, C. (2011). Easy Diagnosis of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1125-1127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100997.

Mimivirus-like Particles in Acanthamoebae from Sewage Sludge [PDF - 201 KB - 3 pages]
W. H. Gaze et al.
EID Gaze WH, Morgan G, Zhang L, Wellington EM. Mimivirus-like Particles in Acanthamoebae from Sewage Sludge. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1127-1129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101282
AMA Gaze WH, Morgan G, Zhang L, et al. Mimivirus-like Particles in Acanthamoebae from Sewage Sludge. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1127-1129. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101282.
APA Gaze, W. H., Morgan, G., Zhang, L., & Wellington, E. M. (2011). Mimivirus-like Particles in Acanthamoebae from Sewage Sludge. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1127-1129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101282.

Rabies Immunization Status of Dogs, Beijing, China [PDF - 157 KB - 2 pages]
C. Wang et al.
EID Wang C, Wang Y, Du X, Zeng L, Dong G, Wu Y, et al. Rabies Immunization Status of Dogs, Beijing, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1129-1130. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101590
AMA Wang C, Wang Y, Du X, et al. Rabies Immunization Status of Dogs, Beijing, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1129-1130. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101590.
APA Wang, C., Wang, Y., Du, X., Zeng, L., Dong, G., Wu, Y....Chen, Z. (2011). Rabies Immunization Status of Dogs, Beijing, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1129-1130. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101590.

Effect of Media Warnings on Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, France [PDF - 151 KB - 2 pages]
P. Gautret et al.
EID Gautret P, Labreuil C, Seyni M, Delmont J, Parola P, Brouqui P. Effect of Media Warnings on Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1131-1132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101962
AMA Gautret P, Labreuil C, Seyni M, et al. Effect of Media Warnings on Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1131-1132. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101962.
APA Gautret, P., Labreuil, C., Seyni, M., Delmont, J., Parola, P., & Brouqui, P. (2011). Effect of Media Warnings on Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1131-1132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101962.

Bedbugs as Vectors for Drug-Resistant Bacteria [PDF - 35 KB - 3 pages]
C. F. Lowe and M. G. Romney
EID Lowe CF, Romney MG. Bedbugs as Vectors for Drug-Resistant Bacteria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1132-1134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101978
AMA Lowe CF, Romney MG. Bedbugs as Vectors for Drug-Resistant Bacteria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1132-1134. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101978.
APA Lowe, C. F., & Romney, M. G. (2011). Bedbugs as Vectors for Drug-Resistant Bacteria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1132-1134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101978.

Community Vaccinators in the Workplace [PDF - 129 KB - 2 pages]
J. R. Harris et al.
EID Harris JR, Martin D, Lichiello P, Ahmed F, Friedman C, Williams B. Community Vaccinators in the Workplace. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1134-1135. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101763
AMA Harris JR, Martin D, Lichiello P, et al. Community Vaccinators in the Workplace. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1134-1135. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101763.
APA Harris, J. R., Martin, D., Lichiello, P., Ahmed, F., Friedman, C., & Williams, B. (2011). Community Vaccinators in the Workplace. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1134-1135. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101763.

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Meat, Detroit, Michigan, USA [PDF - 110 KB - 3 pages]
K. Bhargava et al.
EID Bhargava K, Wang X, Donabedian S, Zervos M, da Rocha L, Zhang Y. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Meat, Detroit, Michigan, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1135-1137. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101905
AMA Bhargava K, Wang X, Donabedian S, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Meat, Detroit, Michigan, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1135-1137. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101905.
APA Bhargava, K., Wang, X., Donabedian, S., Zervos, M., da Rocha, L., & Zhang, Y. (2011). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Meat, Detroit, Michigan, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1135-1137. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101905.

Screening for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus among Hospital Staff, Spain [PDF - 141 KB - 2 pages]
J. Olalla et al.
EID Olalla J, Marcos M, Fernández F, Oulkadi J, Montiel N, del Arco A, et al. Screening for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus among Hospital Staff, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1139-1140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100577
AMA Olalla J, Marcos M, Fernández F, et al. Screening for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus among Hospital Staff, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1139-1140. doi:10.3201/eid1706.100577.
APA Olalla, J., Marcos, M., Fernández, F., Oulkadi, J., Montiel, N., del Arco, A....García-Alegría, J. (2011). Screening for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus among Hospital Staff, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1139-1140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100577.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and HIV Infection [PDF - 165 KB - 4 pages]
S. Dhanireddy et al.
EID Dhanireddy S, Harrington RD, Crane HM, Gingo MR, Morris A, Huang L, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and HIV Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1140-1143. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.102018
AMA Dhanireddy S, Harrington RD, Crane HM, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and HIV Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1140-1143. doi:10.3201/eid1706.102018.
APA Dhanireddy, S., Harrington, R. D., Crane, H. M., Gingo, M. R., Morris, A., Huang, L....Crothers, K. (2011). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and HIV Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1140-1143. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.102018.

Swine Influenza Virus A (H3N2) Infection in Human, Kansas, USA, 2009 [PDF - 132 KB - 2 pages]
C. M. Cox et al.
EID Cox CM, Neises D, Garten RJ, Bryant B, Hesse RA, Anderson GA, et al. Swine Influenza Virus A (H3N2) Infection in Human, Kansas, USA, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1143-1144. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101488
AMA Cox CM, Neises D, Garten RJ, et al. Swine Influenza Virus A (H3N2) Infection in Human, Kansas, USA, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1143-1144. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101488.
APA Cox, C. M., Neises, D., Garten, R. J., Bryant, B., Hesse, R. A., Anderson, G. A....Finelli, L. (2011). Swine Influenza Virus A (H3N2) Infection in Human, Kansas, USA, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1143-1144. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101488.

Severe Leptospirosis Similar to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Florida and Missouri, USA [PDF - 193 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Lo et al.
EID Lo Y, Kintziger KW, Carson HJ, Patrick SL, Turabelidze G, Stanek DR, et al. Severe Leptospirosis Similar to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Florida and Missouri, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1145-1146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100980
AMA Lo Y, Kintziger KW, Carson HJ, et al. Severe Leptospirosis Similar to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Florida and Missouri, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1145-1146. doi:10.3201/eid1706.100980.
APA Lo, Y., Kintziger, K. W., Carson, H. J., Patrick, S. L., Turabelidze, G., Stanek, D. R....Zaki, S. R. (2011). Severe Leptospirosis Similar to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Florida and Missouri, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1145-1146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.100980.

Coronavirus HKU1 in Children, Brazil, 1995 [PDF - 147 KB - 2 pages]
L. G. Góes et al.
EID Góes LG, Durigon EL, Campos AA, Hein N, Passos SD, Jerez JA. Coronavirus HKU1 in Children, Brazil, 1995. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1147-1148. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101381
AMA Góes LG, Durigon EL, Campos AA, et al. Coronavirus HKU1 in Children, Brazil, 1995. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1147-1148. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101381.
APA Góes, L. G., Durigon, E. L., Campos, A. A., Hein, N., Passos, S. D., & Jerez, J. A. (2011). Coronavirus HKU1 in Children, Brazil, 1995. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1147-1148. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101381.

Macrolide Resistance–associated 23S rRNA Mutation in Mycoplasma genitalium, Japan [PDF - 148 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Shimada et al.
EID Shimada Y, Deguchi T, Nakane K, Yasuda M, Yokoi S, Ito S, et al. Macrolide Resistance–associated 23S rRNA Mutation in Mycoplasma genitalium, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1148-1150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101055
AMA Shimada Y, Deguchi T, Nakane K, et al. Macrolide Resistance–associated 23S rRNA Mutation in Mycoplasma genitalium, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1148-1150. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101055.
APA Shimada, Y., Deguchi, T., Nakane, K., Yasuda, M., Yokoi, S., Ito, S....Ishiko, H. (2011). Macrolide Resistance–associated 23S rRNA Mutation in Mycoplasma genitalium, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1148-1150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101055.

Saffold Cardioviruses in Children with Diarrhea, Thailand [PDF - 168 KB - 3 pages]
P. Khamrin et al.
EID Khamrin P, Chaimongkol N, Nantachit N, Okitsu S, Ushijima H, Maneekarn N. Saffold Cardioviruses in Children with Diarrhea, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1150-1152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101983
AMA Khamrin P, Chaimongkol N, Nantachit N, et al. Saffold Cardioviruses in Children with Diarrhea, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1150-1152. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101983.
APA Khamrin, P., Chaimongkol, N., Nantachit, N., Okitsu, S., Ushijima, H., & Maneekarn, N. (2011). Saffold Cardioviruses in Children with Diarrhea, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1150-1152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101983.

Lethal Necrotizing Pneumonia Caused by an ST398 Staphylococcus aureus Strain [PDF - 145 KB - 2 pages]
P. R. Davies et al.
EID Davies PR, Wagstrom EA, Bender JB. Lethal Necrotizing Pneumonia Caused by an ST398 Staphylococcus aureus Strain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1152-1153. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101394
AMA Davies PR, Wagstrom EA, Bender JB. Lethal Necrotizing Pneumonia Caused by an ST398 Staphylococcus aureus Strain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1152-1153. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101394.
APA Davies, P. R., Wagstrom, E. A., & Bender, J. B. (2011). Lethal Necrotizing Pneumonia Caused by an ST398 Staphylococcus aureus Strain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1152-1153. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101394.

Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Escherichia coli in Neonatal Care Unit [PDF - 150 KB - 2 pages]
J. R. Johnson
EID Johnson JR. Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Escherichia coli in Neonatal Care Unit. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1153-1154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101868
AMA Johnson JR. Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Escherichia coli in Neonatal Care Unit. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1153-1154. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101868.
APA Johnson, J. R. (2011). Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Escherichia coli in Neonatal Care Unit. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1153-1154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101868.

Suspected Horse-to-Human Transmission of MRSA ST398
E. van Duijkeren et al.
EID van Duijkeren E, ten Horn L, Wagenaar JA, de Bruijn M, Laarhoven L, Verstappen KM, et al. Suspected Horse-to-Human Transmission of MRSA ST398. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1137-1139. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101330
AMA van Duijkeren E, ten Horn L, Wagenaar JA, et al. Suspected Horse-to-Human Transmission of MRSA ST398. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1137-1139. doi:10.3201/eid1706.101330.
APA van Duijkeren, E., ten Horn, L., Wagenaar, J. A., de Bruijn, M., Laarhoven, L., Verstappen, K. M....Duim, B. (2011). Suspected Horse-to-Human Transmission of MRSA ST398. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1137-1139. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.101330.
Books and Media

Emerging Infections 9 [PDF - 182 KB - 1 page]
R. Hall
EID Hall R. Emerging Infections 9. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.110444
AMA Hall R. Emerging Infections 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1155. doi:10.3201/eid1706.110444.
APA Hall, R. (2011). Emerging Infections 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.110444.
About the Cover

The only emperor is the emperor of ice-cream [PDF - 233 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. The only emperor is the emperor of ice-cream. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1156-1157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.ac1706
AMA Potter P. The only emperor is the emperor of ice-cream. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1156-1157. doi:10.3201/eid1706.ac1706.
APA Potter, P. (2011). The only emperor is the emperor of ice-cream. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1156-1157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.ac1706.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Yaws [PDF - 136 KB - 1 page]
N. Männikkö
EID Männikkö N. Etymologia: Yaws. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1082. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.et1706
AMA Männikkö N. Etymologia: Yaws. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(6):1082. doi:10.3201/eid1706.et1706.
APA Männikkö, N. (2011). Etymologia: Yaws. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(6), 1082. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1706.et1706.
Page created: October 04, 2011
Page updated: February 08, 2012
Page reviewed: February 08, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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