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Issue Cover for Volume 2, Number 3—July 1996

Volume 2, Number 3—July 1996

[PDF - 6.15 MB - 89 pages]

Perspective

Molecular Approaches to the Identification
of Unculturable Infectious Agents [PDF - 335 KB - 9 pages]
S. Gao and P. S. Moore

New molecular biologic techniques, particularly representational difference analysis, consensus sequence–based polymerase chain reaction, and complementary DNA library screening, have led to the identification of several previously unculturable infectious agents. New agents have been found in tissues from patients with Kaposi's sarcoma, non-A, non-B hepatitis, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, bacillary angiomatosis, and Whipple's disease by using these techniques without direct culture. The new methods rely on identifying subgenomic fragments from the suspected agent. After a unique nucleic acid fragment belonging to an agent is isolated from diseased tissues, the fragment can be sequenced and used as a probe to identify additional infected tissues or obtain extended portions of the agent's genome. For agents that cannot be cultured by standard techniques, these approaches have proved invaluable for identification and characterization studies. Applying these techniques to other human diseases of suspected infectious etiology may rapidly elucidate novel candidate pathogens.

EID Gao S, Moore PS. Molecular Approaches to the Identification
of Unculturable Infectious Agents. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):159-167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960301
AMA Gao S, Moore PS. Molecular Approaches to the Identification
of Unculturable Infectious Agents. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):159-167. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960301.
APA Gao, S., & Moore, P. S. (1996). Molecular Approaches to the Identification
of Unculturable Infectious Agents. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 159-167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960301.

DNA Vaccines for Emerging Infectious Diseases: What If? [PDF - 41 KB - 8 pages]
R. G. Whalen

A novel and powerful method for vaccine research, colloquially known as DNA vaccines, involves the deliberate introduction into tissues of a DNA plasmid carrying an antigen-coding gene that transfects cells in vivo and results in an immune response. DNA vaccines have several distinct advantages, which include ease of manipulation, use of a generic technology, simplicity of manufacture, and chemical and biological stability. In addition, DNA vaccines are a great leveler among researchers around the world because they provide unprecedented ease of experimentation. To facilitate diffusion of information, an Internet site has been established called The DNA Vaccine Web (URL:http://www.genweb.com/Dnavax/dnavax.html). In this review, a brief survey is undertaken of the experimental models and preclinical work on DNA vaccines to contribute to a greater awareness of the possibilities for emerging infectious diseases.

EID Whalen RG. DNA Vaccines for Emerging Infectious Diseases: What If?. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):168-175. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960302
AMA Whalen RG. DNA Vaccines for Emerging Infectious Diseases: What If?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):168-175. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960302.
APA Whalen, R. G. (1996). DNA Vaccines for Emerging Infectious Diseases: What If?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 168-175. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960302.
Synopses

Conjugate Vaccines and the Carriage of Haemophilus influenzae Type b [PDF - 37 KB - 7 pages]
M. L. Barbour and D. Phil

Pharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is important in the transmission of Hib organisms, the pathogenesis of Hib disease, and the development of immunity to the bacterium. The remarkable success of current vaccination programs against Hib has been due in part to the effect of conjugate Hib vaccines in decreasing carriage of Hib. This review explores evidence for this effect, and discusses the possible mechanisms of the mucosal influence of Hib conjugate vaccines.

EID Barbour ML, Phil D. Conjugate Vaccines and the Carriage of Haemophilus influenzae Type b. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):176-182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960303
AMA Barbour ML, Phil D. Conjugate Vaccines and the Carriage of Haemophilus influenzae Type b. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):176-182. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960303.
APA Barbour, M. L., & Phil, D. (1996). Conjugate Vaccines and the Carriage of Haemophilus influenzae Type b. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 176-182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960303.

Application of Molecular Techniques
to the Diagnosis of Microsporidial Infection [PDF - 1.09 MB - 9 pages]
D. P. Fedorko and Y. M. Hijazi

Microsporidia are now recognized as important pathogens of AIDS patients; the ability of these parasites to cause disease in immunocompetent persons is still being elucidated. Improved diagnostic tests for microsporidial infection are continually being sought for establishing diagnosis in order to avoid laborious electron microscopy studies that require invasively acquired biopsy specimens. Modified trichrome or chemofluorescent stains are useful for detecting microsporidia in bodily fluids and stool specimens, but they do not allow for speciation of microsporidia. Polymerase chain reaction with specific primers will allow the detection and speciation of microsporidia in biopsy tissue, bodily fluids, and stool specimens.

EID Fedorko DP, Hijazi YM. Application of Molecular Techniques
to the Diagnosis of Microsporidial Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):183-191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960304
AMA Fedorko DP, Hijazi YM. Application of Molecular Techniques
to the Diagnosis of Microsporidial Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):183-191. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960304.
APA Fedorko, D. P., & Hijazi, Y. M. (1996). Application of Molecular Techniques
to the Diagnosis of Microsporidial Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 183-191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960304.

Coccidioidomycosis: A Reemerging Infectious Disease [PDF - 683 KB - 8 pages]
T. N. Kirkland and J. Fierer

Coccidioides immitis, the primary pathogenic fungus that causes coccidioidomycosis, is most commonly found in the deserts of the southwestern United States and Central and South America. During the early 1990s, the incidence of coccidioidomycosis in California increased dramatically. Even though most infections are subclinical or self-limited, the outbreak is estimated to have cost more than $66 million in direct medical expenses and time lost from work in Kern County, California, alone. In addition to the financial loss, this pathogen causes serious and life-threatening disseminated infections, especially among the immunosuppressed, including AIDS patients. This article discusses factors that may be responsible for the increased incidence of coccidioidomycosis (e.g., climatic and demographic changes and the clinical problems of coccidioidomycosis in the immunocompromised) and new approaches to therapy and prevention.

EID Kirkland TN, Fierer J. Coccidioidomycosis: A Reemerging Infectious Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):192-199. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960305
AMA Kirkland TN, Fierer J. Coccidioidomycosis: A Reemerging Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):192-199. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960305.
APA Kirkland, T. N., & Fierer, J. (1996). Coccidioidomycosis: A Reemerging Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 192-199. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960305.

Antibody-Based Therapies for Emerging Infectious Diseases [PDF - 345 KB - 9 pages]
A. Casadevall

In the 19th century, it was discovered that immune sera were useful in treating infectious diseases. Serum therapy was largely abandoned in the 1940s because of the toxicity associated with the administration of heterologous sera and the introduction of effective antimicrobial chemotherapy. Recent advances in the technology of monoclonal antibody production provide the means to generate human antibody reagents and reintroduce antibody therapies, while avoiding the toxicities associated with serum therapy. Because of the versatility of antibodies, antibody-based therapies could, in theory, be developed against any existing pathogen. The advantages of antibody-based therapies include versatility, low toxicity, pathogen specificity, enhancement of immune function, and favorable pharmacokinetics; the disadvantages include high cost, limited usefulness against mixed infections, and the need for early and precise microbiologic diagnosis. The potential of antibodies as anti-infective agents has not been fully tapped. Antibody-based therapies constitute a potentially useful option against newly emergent pathogens.

EID Casadevall A. Antibody-Based Therapies for Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):200-208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960306
AMA Casadevall A. Antibody-Based Therapies for Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):200-208. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960306.
APA Casadevall, A. (1996). Antibody-Based Therapies for Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 200-208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960306.
Dispatches

HIV-1 Group O Virus Identified for the First Time in the United States [PDF - 38 KB - 4 pages]
M. A. Rayfield et al.
EID Rayfield MA, Sullivan P, Bandea CI, Britvan L, Otten RA, Pau CP, et al. HIV-1 Group O Virus Identified for the First Time in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):209-212. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960307
AMA Rayfield MA, Sullivan P, Bandea CI, et al. HIV-1 Group O Virus Identified for the First Time in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):209-212. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960307.
APA Rayfield, M. A., Sullivan, P., Bandea, C. I., Britvan, L., Otten, R. A., Pau, C. P....Schochetman, G. (1996). HIV-1 Group O Virus Identified for the First Time in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 209-212. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960307.

Two Morbilliviruses Implicated in Bottlenose Dolphin Epizootics [PDF - 26 KB - 4 pages]
J. K. Taubenberger et al.
EID Taubenberger JK, Tsai M, Krafft AE, Lichy JH, Reid AH, Schulman FY, et al. Two Morbilliviruses Implicated in Bottlenose Dolphin Epizootics. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):213-216. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960308
AMA Taubenberger JK, Tsai M, Krafft AE, et al. Two Morbilliviruses Implicated in Bottlenose Dolphin Epizootics. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):213-216. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960308.
APA Taubenberger, J. K., Tsai, M., Krafft, A. E., Lichy, J. H., Reid, A. H., Schulman, F. Y....Lipscomb, T. P. (1996). Two Morbilliviruses Implicated in Bottlenose Dolphin Epizootics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 213-216. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960308.

An Outbreak of Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis in U.S. Army Troops Deployed to Botswana
B. L. Smoak et al.
EID Smoak BL, McClain JB, Brundage JF, Broadhurst L, Kelly DJ, Dasch GA, et al. An Outbreak of Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis in U.S. Army Troops Deployed to Botswana. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):217-221. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960309
AMA Smoak BL, McClain JB, Brundage JF, et al. An Outbreak of Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis in U.S. Army Troops Deployed to Botswana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):217-221. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960309.
APA Smoak, B. L., McClain, J. B., Brundage, J. F., Broadhurst, L., Kelly, D. J., Dasch, G. A....Miller, R. N. (1996). An Outbreak of Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis in U.S. Army Troops Deployed to Botswana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 217-221. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960309.

A Highly Heterogeneous HIV-1 Epidemic in the Central African Republic [PDF - 50 KB - 3 pages]
M. Massanga et al.
EID Massanga M, Ndoyo J, Hu DJ, Pau C, Lee-Thomas S, Hawkins R, et al. A Highly Heterogeneous HIV-1 Epidemic in the Central African Republic. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):222-224. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960310
AMA Massanga M, Ndoyo J, Hu DJ, et al. A Highly Heterogeneous HIV-1 Epidemic in the Central African Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):222-224. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960310.
APA Massanga, M., Ndoyo, J., Hu, D. J., Pau, C., Lee-Thomas, S., Hawkins, R....Dondero, T. J. (1996). A Highly Heterogeneous HIV-1 Epidemic in the Central African Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 222-224. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960310.

Legionella-Like Amebal Pathogens––Phylogenetic Status and Possible Role in Respiratory Disease [PDF - 378 KB - 6 pages]
A. Adeleke et al.
EID Adeleke A, Pruckler J, Benson R, Rowbotham T, Halablab M, Fields B. Legionella-Like Amebal Pathogens––Phylogenetic Status and Possible Role in Respiratory Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):225-230. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960311
AMA Adeleke A, Pruckler J, Benson R, et al. Legionella-Like Amebal Pathogens––Phylogenetic Status and Possible Role in Respiratory Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):225-230. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960311.
APA Adeleke, A., Pruckler, J., Benson, R., Rowbotham, T., Halablab, M., & Fields, B. (1996). Legionella-Like Amebal Pathogens––Phylogenetic Status and Possible Role in Respiratory Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 225-230. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960311.

Role of Enterovirus 71 in Acute Flaccid Paralysis After the
Eradication of Poliovirus in Brazil [PDF - 19 KB - 3 pages]
E. E. da Silva et al.
EID da Silva EE, Winkler MT, Pallansch MA. Role of Enterovirus 71 in Acute Flaccid Paralysis After the
Eradication of Poliovirus in Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):231-233. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960312
AMA da Silva EE, Winkler MT, Pallansch MA. Role of Enterovirus 71 in Acute Flaccid Paralysis After the
Eradication of Poliovirus in Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):231-233. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960312.
APA da Silva, E. E., Winkler, M. T., & Pallansch, M. A. (1996). Role of Enterovirus 71 in Acute Flaccid Paralysis After the
Eradication of Poliovirus in Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 231-233. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960312.

Sentinel Surveillance for Yellow Fever in Kenya, 1993 to 1995 [PDF - 371 KB - 3 pages]
E. J. Sanders et al.
EID Sanders EJ, Borus P, Ademba G, Kuria G, Tukei PM, LeDuc JW. Sentinel Surveillance for Yellow Fever in Kenya, 1993 to 1995. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):236-238. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960314
AMA Sanders EJ, Borus P, Ademba G, et al. Sentinel Surveillance for Yellow Fever in Kenya, 1993 to 1995. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):236-238. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960314.
APA Sanders, E. J., Borus, P., Ademba, G., Kuria, G., Tukei, P. M., & LeDuc, J. W. (1996). Sentinel Surveillance for Yellow Fever in Kenya, 1993 to 1995. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 236-238. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960314.

Serologic Evidence for the Presence in Pteropus Bats of a Paramyxovirus Related to Equine Morbillivirus [PDF - 15 KB - 2 pages]
P. L. Young et al.
EID Young PL, Halpin K, Selleck PW, Field HE, Gravel JL, Kelly MA, et al. Serologic Evidence for the Presence in Pteropus Bats of a Paramyxovirus Related to Equine Morbillivirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):239-240. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960315
AMA Young PL, Halpin K, Selleck PW, et al. Serologic Evidence for the Presence in Pteropus Bats of a Paramyxovirus Related to Equine Morbillivirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):239-240. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960315.
APA Young, P. L., Halpin, K., Selleck, P. W., Field, H. E., Gravel, J. L., Kelly, M. A....MacKenzie, J. S. (1996). Serologic Evidence for the Presence in Pteropus Bats of a Paramyxovirus Related to Equine Morbillivirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 239-240. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960315.

Bancroftian Filariasis Distribution and Diurnal Temperature Differences in the Southern Nile Delta [PDF - 366 KB - 2 pages]
D. F. Thompson et al.
EID Thompson DF, Malone JB, Harb M, Faris R, Huh OK, Buck AA, et al. Bancroftian Filariasis Distribution and Diurnal Temperature Differences in the Southern Nile Delta. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):234-235. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960313
AMA Thompson DF, Malone JB, Harb M, et al. Bancroftian Filariasis Distribution and Diurnal Temperature Differences in the Southern Nile Delta. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):234-235. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960313.
APA Thompson, D. F., Malone, J. B., Harb, M., Faris, R., Huh, O. K., Buck, A. A....Cline, B. L. (1996). Bancroftian Filariasis Distribution and Diurnal Temperature Differences in the Southern Nile Delta. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 234-235. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960313.
Letters

Acute Cervical Lymphadenopathy [PDF - 13 KB - 1 page]
M. B. Pasticci et al.
EID Pasticci MB, Baldelli F, Bistoni F, Piersimoni C, Sbaraglia G, Stagni G, et al. Acute Cervical Lymphadenopathy. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960316
AMA Pasticci MB, Baldelli F, Bistoni F, et al. Acute Cervical Lymphadenopathy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):241. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960316.
APA Pasticci, M. B., Baldelli, F., Bistoni, F., Piersimoni, C., Sbaraglia, G., Stagni, G....Pauluzzi, S. (1996). Acute Cervical Lymphadenopathy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960316.

AIDS: Déjà Vu in Ancient Egypt? [PDF - 32 KB - 1 page]
R. J. Ablin
EID Ablin RJ. AIDS: Déjà Vu in Ancient Egypt?. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):242. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960317
AMA Ablin RJ. AIDS: Déjà Vu in Ancient Egypt?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):242. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960317.
APA Ablin, R. J. (1996). AIDS: Déjà Vu in Ancient Egypt?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 242. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960317.
About the Cover

Volume 2, Issue 3
News and Notes

International Meeting on ResearchAdvances and Rabies Control in the Americas [PDF - 9 KB - 1 page]
EID International Meeting on ResearchAdvances and Rabies Control in the Americas. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):243. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960318
AMA International Meeting on ResearchAdvances and Rabies Control in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):243. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960318.
APA (1996). International Meeting on ResearchAdvances and Rabies Control in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 243. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960318.

Symposium Notice [PDF - 9 KB - 1 page]
EID Symposium Notice. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(3):243. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960319
AMA Symposium Notice. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(3):243. doi:10.3201/eid0203.960319.
APA (1996). Symposium Notice. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 243. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0203.960319.
Page created: September 07, 2011
Page updated: September 07, 2011
Page reviewed: September 07, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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