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Issue Cover for Volume 20, Number 11—November 2014

Volume 20, Number 11—November 2014

[PDF - 6.04 MB - 187 pages]

Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Legionnaires’ Disease Incidence and Risk Factors, New York, New York, USA, 2002–2011 [PDF - 596 KB - 8 pages]
A. Farnham et al.

Incidence of Legionnaires’ disease in the United States is increasing. We reviewed case records to determine the the epidemiology of and risk factors for the 1,449 cases reported to the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York, New York, USA, during 2002–2011. The highest incidence (2.74 cases/100,000 population) occurred in 2009; this incidence was higher than national incidence for that year (1.15 cases/100,000 population). Overall, incidence of Legionnaires’ disease in the city of New York increased 230% from 2002 to 2009 and followed a socioeconomic gradient, with highest incidence occurring in the highest poverty areas. Among patients with community-acquired cases, the probability of working in transportation, repair, protective services, cleaning, or construction was significantly higher for those with Legionnaires’ disease than for the general working population. Further studies are required to clarify whether neighborhood-level poverty and work in some occupations represent risk factors for this disease.

EID Farnham A, Alleyne L, Cimini D, Balter S. Legionnaires’ Disease Incidence and Risk Factors, New York, New York, USA, 2002–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1795-1802. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131872
AMA Farnham A, Alleyne L, Cimini D, et al. Legionnaires’ Disease Incidence and Risk Factors, New York, New York, USA, 2002–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1795-1802. doi:10.3201/eid2011.131872.
APA Farnham, A., Alleyne, L., Cimini, D., & Balter, S. (2014). Legionnaires’ Disease Incidence and Risk Factors, New York, New York, USA, 2002–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1795-1802. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131872.

Medscape CME Activity
Blastomycosis Mortality Rates, United States, 1990–2010 [PDF - 421 KB - 6 pages]
D. Khuu et al.

Blastomycosis is a potentially fatal fungal infection endemic to parts of North America. We used national multiple-cause-of-death data and census population estimates for 1990–2010 to calculate age-adjusted mortality rates and rate ratios (RRs). We modeled trends over time using Poisson regression. Death occurred more often among older persons (RR 2.11, 95% confidence limit [CL] 1.76, 2.53 for those 75–84 years of age vs. 55–64 years), men (RR 2.43, 95% CL 2.19, 2.70), Native Americans (RR 4.13, 95% CL 3.86, 4.42 vs. whites), and blacks (RR 1.86, 95% CL 1.73, 2.01 vs. whites), in notably younger persons of Asian origin (mean = 41.6 years vs. 64.2 years for whites); and in the South (RR 18.15, 95% CL 11.63, 28.34 vs. West) and Midwest (RR 23.10, 95% CL14.78, 36.12 vs. West). In regions where blastomycosis is endemic, we recommend that the diagnosis be considered in patients with pulmonary disease and that it be a reportable disease.

EID Khuu D, Shafir S, Bristow B, Sorvillo FJ. Blastomycosis Mortality Rates, United States, 1990–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1789-1794. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131175
AMA Khuu D, Shafir S, Bristow B, et al. Blastomycosis Mortality Rates, United States, 1990–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1789-1794. doi:10.3201/eid2011.131175.
APA Khuu, D., Shafir, S., Bristow, B., & Sorvillo, F. J. (2014). Blastomycosis Mortality Rates, United States, 1990–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1789-1794. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131175.
Research

Spread of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 8-ST63 Multidrug-Resistant Recombinant Clone, Spain [PDF - 860 KB - 9 pages]
C. Ardanuy et al.

Since 2004, a total of 131 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae multidrug-resistant invasive serotype 8 have been detected in Spain. These isolates showed resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. All isolates were obtained from adult patients and shared a common genotype (sequence type [ST]63; penicillin-binding protein 1a [pbp1a], pbp2b, and pbp2x gene profiles; ermB and tetM genes; and a ParC-S79F change). Sixty-eight isolates that required a ciprofloxacin MIC ≥16 μg/mL had additional gyrA gene changes. Serotype 8-ST63 pbp2x sequences were identical with those of antimicrobial drug–susceptible serotype 8-ST53 isolates. Serotype 8-ST63 pbp2b sequences were identical with those of the multidrug-resistant Sweden 15A-ST63 clone. Recombination between the capsular locus and flanking regions of an ST53 isolate (donor) and an ST63 pneumococcus (recipient) generated the novel 15A-ST63 clone. One recombination point was upstream of pbp2x and another was within pbp1a. A serotype 8-ST63 clone was identified as a cause of invasive disease in Spain.

EID Ardanuy C, de la Campa AG, García E, Fenoll A, Calatayud L, Cercenado E, et al. Spread of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 8-ST63 Multidrug-Resistant Recombinant Clone, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1848-1856. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131215
AMA Ardanuy C, de la Campa AG, García E, et al. Spread of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 8-ST63 Multidrug-Resistant Recombinant Clone, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1848-1856. doi:10.3201/eid2011.131215.
APA Ardanuy, C., de la Campa, A. G., García, E., Fenoll, A., Calatayud, L., Cercenado, E....Liñares, J. (2014). Spread of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 8-ST63 Multidrug-Resistant Recombinant Clone, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1848-1856. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131215.

Respiratory Viruses and Bacteria among Pilgrims during the 2013 Hajj [PDF - 377 KB - 7 pages]
S. Benkouiten et al.

Pilgrims returning from the Hajj might contribute to international spreading of respiratory pathogens. Nasal and throat swab specimens were obtained from 129 pilgrims in 2013 before they departed from France and before they left Saudi Arabia, and tested by PCR for respiratory viruses and bacteria. Overall, 21.5% and 38.8% of pre-Hajj and post-Hajj specimens, respectively, were positive for ≥1 virus (p = 0.003). One third (29.8%) of the participants acquired ≥1 virus, particularly rhinovirus (14.0%), coronavirus E229 (12.4%), and influenza A(H3N2) virus (6.2%) while in Saudi Arabia. None of the participants were positive for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. In addition, 50.0% and 62.0% of pre-Hajj and post-Hajj specimens, respectively, were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.053). One third (36.3%) of the participants had acquired S. pneumoniae during their stay. Our results confirm high acquisition rates of rhinovirus and S. pneumoniae in pilgrims and highlight the acquisition of coronavirus E229.

EID Benkouiten S, Charrel RN, Belhouchat K, Drali T, Nougairede A, Salez N, et al. Respiratory Viruses and Bacteria among Pilgrims during the 2013 Hajj. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1821-1827. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140600
AMA Benkouiten S, Charrel RN, Belhouchat K, et al. Respiratory Viruses and Bacteria among Pilgrims during the 2013 Hajj. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1821-1827. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140600.
APA Benkouiten, S., Charrel, R. N., Belhouchat, K., Drali, T., Nougairede, A., Salez, N....Gautret, P. (2014). Respiratory Viruses and Bacteria among Pilgrims during the 2013 Hajj. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1821-1827. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140600.

Novel Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Heterosexual Sex Partners, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA [PDF - 613 KB - 7 pages]
B. E. Batteiger et al.

Chlamydia trachomatis causes a high number of sexually transmitted infections worldwide, but reproducible and precise strain typing to link partners is lacking. We evaluated multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for this purpose by detecting sequence types (STs) concordant for the ompA genotype, a single-locus typing standard. We tested samples collected during April 2000–October 2003 from members of established heterosexual partnerships (dyads) in the Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, area who self-reported being coital partners within the previous 30 days. C. trachomatis DNA from 28 dyads was tested by MLST; sequences were aligned and analyzed for ST and phylogenetic relationships. MLST detected 9 C. trachomatis STs, 4 unique to Indianapolis; STs were identical within each dyad. Thirteen unique strains were identified; 9 (32%) dyads harbored novel recombinant strains that phylogenetically clustered with strains comprising the recombinants. The high rate of novel C. trachomatis recombinants identified supports the use of MLST for transmission and strain diversity studies among at-risk populations.

EID Batteiger BE, Wan R, Williams JA, He L, Ma A, Fortenberry J, et al. Novel Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Heterosexual Sex Partners, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1841-1847. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140604
AMA Batteiger BE, Wan R, Williams JA, et al. Novel Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Heterosexual Sex Partners, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1841-1847. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140604.
APA Batteiger, B. E., Wan, R., Williams, J. A., He, L., Ma, A., Fortenberry, J....Dean, D. (2014). Novel Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Heterosexual Sex Partners, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1841-1847. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140604.

Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile [PDF - 553 KB - 9 pages]
G. Chowell et al.

Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918–1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July–August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults >50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ≈10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate.

EID Chowell G, Simonsen L, Flores J, Miller MA, Viboud C. Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1803-1811. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.130632
AMA Chowell G, Simonsen L, Flores J, et al. Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1803-1811. doi:10.3201/eid2011.130632.
APA Chowell, G., Simonsen, L., Flores, J., Miller, M. A., & Viboud, C. (2014). Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1803-1811. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.130632.

Foodborne Illness, Australia, Circa 2000 and Circa 2010 [PDF - 432 KB - 8 pages]
M. Kirk et al.

Foodborne disease is a major public health problem worldwide. To examine changes in foodborne illness in Australia, we estimated the incidence, hospitalizations, and deaths attributed to contaminated food circa 2010 and recalculated estimates from circa 2000. Approximately 25% of gastroenteritis cases were caused by contaminated food; to account for uncertainty we used simulation techniques to estimate 90% credible intervals. We estimate that circa 2010, 4.1 million foodborne gastroenteritis cases occurred, and circa 2000, 4.3 million cases occurred. Circa 2010, contaminated food was estimated to be responsible for 30,840 gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations, 76 associated deaths, and 5,140 nongastrointestinal illnesses. Cases of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis increased from 2000 to 2010 and were the leading causes of gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations; Listeria monocytogenes and nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. infections were the leading causes of death. Although the overall incidence of foodborne illnesses declined over time in Australia, cases of foodborne gastroenteritis are still common.

EID Kirk M, Ford L, Glass K, Hall G. Foodborne Illness, Australia, Circa 2000 and Circa 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1857-1864. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131315
AMA Kirk M, Ford L, Glass K, et al. Foodborne Illness, Australia, Circa 2000 and Circa 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1857-1864. doi:10.3201/eid2011.131315.
APA Kirk, M., Ford, L., Glass, K., & Hall, G. (2014). Foodborne Illness, Australia, Circa 2000 and Circa 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1857-1864. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131315.

Seroprevalence of Norovirus Genogroup IV Antibodies among Humans, Italy, 2010–2011 [PDF - 316 KB - 5 pages]
B. Di Martino et al.

Noroviruses (NoVs) of genogroup IV (GIV) (Alphatron-like) cause infections in humans and in carnivorous animals such as dogs and cats. We screened an age-stratified collection of serum samples from 535 humans in Italy, using virus-like particles of genotypes GIV.1, circulating in humans, and GIV.2, identified in animals, in ELISA, in order to investigate the prevalence of GIV NoV-specific IgG antibodies. Antibodies specific for both genotypes were detected, ranging from a prevalence of 6.6% to 44.8% for GIV.1 and from 6.8% to 15.1% for GIV.2 among different age groups. These data are consistent with a higher prevalence of GIV.1 strains in the human population. Analysis of antibodies against GIV.2 suggests zoonotic transmission of animal NoVs, likely attributable to interaction between humans and domestic pets. This finding, and recent documentation of human transmission of NoVs to dogs, indicate the possibility of an evolutionary relationship between human and animal NoVs.

EID Di Martino B, Di Profio F, Ceci C, Di Felice E, Green KY, Bok K, et al. Seroprevalence of Norovirus Genogroup IV Antibodies among Humans, Italy, 2010–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1828-1832. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131601
AMA Di Martino B, Di Profio F, Ceci C, et al. Seroprevalence of Norovirus Genogroup IV Antibodies among Humans, Italy, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1828-1832. doi:10.3201/eid2011.131601.
APA Di Martino, B., Di Profio, F., Ceci, C., Di Felice, E., Green, K. Y., Bok, K....Martella, V. (2014). Seroprevalence of Norovirus Genogroup IV Antibodies among Humans, Italy, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1828-1832. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131601.

Genomic Definition of Hypervirulent and Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Clonal Groups [PDF - 583 KB - 9 pages]
S. Bialek-Davenet et al.

Multidrug-resistant and highly virulent Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are emerging, but the clonal groups (CGs) corresponding to these high-risk strains have remained imprecisely defined. We aimed to identify K. pneumoniae CGs on the basis of genome-wide sequence variation and to provide a simple bioinformatics tool to extract virulence and resistance gene data from genomic data. We sequenced 48 K. pneumoniae isolates, mostly of serotypes K1 and K2, and compared the genomes with 119 publicly available genomes. A total of 694 highly conserved genes were included in a core-genome multilocus sequence typing scheme, and cluster analysis of the data enabled precise definition of globally distributed hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant CGs. In addition, we created a freely accessible database, BIGSdb-Kp, to enable rapid extraction of medically and epidemiologically relevant information from genomic sequences of K. pneumoniae. Although drug-resistant and virulent K. pneumoniae populations were largely nonoverlapping, isolates with combined virulence and resistance features were detected.

EID Bialek-Davenet S, Criscuolo A, Ailloud F, Passet V, Jones L, Delannoy-Vieillard A, et al. Genomic Definition of Hypervirulent and Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Clonal Groups. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1812-1820. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140206
AMA Bialek-Davenet S, Criscuolo A, Ailloud F, et al. Genomic Definition of Hypervirulent and Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Clonal Groups. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1812-1820. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140206.
APA Bialek-Davenet, S., Criscuolo, A., Ailloud, F., Passet, V., Jones, L., Delannoy-Vieillard, A....Brisse, S. (2014). Genomic Definition of Hypervirulent and Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Clonal Groups. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1812-1820. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140206.

Drug-Resistant Candida glabrata Infection in Cancer Patients [PDF - 2.57 MB - 8 pages]
D. Farmakiotis et al.

Cancer patients are at risk for candidemia, and increasing Candida spp. resistance poses an emerging threat. We determined rates of antifungal drug resistance, identified factors associated with resistance, and investigated the correlation between resistance and all-cause mortality rates among cancer patients with ≥1 C. glabrata–positive blood culture at MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA, during March 2005–September 2013. Of 146 isolates, 30 (20.5%) were resistant to fluconazole, 15 (10.3%) to caspofungin, and 10 (6.8%) to multiple drugs (9 caspofungin-resistant isolates were also resistant to fluconazole, 1 to amphotericin B). Independently associated with fluconazole resistance were azole preexposure, hematologic malignancy, and mechanical ventilation. Independently associated with caspofungin resistance were echinocandin preexposure, monocytopenia, and total parenteral nutrition. Fluconazole resistance was highly associated with caspofungin resistance, independent of prior azole or echinocandin use. Caspofungin resistance was associated with increased 28-day all-cause mortality rates. These findings highlight the need for good stewardship of antifungal drugs.

EID Farmakiotis D, Tarrand JJ, Kontoyiannis DP. Drug-Resistant Candida glabrata Infection in Cancer Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1833-1840. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140685
AMA Farmakiotis D, Tarrand JJ, Kontoyiannis DP. Drug-Resistant Candida glabrata Infection in Cancer Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1833-1840. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140685.
APA Farmakiotis, D., Tarrand, J. J., & Kontoyiannis, D. P. (2014). Drug-Resistant Candida glabrata Infection in Cancer Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1833-1840. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140685.

Sequelae of Foodborne Illness Caused by 5 Pathogens, Australia, Circa 2010 [PDF - 1.02 MB - 7 pages]
L. Ford et al.

In Australia circa 2010, 4.1 million (90% credible interval [CrI] 2.3–6.4 million) episodes of foodborne gastroenteritis occurred, many of which might have resulted in sequelae. We estimated the number of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths from Guillain-Barré syndrome, hemolytic uremic syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and reactive arthritis that were associated with contaminated food in Australia. Data from published studies, hospital records, and mortality reports were combined with multipliers to adjust for different transmission routes. We used Monte Carlo simulation to estimate median estimates and 90% CrIs. In Australia, circa 2010, we estimated that 35,840 (90% CrI 25,000–54,000) illnesses, 1,080 (90% CrI 700–1,600) hospitalizations, and 10 (90% CrI 5–14) deaths occurred from foodborne gastroenteritis–associated sequelae. Campylobacter spp. infection was responsible for 80% of incident cases. Reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis and other foodborne diseases would minimize the health effects of sequelae.

EID Ford L, Kirk M, Glass K, Hall G. Sequelae of Foodborne Illness Caused by 5 Pathogens, Australia, Circa 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1865-1871. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131316
AMA Ford L, Kirk M, Glass K, et al. Sequelae of Foodborne Illness Caused by 5 Pathogens, Australia, Circa 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1865-1871. doi:10.3201/eid2011.131316.
APA Ford, L., Kirk, M., Glass, K., & Hall, G. (2014). Sequelae of Foodborne Illness Caused by 5 Pathogens, Australia, Circa 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1865-1871. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131316.
Dispatches

Hepatitis E Virus Infections in Blood Donors, France [PDF - 512 KB - 4 pages]
P. Gallian et al.

We screened plasma samples (minipools of 96 samples, corresponding to 53,234 blood donations) from France that had been processed with solvent–detergent for hepatitis E virus RNA. The detection rate was 1 HEV-positive sample/2,218 blood donations. Most samples (22/24) from viremic donors were negative for IgG and IgM against HEV.

EID Gallian P, Lhomme S, Piquet Y, Sauné K, Abravanel F, Assal A, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Infections in Blood Donors, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1914-1917. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140516
AMA Gallian P, Lhomme S, Piquet Y, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Infections in Blood Donors, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1914-1917. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140516.
APA Gallian, P., Lhomme, S., Piquet, Y., Sauné, K., Abravanel, F., Assal, A....Izopet, J. (2014). Hepatitis E Virus Infections in Blood Donors, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1914-1917. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140516.

ESBL-Producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in Traveler Returning from Guatemala to Spain [PDF - 308 KB - 3 pages]
A. Fàbrega et al.

We report a case of typhoid fever in a traveler returning to Spain from Guatemala that was caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi which produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). This finding demonstrates the presence of ESBL-producing S. enterica ser. Typhi strains in the Americas. Enhanced surveillance is necessary to prevent further spread.

EID Fàbrega A, Piedra-Carrasco N, Salvador F, Rodríguez V, Sánchez-Montalvá A, Planes AM, et al. ESBL-Producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in Traveler Returning from Guatemala to Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1918-1920. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140525
AMA Fàbrega A, Piedra-Carrasco N, Salvador F, et al. ESBL-Producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in Traveler Returning from Guatemala to Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1918-1920. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140525.
APA Fàbrega, A., Piedra-Carrasco, N., Salvador, F., Rodríguez, V., Sánchez-Montalvá, A., Planes, A. M....Larrosa, M. (2014). ESBL-Producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in Traveler Returning from Guatemala to Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1918-1920. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140525.

Human Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection Associated with Poultry Farm, Northeastern China [PDF - 448 KB - 4 pages]
M. Fan et al.

We report on a case of human infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus in Jilin Province in northeastern China. This case was associated with a poultry farm rather than a live bird market, which may point to a new focus for public health surveillance and interventions in this evolving outbreak.

EID Fan M, Huang B, Wang A, Deng L, Wu D, Lu X, et al. Human Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection Associated with Poultry Farm, Northeastern China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1902-1905. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140608
AMA Fan M, Huang B, Wang A, et al. Human Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection Associated with Poultry Farm, Northeastern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1902-1905. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140608.
APA Fan, M., Huang, B., Wang, A., Deng, L., Wu, D., Lu, X....Xiang, N. (2014). Human Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection Associated with Poultry Farm, Northeastern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1902-1905. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140608.

Raw Pig Blood Consumption and Potential Risk for Streptococcus suis Infection, Vietnam [PDF - 426 KB - 4 pages]
V. Huong et al.

We assessed consumption of raw pig blood, which is a risk factor for Streptococcus suis infection in Vietnam, by using a mix-method design. Factors associated with consumption included rural residency, age, sex, occupation, income, and marital status. We identified risk groups and practices and perceptions that should be targeted by communication programs.

EID Huong V, Hoa N, Horby PW, Bryant JE, Van Kinh N, Toan T, et al. Raw Pig Blood Consumption and Potential Risk for Streptococcus suis Infection, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1895-1898. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140915
AMA Huong V, Hoa N, Horby PW, et al. Raw Pig Blood Consumption and Potential Risk for Streptococcus suis Infection, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1895-1898. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140915.
APA Huong, V., Hoa, N., Horby, P. W., Bryant, J. E., Van Kinh, N., Toan, T....Wertheim, H. (2014). Raw Pig Blood Consumption and Potential Risk for Streptococcus suis Infection, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1895-1898. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140915.

Detection of Rare G3P[19] Group A Rotavirus in Human Patient, Italy [PDF - 740 KB - 10 pages]
G. Ianiro et al.

Infection with a rare G3P[19] rotavirus A strain was identified in an immunosuppressed patient in Italy. The strain showed a P[19] viral protein 4 gene and a complete AU-1–like genomic constellation. Phylogenetic analyses showed high nucleotide identity between this strain and G3P[19] rotavirus A strains from Asia, indicating possible reassortment events.

EID Ianiro G, Delogu R, Graffeo R, Sanguinetti M, Fiore L, Ruggeri FM. Detection of Rare G3P[19] Group A Rotavirus in Human Patient, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1906-1910. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131699
AMA Ianiro G, Delogu R, Graffeo R, et al. Detection of Rare G3P[19] Group A Rotavirus in Human Patient, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1906-1910. doi:10.3201/eid2011.131699.
APA Ianiro, G., Delogu, R., Graffeo, R., Sanguinetti, M., Fiore, L., & Ruggeri, F. M. (2014). Detection of Rare G3P[19] Group A Rotavirus in Human Patient, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1906-1910. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131699.

Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, South Korea, 2013 [PDF - 344 KB - 3 pages]
S. Park et al.

During 2013, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome was diagnosed in 35 persons in South Korea. Environmental temperature probably affected the monthly and regional distribution of case-patients within the country. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates from Korea were closely related to isolates from China and Japan.

EID Park S, Han M, Yun S, Park C, Lee W, Ryou J. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, South Korea, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1880-1882. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140888
AMA Park S, Han M, Yun S, et al. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, South Korea, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1880-1882. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140888.
APA Park, S., Han, M., Yun, S., Park, C., Lee, W., & Ryou, J. (2014). Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, South Korea, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1880-1882. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140888.

Increasing Prevalence and Intensity of Foodborne Clonorchiasis, Hengxian County, China, 1989–2011 [PDF - 459 KB - 4 pages]
M. Qian et al.

During 1989–2011, three parasitic disease surveys were conducted in Hengxian County, China, where soil-transmitted helminthiases and foodborne clonorchiasis are endemic. We compared the data and found that the prevalence of helminthiases decreased and the prevalence and intensity of clonorchiasis increased over time, especially among men. Clonorchiasis control/intervention measures are urgently needed in this area.

EID Qian M, Chen Y, Yang Y, Lu M, Jiang Z, Wei K, et al. Increasing Prevalence and Intensity of Foodborne Clonorchiasis, Hengxian County, China, 1989–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1872-1875. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131309
AMA Qian M, Chen Y, Yang Y, et al. Increasing Prevalence and Intensity of Foodborne Clonorchiasis, Hengxian County, China, 1989–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1872-1875. doi:10.3201/eid2011.131309.
APA Qian, M., Chen, Y., Yang, Y., Lu, M., Jiang, Z., Wei, K....Zhou, X. (2014). Increasing Prevalence and Intensity of Foodborne Clonorchiasis, Hengxian County, China, 1989–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1872-1875. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131309.

Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection Imported from Australia to Missouri, USA, 2012 [PDF - 418 KB - 4 pages]
B. Thomas et al.

Buruli ulcer, the third most common mycobacterial disease worldwide, rarely affects travelers and is uncommon in the United States. We report a travel-associated case imported from Australia and review 3 previous cases diagnosed and treated in the United States. The differential diagnoses for unusual chronic cutaneous ulcers and those nonresponsive to conventional therapy should include Mycobacterium ulcerans infection.

EID Thomas B, Bailey TC, Bhatnagar J, Ritter JM, Emery BD, Jassim OW, et al. Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection Imported from Australia to Missouri, USA, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1876-1879. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131534
AMA Thomas B, Bailey TC, Bhatnagar J, et al. Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection Imported from Australia to Missouri, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1876-1879. doi:10.3201/eid2011.131534.
APA Thomas, B., Bailey, T. C., Bhatnagar, J., Ritter, J. M., Emery, B. D., Jassim, O. W....George, S. L. (2014). Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection Imported from Australia to Missouri, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1876-1879. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131534.

Vaccine-Induced Waning of Haemophilus influenzae Empyema and Meningitis, Angola [PDF - 547 KB - 4 pages]
H. Peltola et al.

In Angola during 2003–2012, we detected Haemophilus influenzae in 18% of 2,634 and 26% of 2,996 bacteriologically positive pleural or cerebrospinal fluid samples, respectively, from children. After vaccination launch in 2006, H. influenzae empyema declined by 83% and meningitis by 86%. Severe H. influenzae pneumonia and meningitis are preventable by vaccination.

EID Peltola H, Pelkonen T, Bernardino L, Monteiro L, Silvestre S, Anjos E, et al. Vaccine-Induced Waning of Haemophilus influenzae Empyema and Meningitis, Angola. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1887-1890. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140400
AMA Peltola H, Pelkonen T, Bernardino L, et al. Vaccine-Induced Waning of Haemophilus influenzae Empyema and Meningitis, Angola. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1887-1890. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140400.
APA Peltola, H., Pelkonen, T., Bernardino, L., Monteiro, L., Silvestre, S., Anjos, E....Roine, I. (2014). Vaccine-Induced Waning of Haemophilus influenzae Empyema and Meningitis, Angola. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1887-1890. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140400.

Nosocomial Neonatal Legionellosis Associated with Water in Infant Formula, Taiwan [PDF - 397 KB - 4 pages]
S. Wei et al.

We report 2 cases of neonatal Legionella infection associated with aspiration of contaminated water used in hospitals to make infant formula. The molecular profiles of Legionella strains isolated from samples from the infants and from water dispensers were indistinguishable. Our report highlights the need to consider nosocomial legionellosis among neonates who have respiratory symptoms.

EID Wei S, Chou P, Tseng L, Lin H, Wang J, Sheu J, et al. Nosocomial Neonatal Legionellosis Associated with Water in Infant Formula, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1922-1925. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140542
AMA Wei S, Chou P, Tseng L, et al. Nosocomial Neonatal Legionellosis Associated with Water in Infant Formula, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1922-1925. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140542.
APA Wei, S., Chou, P., Tseng, L., Lin, H., Wang, J., Sheu, J....Chiang, C. (2014). Nosocomial Neonatal Legionellosis Associated with Water in Infant Formula, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1922-1925. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140542.

Poultry Market Closures and Human Infection with Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2013–14 [PDF - 351 KB - 4 pages]
P. Wu et al.

Closure of live poultry markets was implemented in areas affected by the influenza virus A(H7N9) outbreak in China during winter, 2013–14. Our analysis showed that closing live poultry markets in the most affected cities of Guangdong and Zhejiang provinces was highly effective in reducing the risk for H7N9 infection in humans.

EID Wu P, Jiang H, Wu JT, Chen E, He J, Zhou H, et al. Poultry Market Closures and Human Infection with Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2013–14. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1891-1894. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140556
AMA Wu P, Jiang H, Wu JT, et al. Poultry Market Closures and Human Infection with Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2013–14. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1891-1894. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140556.
APA Wu, P., Jiang, H., Wu, J. T., Chen, E., He, J., Zhou, H....Yang, W. (2014). Poultry Market Closures and Human Infection with Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2013–14. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1891-1894. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140556.

Beijing Lineage of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bulgaria, 2007–2011 [PDF - 294 KB - 3 pages]
S. Panaiotov et al.

To assess the spread of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype among patients with multidrug-resistant and extensively resistant tuberculosis in Bulgaria, we genotyped 188 (72%) of 261 microbiologically confirmed resistant isolates obtained during 2007–2011. The estimated prevalence of the Beijing genotype among these patients was 3.2%.

EID Panaiotov S, Bachiyska E, Yordanova S, Atanasova Y, Brankova N, Levterova V, et al. Beijing Lineage of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bulgaria, 2007–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1899-1901. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140468
AMA Panaiotov S, Bachiyska E, Yordanova S, et al. Beijing Lineage of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bulgaria, 2007–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1899-1901. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140468.
APA Panaiotov, S., Bachiyska, E., Yordanova, S., Atanasova, Y., Brankova, N., Levterova, V....Kantardjiev, T. (2014). Beijing Lineage of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bulgaria, 2007–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1899-1901. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140468.

Global Incidence of Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli ST131 [PDF - 990 KB - 4 pages]
G. Peirano et al.

We characterized Escherichia coli ST131 isolates among 116 carbapenemase-producing strains. Of isolates from 16 countries collected during 2008–2013, 35% belonged to ST131 and were associated with blaKPC, H30 lineage, and virotype C. This study documents worldwide incidents of resistance to “last resort” antimicrobial drugs among a common pathogen in a successful sequence type.

EID Peirano G, Bradford P, Kazmierczak KM, Badal RE, Hackel M, Hoban DJ, et al. Global Incidence of Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli ST131. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1928-1931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.141388
AMA Peirano G, Bradford P, Kazmierczak KM, et al. Global Incidence of Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli ST131. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1928-1931. doi:10.3201/eid2011.141388.
APA Peirano, G., Bradford, P., Kazmierczak, K. M., Badal, R. E., Hackel, M., Hoban, D. J....Pitout, J. (2014). Global Incidence of Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli ST131. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1928-1931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.141388.

Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla [PDF - 473 KB - 4 pages]
K. Gilardi et al.

In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans.

EID Gilardi K, Oxford KL, Gardner-Roberts D, Kinani J, Spelman L, Barry PA, et al. Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1883-1886. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140075
AMA Gilardi K, Oxford KL, Gardner-Roberts D, et al. Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1883-1886. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140075.
APA Gilardi, K., Oxford, K. L., Gardner-Roberts, D., Kinani, J., Spelman, L., Barry, P. A....Lowenstine, L. J. (2014). Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1883-1886. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140075.

New Parvovirus in Child with Unexplained Diarrhea, Tunisia [PDF - 382 KB - 3 pages]
T. G. Phan et al.

A divergent parvovirus genome was the only eukaryotic viral sequence detected in feces of a Tunisian child with unexplained diarrhea. Tusavirus 1 shared 44% and 39% identity with the nonstructural protein 1 and viral protein 1, respectively, of the closest genome, Kilham rat parvovirus, indicating presence of a new human viral species in the Protoparvovirus genus.

EID Phan TG, Sdiri-Loulizi K, Aouni M, Ambert-Balay K, Pothier P, Deng X, et al. New Parvovirus in Child with Unexplained Diarrhea, Tunisia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1911-1913. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140428
AMA Phan TG, Sdiri-Loulizi K, Aouni M, et al. New Parvovirus in Child with Unexplained Diarrhea, Tunisia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1911-1913. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140428.
APA Phan, T. G., Sdiri-Loulizi, K., Aouni, M., Ambert-Balay, K., Pothier, P., Deng, X....Delwart, E. (2014). New Parvovirus in Child with Unexplained Diarrhea, Tunisia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1911-1913. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140428.

Frequent Hepatitis E Virus Contamination in Food Containing Raw Pork Liver, France [PDF - 335 KB - 3 pages]
N. Pavio et al.

Food products containing raw pork liver are suspected to be vehicles for transmission of hepatitis E virus. Four categories of food products, comprising 394 samples, were analyzed to determine hepatitis E virus prevalence. Virus was detected in 3%–30% of the different categories. Phylogenetic analysis showed high identity with human and swine sequences.

EID Pavio N, Merbah T, Thébault A. Frequent Hepatitis E Virus Contamination in Food Containing Raw Pork Liver, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1925-1927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140891
AMA Pavio N, Merbah T, Thébault A. Frequent Hepatitis E Virus Contamination in Food Containing Raw Pork Liver, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1925-1927. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140891.
APA Pavio, N., Merbah, T., & Thébault, A. (2014). Frequent Hepatitis E Virus Contamination in Food Containing Raw Pork Liver, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1925-1927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140891.
Letters

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype Resistance to Transient Rifampin Exposure [PDF - 319 KB - 2 pages]
A. L. den Hertog et al.
EID den Hertog AL, Menting S, van Soolingen D, Anthony RM. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype Resistance to Transient Rifampin Exposure. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1932-1933. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.130560
AMA den Hertog AL, Menting S, van Soolingen D, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype Resistance to Transient Rifampin Exposure. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1932-1933. doi:10.3201/eid2011.130560.
APA den Hertog, A. L., Menting, S., van Soolingen, D., & Anthony, R. M. (2014). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype Resistance to Transient Rifampin Exposure. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1932-1933. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.130560.

Resolution Threshold of Current Molecular Epidemiology of Diphtheria [PDF - 265 KB - 2 pages]
I. Mokrousov
EID Mokrousov I. Resolution Threshold of Current Molecular Epidemiology of Diphtheria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1937-1938. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140094
AMA Mokrousov I. Resolution Threshold of Current Molecular Epidemiology of Diphtheria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1937-1938. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140094.
APA Mokrousov, I. (2014). Resolution Threshold of Current Molecular Epidemiology of Diphtheria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1937-1938. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140094.

Zika Virus, French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2013 [PDF - 260 KB - 1 page]
W. Hancock et al.
EID Hancock W, Marfel M, Bel M. Zika Virus, French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1960. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.141253
AMA Hancock W, Marfel M, Bel M. Zika Virus, French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1960. doi:10.3201/eid2011.141253.
APA Hancock, W., Marfel, M., & Bel, M. (2014). Zika Virus, French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1960. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.141253.

Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Syrian War–Injured Patients, August 2011–March 2013 [PDF - 331 KB - 3 pages]
C. Teicher et al.
EID Teicher C, Ronat J, Fakhri RM, Basel M, Labar AS, Herard P, et al. Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Syrian War–Injured Patients, August 2011–March 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1949-1951. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140835
AMA Teicher C, Ronat J, Fakhri RM, et al. Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Syrian War–Injured Patients, August 2011–March 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1949-1951. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140835.
APA Teicher, C., Ronat, J., Fakhri, R. M., Basel, M., Labar, A. S., Herard, P....Murphy, R. A. (2014). Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Syrian War–Injured Patients, August 2011–March 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1949-1951. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140835.

Evidence of Evolving Extraintestinal Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli ST38 Clone [PDF - 310 KB - 3 pages]
M. Chattaway et al.
EID Chattaway M, Jenkins C, Ciesielczuk H, Day M, DoNascimento V, Day M, et al. Evidence of Evolving Extraintestinal Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli ST38 Clone. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1935-1937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131845
AMA Chattaway M, Jenkins C, Ciesielczuk H, et al. Evidence of Evolving Extraintestinal Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli ST38 Clone. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1935-1937. doi:10.3201/eid2011.131845.
APA Chattaway, M., Jenkins, C., Ciesielczuk, H., Day, M., DoNascimento, V., Day, M....Wain, J. (2014). Evidence of Evolving Extraintestinal Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli ST38 Clone. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1935-1937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131845.

Klebsiella pneumoniae–Induced Liver Abscesses, Germany [PDF - 301 KB - 2 pages]
S. Bilal et al.
EID Bilal S, Volz M, Fiedler T, Podschun R, Schneider T. Klebsiella pneumoniae–Induced Liver Abscesses, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1939-1940. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140149
AMA Bilal S, Volz M, Fiedler T, et al. Klebsiella pneumoniae–Induced Liver Abscesses, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1939-1940. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140149.
APA Bilal, S., Volz, M., Fiedler, T., Podschun, R., & Schneider, T. (2014). Klebsiella pneumoniae–Induced Liver Abscesses, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1939-1940. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140149.

Hepatitis E Virus and Implications for Blood Supply Safety, Australia [PDF - 299 KB - 3 pages]
A. C. Shrestha et al.
EID Shrestha AC, Seed CR, Flower R, Rooks KM, Keller AJ, Harley RJ, et al. Hepatitis E Virus and Implications for Blood Supply Safety, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1940-1942. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140412
AMA Shrestha AC, Seed CR, Flower R, et al. Hepatitis E Virus and Implications for Blood Supply Safety, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1940-1942. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140412.
APA Shrestha, A. C., Seed, C. R., Flower, R., Rooks, K. M., Keller, A. J., Harley, R. J....Faddy, H. M. (2014). Hepatitis E Virus and Implications for Blood Supply Safety, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1940-1942. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140412.

Multidrug-Resistant IncA/C Plasmid in Vibrio cholerae from Haiti [PDF - 317 KB - 3 pages]
J. P. Folster et al.
EID Folster JP, Katz L, McCullough A, Parsons MB, Knipe K, Sammons SA, et al. Multidrug-Resistant IncA/C Plasmid in Vibrio cholerae from Haiti. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1951-1953. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140889
AMA Folster JP, Katz L, McCullough A, et al. Multidrug-Resistant IncA/C Plasmid in Vibrio cholerae from Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1951-1953. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140889.
APA Folster, J. P., Katz, L., McCullough, A., Parsons, M. B., Knipe, K., Sammons, S. A....Whichard, J. M. (2014). Multidrug-Resistant IncA/C Plasmid in Vibrio cholerae from Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1951-1953. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140889.

Zika Virus, French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2013 [PDF - 260 KB - 1 page]
V. Cao-Lormeau
EID Cao-Lormeau V. Zika Virus, French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1960. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.141380
AMA Cao-Lormeau V. Zika Virus, French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1960. doi:10.3201/eid2011.141380.
APA Cao-Lormeau, V. (2014). Zika Virus, French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1960. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.141380.

Human Co-Infection with Avian and Seasonal Influenza Viruses, China [PDF - 439 KB - 3 pages]
J. Li et al.
EID Li J, Kou Y, Yu X, Sun Y, Zhou Y, Pu X, et al. Human Co-Infection with Avian and Seasonal Influenza Viruses, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1953-1955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140897
AMA Li J, Kou Y, Yu X, et al. Human Co-Infection with Avian and Seasonal Influenza Viruses, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1953-1955. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140897.
APA Li, J., Kou, Y., Yu, X., Sun, Y., Zhou, Y., Pu, X....Gao, G. F. (2014). Human Co-Infection with Avian and Seasonal Influenza Viruses, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1953-1955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140897.

Bacteria in Dairy Products in Baggage of Incoming Travelers, Brazil [PDF - 266 KB - 3 pages]
C. Barros de Melo et al.
EID Barros de Melo C, Pinheiro de Sá M, Souza A, Macedo de Oliveira A, Mota P, Campani P, et al. Bacteria in Dairy Products in Baggage of Incoming Travelers, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1933-1935. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131422
AMA Barros de Melo C, Pinheiro de Sá M, Souza A, et al. Bacteria in Dairy Products in Baggage of Incoming Travelers, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1933-1935. doi:10.3201/eid2011.131422.
APA Barros de Melo, C., Pinheiro de Sá, M., Souza, A., Macedo de Oliveira, A., Mota, P., Campani, P....Seixas, L. (2014). Bacteria in Dairy Products in Baggage of Incoming Travelers, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1933-1935. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.131422.

Foodborne Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus from Raw Pork Liver Sausage, France [PDF - 408 KB - 3 pages]
C. Renou et al.
EID Renou C, Roque-Afonso A, Pavio N. Foodborne Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus from Raw Pork Liver Sausage, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1945-1947. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140791
AMA Renou C, Roque-Afonso A, Pavio N. Foodborne Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus from Raw Pork Liver Sausage, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1945-1947. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140791.
APA Renou, C., Roque-Afonso, A., & Pavio, N. (2014). Foodborne Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus from Raw Pork Liver Sausage, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1945-1947. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140791.

Burkholderia pseudomallei in Water Supplies, Southern Thailand [PDF - 355 KB - 3 pages]
J. Thaipadungpanit et al.
EID Thaipadungpanit J, Chierakul W, Pattanaporkrattana W, Phoodaeng A, Wongsuvan G, Huntrakun V, et al. Burkholderia pseudomallei in Water Supplies, Southern Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1947-1949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140832
AMA Thaipadungpanit J, Chierakul W, Pattanaporkrattana W, et al. Burkholderia pseudomallei in Water Supplies, Southern Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1947-1949. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140832.
APA Thaipadungpanit, J., Chierakul, W., Pattanaporkrattana, W., Phoodaeng, A., Wongsuvan, G., Huntrakun, V....Limmathurotsakul, D. (2014). Burkholderia pseudomallei in Water Supplies, Southern Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1947-1949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140832.

Drug Resistance in Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium Bloodstream Infection, Malawi [PDF - 404 KB - 3 pages]
N. A. Feasey et al.
EID Feasey NA, Cain AK, Msefula CL, Pickard D, Alaerts M, Aslett M, et al. Drug Resistance in Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium Bloodstream Infection, Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1957-1959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.141175
AMA Feasey NA, Cain AK, Msefula CL, et al. Drug Resistance in Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium Bloodstream Infection, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1957-1959. doi:10.3201/eid2011.141175.
APA Feasey, N. A., Cain, A. K., Msefula, C. L., Pickard, D., Alaerts, M., Aslett, M....Kingsley, R. A. (2014). Drug Resistance in Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium Bloodstream Infection, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1957-1959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.141175.

Helicobacter cinaedi Infection of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Japan [PDF - 322 KB - 4 pages]
R. Kakuta et al.
EID Kakuta R, Yano H, Kanamori H, Shimizu T, Gu Y, Hatta M, et al. Helicobacter cinaedi Infection of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1942-1945. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140440
AMA Kakuta R, Yano H, Kanamori H, et al. Helicobacter cinaedi Infection of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1942-1945. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140440.
APA Kakuta, R., Yano, H., Kanamori, H., Shimizu, T., Gu, Y., Hatta, M....Kaku, M. (2014). Helicobacter cinaedi Infection of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1942-1945. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140440.

Misidentification of Diphyllobothrium Species Related to Global Fish Trade, Europe [PDF - 447 KB - 3 pages]
R. Kuchta et al.
EID Kuchta R, Esteban J, Brabec J, Scholz T. Misidentification of Diphyllobothrium Species Related to Global Fish Trade, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1955-1957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140996
AMA Kuchta R, Esteban J, Brabec J, et al. Misidentification of Diphyllobothrium Species Related to Global Fish Trade, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1955-1957. doi:10.3201/eid2011.140996.
APA Kuchta, R., Esteban, J., Brabec, J., & Scholz, T. (2014). Misidentification of Diphyllobothrium Species Related to Global Fish Trade, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1955-1957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.140996.
Books and Media

Missing Microbes: How the Overuse of Antibiotics Is Fueling Our Modern Plagues [PDF - 210 KB - 1 page]
A. L. Shane
EID Shane AL. Missing Microbes: How the Overuse of Antibiotics Is Fueling Our Modern Plagues. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1961. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.141052
AMA Shane AL. Missing Microbes: How the Overuse of Antibiotics Is Fueling Our Modern Plagues. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1961. doi:10.3201/eid2011.141052.
APA Shane, A. L. (2014). Missing Microbes: How the Overuse of Antibiotics Is Fueling Our Modern Plagues. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1961. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.141052.
About the Cover

Unique Perspectives [PDF - 322 KB - 2 pages]
J. Friedberg
EID Friedberg J. Unique Perspectives. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1962-1963. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.ac2011
AMA Friedberg J. Unique Perspectives. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1962-1963. doi:10.3201/eid2011.ac2011.
APA Friedberg, J. (2014). Unique Perspectives. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1962-1963. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.ac2011.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Blastomycosis [PDF - 476 KB - 1 page]
R. Henry
EID Henry R. Etymologia: Blastomycosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(11):1794. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.et2011
AMA Henry R. Etymologia: Blastomycosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(11):1794. doi:10.3201/eid2011.et2011.
APA Henry, R. (2014). Etymologia: Blastomycosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1794. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2011.et2011.
Corrections

Correction: Vol. 19, No. 3

Correction: Vol. 20, No. 3

Correction: Vol. 20, No. 6
Page created: July 10, 2015
Page updated: July 10, 2015
Page reviewed: July 10, 2015
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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