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Volume 19, Number 4—April 2013

Volume 19, Number 4—April 2013   PDF Version [PDF - 4.91 MB - 178 pages]

Perspective

  • Discrepancies in Data Reporting for Rabies, Africa PDF Version [PDF - 364 KB - 5 pages]
    L. H. Nel
    View Summary

    Synchronized, shared, or unified data reporting is necessary and feasible.

        View Abstract

    Human rabies is an ancient disease but in modern times has primarily been associated with dog rabies–endemic countries of Asia and Africa. From an African perspective, the inevitable and tragic consequences of rabies require serious reflection of the factors that continue to drive its neglect. Established as a major disease only after multiple introductions during the colonial era, rabies continues to spread into new reservoirs and territories in Africa. However, analysis of reported data identified major discrepancies that are indicators of poor surveillance, reporting, and cooperation among national, international, and global authorities. Ultimately, the absence of reliable and sustained data compromises the priority given to the control of rabies. Appropriate actions and changes, in accordance to the One Health philosophy and including aspects such as synchronized, shared, and unified global rabies data reporting, will not only be necessary, but also should be feasible.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nel LH. Discrepancies in Data Reporting for Rabies, Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):529-533. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.120185
    AMA Nel LH. Discrepancies in Data Reporting for Rabies, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):529-533. doi:10.3201/eid1904.120185.
    APA Nel, L. H. (2013). Discrepancies in Data Reporting for Rabies, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 529-533. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.120185.
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Research

  • Circovirus in Tissues of Dogs with Vasculitis and Hemorrhage PDF Version [PDF - 469 KB - 8 pages]
    L. Li et al.
    View Summary

    Results indicate a likely association between circovirus infection in dogs and canine vascular disease.

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    We characterized the complete genome of a novel dog circovirus (DogCV) from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, vasculitis, and granulomatous lymphadenitis. DogCV was detected by PCR in fecal samples from 19/168 (11.3%) dogs with diarrhea and 14/204 (6.9%) healthy dogs and in blood from 19/409 (3.3%) of dogs with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, fever of unknown origin, or past tick bite. Co-infection with other canine pathogens was detected for 13/19 (68%) DogCV-positive dogs with diarrhea. DogCV capsid proteins from different dogs varied by up to 8%. In situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy detected DogCV in the lymph nodes and spleens of 4 dogs with vascular compromise and histiocytic inflammation. The detection of a circovirus in tissues of dogs expands the known tropism of these viruses to a second mammalian host. Our results indicate that circovirus, alone or in co-infection with other pathogens, might contribute to illness and death in dogs.

        Cite This Article
    EID Li L, McGraw S, Zhu K, Leutenegger CM, Marks SL, Kubiski S, et al. Circovirus in Tissues of Dogs with Vasculitis and Hemorrhage. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):534-541. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121390
    AMA Li L, McGraw S, Zhu K, et al. Circovirus in Tissues of Dogs with Vasculitis and Hemorrhage. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):534-541. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121390.
    APA Li, L., McGraw, S., Zhu, K., Leutenegger, C. M., Marks, S. L., Kubiski, S....Pesavento, P. A. (2013). Circovirus in Tissues of Dogs with Vasculitis and Hemorrhage. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 534-541. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121390.
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  • Cost-effectiveness of Novel System of Mosquito Surveillance and Control, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 498 KB - 9 pages]
    K. M. Pepin et al.
    View Summary

    Results are relevant to public health budgets and societal concerns.

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    Of all countries in the Western Hemisphere, Brazil has the highest economic losses caused by dengue fever. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a novel system of vector surveillance and control, Monitoramento Inteligente da Dengue (Intelligent Dengue Monitoring System [MID]), which was implemented in 21 cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Traps for adult female mosquitoes were spaced at 300-m intervals throughout each city. In cities that used MID, vector control was conducted specifically at high-risk sites (indicated through daily updates by MID). In control cities, vector control proceeded according to guidelines of the Brazilian government. We estimated that MID prevented 27,191 cases of dengue fever and saved an average of $227 (median $58) per case prevented, which saved approximately $364,517 in direct costs (health care and vector control) and $7,138,940 in lost wages (societal effect) annually. MID was more effective in cities with stronger economies and more cost-effective in cities with higher levels of mosquito infestation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pepin KM, Marques-Toledo C, Scherer L, Morais MM, Ellis B, Eiras AE, et al. Cost-effectiveness of Novel System of Mosquito Surveillance and Control, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):542-550. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.120117
    AMA Pepin KM, Marques-Toledo C, Scherer L, et al. Cost-effectiveness of Novel System of Mosquito Surveillance and Control, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):542-550. doi:10.3201/eid1904.120117.
    APA Pepin, K. M., Marques-Toledo, C., Scherer, L., Morais, M. M., Ellis, B., & Eiras, A. E. (2013). Cost-effectiveness of Novel System of Mosquito Surveillance and Control, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 542-550. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.120117.
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  • Medscape CME Activity
    Serotype IV and Invasive Group B Streptococcus Disease in Neonates, Minnesota, USA, 2000–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 533 KB - 8 pages]
    P. Ferrieri et al.
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    Serotype predominance has shifted, and drug resistance is emerging.

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    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of invasive disease in neonates in the United States. Surveillance of invasive GBS disease in Minnesota, USA, during 2000–2010 yielded 449 isolates from 449 infants; 257 had early-onset (EO) disease (by age 6 days) and 192 late-onset (LO) disease (180 at age 7–89 days, 12 at age 90–180 days). Isolates were characterized by capsular polysaccharide serotype and surface-protein profile; types III and Ia predominated. However, because previously uncommon serotype IV constitutes 5/31 EO isolates in 2010, twelve type IV isolates collected during 2000–2010 were studied further. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, they were classified into 3 profiles; by multilocus sequence typing, representative isolates included new sequence type 468. Resistance to clindamycin or erythromycin was detected in 4/5 serotype IV isolates. Emergence of serotype IV GBS in Minnesota highlights the need for serotype prevalence monitoring to detect trends that could affect prevention strategies.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ferrieri P, Lynfield R, Creti R, Flores AE. Serotype IV and Invasive Group B Streptococcus Disease in Neonates, Minnesota, USA, 2000–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):551-558. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121572
    AMA Ferrieri P, Lynfield R, Creti R, et al. Serotype IV and Invasive Group B Streptococcus Disease in Neonates, Minnesota, USA, 2000–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):551-558. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121572.
    APA Ferrieri, P., Lynfield, R., Creti, R., & Flores, A. E. (2013). Serotype IV and Invasive Group B Streptococcus Disease in Neonates, Minnesota, USA, 2000–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 551-558. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121572.
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  • Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus from Rabbits to Cynomolgus Macaques PDF Version [PDF - 405 KB - 7 pages]
    P. Liu et al.
    View Summary

    Cross-species transmission indicates that this virus may also infect humans.

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    The recent discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains in rabbits in the People’s Republic of China and the United States revealed that rabbits are another noteworthy reservoir of HEV. However, whether HEV from rabbits can infect humans is unclear. To study the zoonotic potential for and pathogenesis of rabbit HEV, we infected 2 cynomolgus macaques and 2 rabbits with an HEV strain from rabbits in China. Typical hepatitis developed in both monkeys; they exhibited elevated liver enzymes, viremia, virus shedding in fecal specimens, and seroconversion. Comparison of the complete genome sequence of HEV passed in the macaques with that of the inoculum showed 99.8% nucleotide identity. Rabbit HEV RNA (positive- and negative-stranded) was detectable in various tissues from the experimentally infected rabbits, indicating that extrahepatic replication may be common. Thus, HEV is transmissible from rabbits to cynomolgus macaques, which suggests that rabbits may be a new source of human HEV infection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Liu P, Bu Q, Wang L, Han J, Du R, Lei Y, et al. Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus from Rabbits to Cynomolgus Macaques. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):559-565. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.120827
    AMA Liu P, Bu Q, Wang L, et al. Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus from Rabbits to Cynomolgus Macaques. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):559-565. doi:10.3201/eid1904.120827.
    APA Liu, P., Bu, Q., Wang, L., Han, J., Du, R., Lei, Y....Zhuang, H. (2013). Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus from Rabbits to Cynomolgus Macaques. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 559-565. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.120827.
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  • Detection of Spliced mRNA from Human Bocavirus 1 in Clinical Samples from Children with Respiratory Tract Infections PDF Version [PDF - 405 KB - 7 pages]
    A. Christensen et al.
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    Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) is a parvovirus associated with respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children, but a causal relation has not yet been confirmed. To develop a qualitative reverse transcription PCR to detect spliced mRNA from HBoV1 and to determine whether HBoV1 mRNA correlated better with RTIs than did HBoV1 DNA, we used samples from HBoV1 DNA–positive children, with and without RTIs, to evaluate the test. A real-time reverse transcription PCR, targeting 2 alternatively spliced mRNAs, was developed. HBoV1 mRNA was detected in nasopharyngeal aspirates from 33 (25%) of 133 children with RTIs but in none of 28 controls (p<0.001). The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the test were good. Our data support the hypothesis that HBoV1 may cause RTIs, and we propose that HBoV1 mRNA could be used with benefit, instead of HBoV1 DNA, as a diagnostic target.

        Cite This Article
    EID Christensen A, Døllner H, Skanke L, Krokstad S, Moe N, Nordbø S, et al. Detection of Spliced mRNA from Human Bocavirus 1 in Clinical Samples from Children with Respiratory Tract Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):574-580. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121775
    AMA Christensen A, Døllner H, Skanke L, et al. Detection of Spliced mRNA from Human Bocavirus 1 in Clinical Samples from Children with Respiratory Tract Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):574-580. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121775.
    APA Christensen, A., Døllner, H., Skanke, L., Krokstad, S., Moe, N., & Nordbø, S. (2013). Detection of Spliced mRNA from Human Bocavirus 1 in Clinical Samples from Children with Respiratory Tract Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 574-580. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121775.
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  • Predicting Hotspots for Influenza Virus Reassortment PDF Version [PDF - 498 KB - 8 pages]
    T. L. Fuller et al.
    View Summary

    Reassortment is most likely to occur in eastern China, central China, or the Nile Delta in Egypt.

        View Abstract

    The 1957 and 1968 influenza pandemics, each of which killed ≈1 million persons, arose through reassortment events. Influenza virus in humans and domestic animals could reassort and cause another pandemic. To identify geographic areas where agricultural production systems are conducive to reassortment, we fitted multivariate regression models to surveillance data on influenza A virus subtype H5N1 among poultry in China and Egypt and subtype H3N2 among humans. We then applied the models across Asia and Egypt to predict where subtype H3N2 from humans and subtype H5N1 from birds overlap; this overlap serves as a proxy for co-infection and in vivo reassortment. For Asia, we refined the prioritization by identifying areas that also have high swine density. Potential geographic foci of reassortment include the northern plains of India, coastal and central provinces of China, the western Korean Peninsula and southwestern Japan in Asia, and the Nile Delta in Egypt.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fuller TL, Gilbert M, Martin V, Cappelle J, Hosseini P, Njabo KY, et al. Predicting Hotspots for Influenza Virus Reassortment. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):581-588. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.120903
    AMA Fuller TL, Gilbert M, Martin V, et al. Predicting Hotspots for Influenza Virus Reassortment. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):581-588. doi:10.3201/eid1904.120903.
    APA Fuller, T. L., Gilbert, M., Martin, V., Cappelle, J., Hosseini, P., Njabo, K. Y....Smith, T. B. (2013). Predicting Hotspots for Influenza Virus Reassortment. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 581-588. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.120903.
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  • Effect of 10-Valent Pneumococcal Vaccine on Pneumonia among Children, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 714 KB - 9 pages]
    E. Afonso et al.
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    Vaccination rapidly reduced hospitalizations for pneumonia among children.

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    Pneumonia is most problematic for children in developing countries. In 2010, Brazil introduced a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) to its National Immunization Program. To assess the vaccine’s effectiveness for preventing pneumonia, we analyzed rates of hospitalization among children 2–24 months of age who had pneumonia from all causes from January 2005 through August 2011. We used data from the National Hospitalization Information System to conduct an interrupted time-series analysis for 5 cities in Brazil that had good data quality and high PCV10 vaccination coverage. Of the 197,975 hospitalizations analyzed, 30% were for pneumonia. Significant declines in hospitalizations for pneumonia were noted in Belo Horizonte (28.7%), Curitiba (23.3%), and Recife (27.4%) but not in São Paulo and Porto Alegre. However, in the latter 2 cities, vaccination coverage was less than that in the former 3. Overall, 1 year after introduction of PCV10, hospitalizations of children for pneumonia were reduced.

        Cite This Article
    EID Afonso E, Minamisava R, Bierrenbach A, Escalante J, Alencar A, Domingues C, et al. Effect of 10-Valent Pneumococcal Vaccine on Pneumonia among Children, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):589-597. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121198
    AMA Afonso E, Minamisava R, Bierrenbach A, et al. Effect of 10-Valent Pneumococcal Vaccine on Pneumonia among Children, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):589-597. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121198.
    APA Afonso, E., Minamisava, R., Bierrenbach, A., Escalante, J., Alencar, A., Domingues, C....Andrade, A. (2013). Effect of 10-Valent Pneumococcal Vaccine on Pneumonia among Children, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 589-597. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121198.
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  • Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Chacma Baboons, South Africa PDF Version [PDF - 589 KB - 8 pages]
    C. Dickens et al.
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    Whether baboons were infected with HBV by humans or vice versa is unclear.

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    During previous studies of susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HBV DNA was detected in 2/6 wild-caught baboons. In the present study, HBV DNA was amplified from 15/69 wild-caught baboons. All animals were negative for HBV surface antigen and antibody against HBV core antigen. Liver tissue from 1 baboon was immunohistochemically negative for HBV surface antigen but positive for HBV core antigen. The complete HBV genome of an isolate from this liver clustered with subgenotype A2. Reverse transcription PCR of liver RNA amplified virus precore and surface protein genes, indicating replication of virus in baboon liver tissue. Four experimentally naive baboons were injected with serum from HBV DNA–positive baboons. These 4 baboons showed transient seroconversion, and HBV DNA was amplified from serum at various times after infection. The presence of HBV DNA at relatively low levels and in the absence of serologic markers in the baboon, a nonhuman primate, indicates an occult infection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Dickens C, Kew MC, Purcell RH, Kramvis A. Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Chacma Baboons, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):598-605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121107
    AMA Dickens C, Kew MC, Purcell RH, et al. Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Chacma Baboons, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):598-605. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121107.
    APA Dickens, C., Kew, M. C., Purcell, R. H., & Kramvis, A. (2013). Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Chacma Baboons, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 598-605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121107.
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  • Medscape CME Activity
    Risk Factors for Influenza among Health Care Workers during 2009 Pandemic, Toronto, Ontario, Canada PDF Version [PDF - 687 KB - 10 pages]
    S. P. Kuster et al.
    View Summary

    Influenza was associated with household exposure, aerosol-generating procedures, and lower adherence to hand hygiene recommendations.

        View Abstract

    This prospective cohort study, performed during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, was aimed to determine whether adults working in acute care hospitals were at higher risk than other working adults for influenza and to assess risk factors for influenza among health care workers (HCWs). We assessed the risk for influenza among 563 HCWs and 169 non-HCWs using PCR to test nasal swab samples collected during acute respiratory illness; results for 13 (2.2%) HCWs and 7 (4.1%) non-HCWs were positive for influenza. Influenza infection was associated with contact with family members who had acute respiratory illnesses (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 6.9, 95% CI 2.2–21.8); performing aerosol-generating medical procedures (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1–3.5); and low self-reported adherence to hand hygiene recommendations (AOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.7–1.0). Contact with persons with acute respiratory illness, rather than workplace, was associated with influenza infection. Adherence to infection control recommendations may prevent influenza among HCWs.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kuster SP, Coleman BL, Raboud J, McNeil S, De Serres G, Gubbay J, et al. Risk Factors for Influenza among Health Care Workers during 2009 Pandemic, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):606-615. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.111812
    AMA Kuster SP, Coleman BL, Raboud J, et al. Risk Factors for Influenza among Health Care Workers during 2009 Pandemic, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):606-615. doi:10.3201/eid1904.111812.
    APA Kuster, S. P., Coleman, B. L., Raboud, J., McNeil, S., De Serres, G., Gubbay, J....McGeer, A. J. (2013). Risk Factors for Influenza among Health Care Workers during 2009 Pandemic, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 606-615. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.111812.
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  • Deaths Associated with Influenza Pandemic of 1918–19, Japan PDF Version [PDF - 514 KB - 7 pages]
    S. Chandra
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    Contrary to popular belief, Japan’s experience of the 1918 influenza pandemic was typical of that of Asian countries.

        View Abstract

    Current estimates of deaths from the influenza pandemic of 1918–19 in Japan are based on vital records and range from 257,000 to 481,000. The resulting crude death rate range of 0.47%–0.88% is considerably lower than parallel and conservative worldwide estimates of 1.66%–2.77%. Because the accuracy of vital registration records for early 20th century Asia is questionable, to calculate the percentage of the population who died from the pandemic, we used alternative prefecture-level population count data for Japan in combination with estimation methods for panel data that were not available to earlier demographers. Our population loss estimates of 1.97–2.02 million are appreciably higher than the standing estimates, and they yield a crude rate of population loss of 3.62%–3.71%. This rate resolves a major puzzle about the pandemic by indicating that the experience of Japan was similar to that of other parts of Asia.

        Cite This Article
    EID Chandra S. Deaths Associated with Influenza Pandemic of 1918–19, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):616-622. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.120103
    AMA Chandra S. Deaths Associated with Influenza Pandemic of 1918–19, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):616-622. doi:10.3201/eid1904.120103.
    APA Chandra, S. (2013). Deaths Associated with Influenza Pandemic of 1918–19, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 616-622. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.120103.
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  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Groin and Risk for Clinical Infection among HIV-infected Adults PDF Version [PDF - 620 KB - 7 pages]
    P. J. Peters et al.
        View Abstract

    Data on the interaction between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization and clinical infection are limited. During 2007–2008, we enrolled HIV-infected adults in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, in a prospective cohort study. Nares and groin swab specimens were cultured for S. aureus at enrollment and after 6 and 12 months. MRSA colonization was detected in 13%–15% of HIV-infected participants (n = 600, 98% male) at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. MRSA colonization was detected in the nares only (41%), groin only (21%), and at both sites (38%). Over a median of 2.1 years of follow-up, 29 MRSA clinical infections occurred in 25 participants. In multivariate analysis, MRSA clinical infection was significantly associated with MRSA colonization of the groin (adjusted risk ratio 4.8) and a history of MRSA infection (adjusted risk ratio 3.1). MRSA prevention strategies that can effectively prevent or eliminate groin colonization are likely necessary to reduce clinical infections in this population.

        Cite This Article
    EID Peters PJ, Brooks JT, McAllister SK, Limbago B, Lowery H, Fosheim G, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Groin and Risk for Clinical Infection among HIV-infected Adults. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):623-629. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121353
    AMA Peters PJ, Brooks JT, McAllister SK, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Groin and Risk for Clinical Infection among HIV-infected Adults. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):623-629. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121353.
    APA Peters, P. J., Brooks, J. T., McAllister, S. K., Limbago, B., Lowery, H., Fosheim, G....Rimland, D. (2013). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Groin and Risk for Clinical Infection among HIV-infected Adults. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 623-629. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121353.
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  • Description and Nomenclature of Neisseria meningitidis Capsule Locus PDF Version [PDF - 500 KB - 4 pages]
    O. B. Harrison et al.
    View Summary

    Revised nomenclature for serogroups and capsule biosynthesis genes is proposed.

        View Abstract

    Pathogenic Neisseria meningitidis isolates contain a polysaccharide capsule that is the main virulence determinant for this bacterium. Thirteen capsular polysaccharides have been described, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has enabled determination of the structure of capsular polysaccharides responsible for serogroup specificity. Molecular mechanisms involved in N. meningitidis capsule biosynthesis have also been identified, and genes involved in this process and in cell surface translocation are clustered at a single chromosomal locus termed cps. The use of multiple names for some of the genes involved in capsule synthesis, combined with the need for rapid diagnosis of serogroups commonly associated with invasive meningococcal disease, prompted a requirement for a consistent approach to the nomenclature of capsule genes. In this report, a comprehensive description of all N. meningitidis serogroups is provided, along with a proposed nomenclature, which was presented at the 2012 XVIIIth International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference.

        Cite This Article
    EID Harrison OB, Claus H, Jiang Y, Bennett JS, Bratcher HB, Jolley KA, et al. Description and Nomenclature of Neisseria meningitidis Capsule Locus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):566-573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.111799
    AMA Harrison OB, Claus H, Jiang Y, et al. Description and Nomenclature of Neisseria meningitidis Capsule Locus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):566-573. doi:10.3201/eid1904.111799.
    APA Harrison, O. B., Claus, H., Jiang, Y., Bennett, J. S., Bratcher, H. B., Jolley, K. A....Maiden, M. (2013). Description and Nomenclature of Neisseria meningitidis Capsule Locus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 566-573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.111799.
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Dispatches

  • Feline Origin of Rotavirus Strain, Tunisia, 2008 PDF Version [PDF - 1.08 MB - 5 pages]
    M. Fredj et al.
        View Abstract

    In Tunisia in 2008, an unusual G6P[9] rotavirus, RVA/human-wt/TUN/17237/2008/G6P[9], rarely found in humans, was detected in a child. To determine the origin of this strain, we conducted phylogenetic analyses and found a unique genotype constellation resembling rotaviruses belonging to the feline BA222-like genotype constellation. The strain probably resulted from direct cat-to-human transmission.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fredj M, Heylen E, Zeller M, Fodha I, Benhamida-Rebai M, Van Ranst M, et al. Feline Origin of Rotavirus Strain, Tunisia, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):630-634. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121383
    AMA Fredj M, Heylen E, Zeller M, et al. Feline Origin of Rotavirus Strain, Tunisia, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):630-634. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121383.
    APA Fredj, M., Heylen, E., Zeller, M., Fodha, I., Benhamida-Rebai, M., Van Ranst, M....Trabelsi, A. (2013). Feline Origin of Rotavirus Strain, Tunisia, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 630-634. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121383.
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  • Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in Horses, Austria, 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 810 KB - 3 pages]
    J. O. Rushton et al.
        View Abstract

    An unexpectedly high infection rate (26.1%) of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was identified in a herd of 257 horses of the same breed distributed among 3 federal states in Austria. Young age (p<0.001) and male sex (p = 0.001) were positively associated with infection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rushton JO, Lecollinet S, Hubálek Z, Svobodová P, Lussy H, Nowotny N, et al. Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in Horses, Austria, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):635-637. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121450
    AMA Rushton JO, Lecollinet S, Hubálek Z, et al. Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in Horses, Austria, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):635-637. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121450.
    APA Rushton, J. O., Lecollinet, S., Hubálek, Z., Svobodová, P., Lussy, H., & Nowotny, N. (2013). Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in Horses, Austria, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 635-637. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121450.
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  • Hepatitis Virus in Long-Fingered Bats, Myanmar
    B. He et al.
        View Abstract

    During an analysis of the virome of bats from Myanmar, a large number of reads were annotated to orthohepadnaviruses. We present the full genome sequence and a morphological analysis of an orthohepadnavirus circulating in bats. This virus is substantially different from currently known members of the genus Orthohepadnavirus and represents a new species.

        Cite This Article
    EID He B, Fan Q, Yang F, Hu T, Qiu W, Feng Y, et al. Hepatitis Virus in Long-Fingered Bats, Myanmar. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):638-640. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121655
    AMA He B, Fan Q, Yang F, et al. Hepatitis Virus in Long-Fingered Bats, Myanmar. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):638-640. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121655.
    APA He, B., Fan, Q., Yang, F., Hu, T., Qiu, W., Feng, Y....Tu, C. (2013). Hepatitis Virus in Long-Fingered Bats, Myanmar. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 638-640. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121655.
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  • Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6, Thailand, 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 319 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Puenpa et al.
    View Summary

    Coxsackievirus A6, Thailand

        View Abstract

    In Thailand, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is usually caused by enterovirus 71 or coxsackievirus A16. To determine the cause of a large outbreak of HFMD in Thailand during June–August 2012, we examined patient specimens. Coxsackievirus A6 was the causative agent. To improve prevention and control, causes of HFMD should be monitored.

        Cite This Article
    EID Puenpa J, Chieochansin T, Linsuwanon P, Korkong S, Thongkomplew S, Vichaiwattana P, et al. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6, Thailand, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):641-643. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121666
    AMA Puenpa J, Chieochansin T, Linsuwanon P, et al. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6, Thailand, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):641-643. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121666.
    APA Puenpa, J., Chieochansin, T., Linsuwanon, P., Korkong, S., Thongkomplew, S., Vichaiwattana, P....Poovorawan, Y. (2013). Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6, Thailand, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 641-643. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121666.
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  • Early Introduction and Delayed Dissemination of Pandemic Influenza, Gabon PDF Version [PDF - 425 KB - 4 pages]
    S. Lekana-Douki et al.
        View Abstract

    Active surveillance in health care centers in Gabon during 2009–2011 detected 72 clinical cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (pH1N1). We found that pH1N1 virus was introduced in mid-2009 but spread throughout the country in 2010. Thus, Gabon was also affected by pH1N1.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lekana-Douki S, Mouinga-Ondémé A, Nkoghe D, Drosten C, Drexler J, Kazanji M, et al. Early Introduction and Delayed Dissemination of Pandemic Influenza, Gabon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):644-647. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.111925
    AMA Lekana-Douki S, Mouinga-Ondémé A, Nkoghe D, et al. Early Introduction and Delayed Dissemination of Pandemic Influenza, Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):644-647. doi:10.3201/eid1904.111925.
    APA Lekana-Douki, S., Mouinga-Ondémé, A., Nkoghe, D., Drosten, C., Drexler, J., Kazanji, M....Leroy, E. M. (2013). Early Introduction and Delayed Dissemination of Pandemic Influenza, Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 644-647. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.111925.
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  • Response to a Rabies Epidemic, Bali, Indonesia, 2008–2011 PDF Version [PDF - 480 KB - 4 pages]
    A. Putra et al.
        View Abstract

    Emergency vaccinations and culling failed to contain an outbreak of rabies in Bali, Indonesia, during 2008–2009. Subsequent island-wide mass vaccination (reaching 70% coverage, >200,000 dogs) led to substantial declines in rabies incidence and spread. However, the incidence of dog bites remains high, and repeat campaigns are necessary to eliminate rabies in Bali.

        Cite This Article
    EID Putra A, Hampson K, Girardi J, Hiby E, Knobel D, Mardiana W, et al. Response to a Rabies Epidemic, Bali, Indonesia, 2008–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):648-651. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.120380
    AMA Putra A, Hampson K, Girardi J, et al. Response to a Rabies Epidemic, Bali, Indonesia, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):648-651. doi:10.3201/eid1904.120380.
    APA Putra, A., Hampson, K., Girardi, J., Hiby, E., Knobel, D., Mardiana, W....Scott-Orr, H. (2013). Response to a Rabies Epidemic, Bali, Indonesia, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 648-651. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.120380.
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  • Genetic Relatedness of Dengue Viruses in Key West, Florida, USA, 2009–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 371 KB - 3 pages]
    J. L. Jordan et al.
        View Abstract

    Sequencing of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) strains isolated in Key West/Monroe County, Florida, indicate endemic transmission for >2 years of a distinct and predominant sublineage of the American–African genotype. DENV-1 strains isolated elsewhere in Florida grouped within a separate Central American lineage. Findings indicate endemic transmission of DENV into the continental United States.

        Cite This Article
    EID Jordan JL, Santiago GA, Margolis H, Stark L. Genetic Relatedness of Dengue Viruses in Key West, Florida, USA, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):652-654. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121295
    AMA Jordan JL, Santiago GA, Margolis H, et al. Genetic Relatedness of Dengue Viruses in Key West, Florida, USA, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):652-654. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121295.
    APA Jordan, J. L., Santiago, G. A., Margolis, H., & Stark, L. (2013). Genetic Relatedness of Dengue Viruses in Key West, Florida, USA, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 652-654. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121295.
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  • Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease during 2010–2011 Epidemic, South Korea PDF Version [PDF - 620 KB - 5 pages]
    J. Park et al.
        View Abstract

    An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease caused by serotype O virus occurred in cattle and pigs in South Korea during November 2010–April 2011. The highest rates of case and virus detection were observed 44 days after the first case was detected. Detection rates declined rapidly after culling and completion of a national vaccination program.

        Cite This Article
    EID Park J, Lee K, Ko Y, Kim S, Lee H, Shin Y, et al. Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease during 2010–2011 Epidemic, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):655-659. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121320
    AMA Park J, Lee K, Ko Y, et al. Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease during 2010–2011 Epidemic, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):655-659. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121320.
    APA Park, J., Lee, K., Ko, Y., Kim, S., Lee, H., Shin, Y....Kim, B. (2013). Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease during 2010–2011 Epidemic, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 655-659. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121320.
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Photo Quizzes

  • Photo Quiz PDF Version [PDF - 703 KB - 3 pages]
    P. Kumar and F. A. Murphy
            Cite This Article
    EID Kumar P, Murphy FA. Francis Peyton Rous. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):660-663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.130049
    AMA Kumar P, Murphy FA. Francis Peyton Rous. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):660-663. doi:10.3201/eid1904.130049.
    APA Kumar, P., & Murphy, F. A. (2013). Francis Peyton Rous. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 660-663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.130049.
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Another Dimension

Letters

  • Novel Serotype of Bluetongue Virus, Western North America PDF Version [PDF - 274 KB - 2 pages]
    N. Maclachlan et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Maclachlan N, Wilson WC, Crossley BM, Mayo CE, Jasperson DC, Breitmeyer RE, et al. Novel Serotype of Bluetongue Virus, Western North America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):665-666. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.120347
    AMA Maclachlan N, Wilson WC, Crossley BM, et al. Novel Serotype of Bluetongue Virus, Western North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):665-666. doi:10.3201/eid1904.120347.
    APA Maclachlan, N., Wilson, W. C., Crossley, B. M., Mayo, C. E., Jasperson, D. C., Breitmeyer, R. E....Whiteford, A. M. (2013). Novel Serotype of Bluetongue Virus, Western North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 665-666. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.120347.
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  • Novel Respiratory Syncytial Virus Subtype ON1 among Children, Cape Town, South Africa, 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 626 KB - 3 pages]
    Z. Valley-Omar et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Valley-Omar Z, Muloiwa R, Hu N, Eley B, Hsiao N. Novel Respiratory Syncytial Virus Subtype ON1 among Children, Cape Town, South Africa, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):668-670. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121465
    AMA Valley-Omar Z, Muloiwa R, Hu N, et al. Novel Respiratory Syncytial Virus Subtype ON1 among Children, Cape Town, South Africa, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):668-670. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121465.
    APA Valley-Omar, Z., Muloiwa, R., Hu, N., Eley, B., & Hsiao, N. (2013). Novel Respiratory Syncytial Virus Subtype ON1 among Children, Cape Town, South Africa, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 668-670. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121465.
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  • Henipaviruses and Fruit Bats, Papua New Guinea PDF Version [PDF - 287 KB - 2 pages]
    H. Field et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Field H, de Jong CE, Halpin K, Smith CS. Henipaviruses and Fruit Bats, Papua New Guinea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):670-671. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.111912
    AMA Field H, de Jong CE, Halpin K, et al. Henipaviruses and Fruit Bats, Papua New Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):670-671. doi:10.3201/eid1904.111912.
    APA Field, H., de Jong, C. E., Halpin, K., & Smith, C. S. (2013). Henipaviruses and Fruit Bats, Papua New Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 670-671. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.111912.
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  • High Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis, Southern China PDF Version [PDF - 269 KB - 2 pages]
    Y. Feng et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Feng Y, Fu S, Zhang H, Petersen LR, Zhang B, Gao X, et al. High Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis, Southern China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):672-673. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.120137
    AMA Feng Y, Fu S, Zhang H, et al. High Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis, Southern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):672-673. doi:10.3201/eid1904.120137.
    APA Feng, Y., Fu, S., Zhang, H., Petersen, L. R., Zhang, B., Gao, X....Liang, G. (2013). High Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis, Southern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 672-673. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.120137.
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  • Novel Hantavirus in Wildlife, United Kingdom PDF Version [PDF - 340 KB - 3 pages]
    K. C. Pounder et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Pounder KC, Begon M, Sironen T, Henttonen H, Watts PC, Voutilainen L, et al. Novel Hantavirus in Wildlife, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):673-675. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121057
    AMA Pounder KC, Begon M, Sironen T, et al. Novel Hantavirus in Wildlife, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):673-675. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121057.
    APA Pounder, K. C., Begon, M., Sironen, T., Henttonen, H., Watts, P. C., Voutilainen, L....McElhinney, L. M. (2013). Novel Hantavirus in Wildlife, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 673-675. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121057.
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  • Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak and Coxsackievirus A6, Northern Spain, 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 310 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Montes et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Montes M, Artieda J, Piñeiro LD, Gastesi M, Diez-Nieves I, Cilla G, et al. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak and Coxsackievirus A6, Northern Spain, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):676-678. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121589
    AMA Montes M, Artieda J, Piñeiro LD, et al. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak and Coxsackievirus A6, Northern Spain, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):676-678. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121589.
    APA Montes, M., Artieda, J., Piñeiro, L. D., Gastesi, M., Diez-Nieves, I., & Cilla, G. (2013). Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak and Coxsackievirus A6, Northern Spain, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 676-678. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121589.
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  • Rabies Update for Latin America and the Caribbean PDF Version [PDF - 283 KB - 2 pages]
    M. Vigilato et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Vigilato M, Cosivi O, Knöbl T, Clavijo A, Silva H. Rabies Update for Latin America and the Caribbean. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):678-679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121482
    AMA Vigilato M, Cosivi O, Knöbl T, et al. Rabies Update for Latin America and the Caribbean. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):678-679. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121482.
    APA Vigilato, M., Cosivi, O., Knöbl, T., Clavijo, A., & Silva, H. (2013). Rabies Update for Latin America and the Caribbean. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 678-679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121482.
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  • Serosurvey of Dogs for Human, Livestock, and Wildlife Pathogens, Uganda PDF Version [PDF - 303 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Millán et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Millán J, Chirife AD, Kalema-Zikusoka G, Cabezón O, Muro J, Marco I, et al. Serosurvey of Dogs for Human, Livestock, and Wildlife Pathogens, Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):680-682. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121143
    AMA Millán J, Chirife AD, Kalema-Zikusoka G, et al. Serosurvey of Dogs for Human, Livestock, and Wildlife Pathogens, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):680-682. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121143.
    APA Millán, J., Chirife, A. D., Kalema-Zikusoka, G., Cabezón, O., Muro, J., Marco, I....Mugisha, L. (2013). Serosurvey of Dogs for Human, Livestock, and Wildlife Pathogens, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 680-682. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121143.
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  • Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease from Commercial Cadaveric Human Growth Hormone PDF Version [PDF - 317 KB - 3 pages]
    B. S. Appleby et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Appleby BS, Lu M, Bizzi A, Phillips MD, Berri SM, Harbison MD, et al. Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease from Commercial Cadaveric Human Growth Hormone. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):682-684. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121504
    AMA Appleby BS, Lu M, Bizzi A, et al. Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease from Commercial Cadaveric Human Growth Hormone. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):682-684. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121504.
    APA Appleby, B. S., Lu, M., Bizzi, A., Phillips, M. D., Berri, S. M., Harbison, M. D....Schonberger, L. B. (2013). Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease from Commercial Cadaveric Human Growth Hormone. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 682-684. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121504.
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  • West Nile Virus Infection in Belgian Traveler Returning from Greece PDF Version [PDF - 294 KB - 2 pages]
    L. Cnops et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Cnops L, Papa A, Lagra F, Weyers P, Meersman K, Patsouros N, et al. West Nile Virus Infection in Belgian Traveler Returning from Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):684-685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121594
    AMA Cnops L, Papa A, Lagra F, et al. West Nile Virus Infection in Belgian Traveler Returning from Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):684-685. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121594.
    APA Cnops, L., Papa, A., Lagra, F., Weyers, P., Meersman, K., Patsouros, N....Van Esbroeck, M. (2013). West Nile Virus Infection in Belgian Traveler Returning from Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 684-685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121594.
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  • Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 Strains in Domestic Pigs, Cameroon PDF Version [PDF - 338 KB - 3 pages]
    V. de Paula et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID de Paula V, Wiele M, Mbunkah AH, Daniel AM, Kingsley MT, Schmidt-Chanasit J, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 Strains in Domestic Pigs, Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):686-688. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121634
    AMA de Paula V, Wiele M, Mbunkah AH, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 Strains in Domestic Pigs, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):686-688. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121634.
    APA de Paula, V., Wiele, M., Mbunkah, A. H., Daniel, A. M., Kingsley, M. T., & Schmidt-Chanasit, J. (2013). Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 Strains in Domestic Pigs, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 686-688. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121634.
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  • Human Enterovirus Genotype C104, China PDF Version [PDF - 293 KB - 3 pages]
    Z. Xiang et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Xiang Z, Xie Z, Wang Z, Ren L, Xiao Y, Li L, et al. Human Enterovirus Genotype C104, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):689-691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121435
    AMA Xiang Z, Xie Z, Wang Z, et al. Human Enterovirus Genotype C104, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):689-691. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121435.
    APA Xiang, Z., Xie, Z., Wang, Z., Ren, L., Xiao, Y., Li, L....Wang, J. (2013). Human Enterovirus Genotype C104, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 689-691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121435.
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  • Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 248 KB - 1 page]
    G. A. Engel et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Engel GA, Fuentes A, Lee B, Schillaci MA, Jones-Engel L. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):691-692. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121505
    AMA Engel GA, Fuentes A, Lee B, et al. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):691-692. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121505.
    APA Engel, G. A., Fuentes, A., Lee, B., Schillaci, M. A., & Jones-Engel, L. (2013). Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 691-692. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121505.
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  • Powassan Virus Encephalitis, Minnesota, USA PDF Version [PDF - 285 KB - 1 page]
    D. F. Neitzel et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Neitzel DF, Lynfield R, Smith K. Powassan Virus Encephalitis, Minnesota, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):686. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121651
    AMA Neitzel DF, Lynfield R, Smith K. Powassan Virus Encephalitis, Minnesota, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):686. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121651.
    APA Neitzel, D. F., Lynfield, R., & Smith, K. (2013). Powassan Virus Encephalitis, Minnesota, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 686. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121651.
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  • Hepatitis E Virus and Porcine-derived Heparin PDF Version [PDF - 326 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Crossan et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Crossan C, Scobie L, Godwin J, Hunter J, Hawkes T, Dalton H, et al. Hepatitis E Virus and Porcine-derived Heparin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(4):686-688. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121792
    AMA Crossan C, Scobie L, Godwin J, et al. Hepatitis E Virus and Porcine-derived Heparin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):686-688. doi:10.3201/eid1904.121792.
    APA Crossan, C., Scobie, L., Godwin, J., Hunter, J., Hawkes, T., & Dalton, H. (2013). Hepatitis E Virus and Porcine-derived Heparin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 686-688. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1904.121792.
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